FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Algeria" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Algeria
الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية Jumhūrīyah al-Jazā’irīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha’bīyah
People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Flag of
Motto من الشعب و للشعب   (Arabic)
"From the people and for the people"
AnthemKassaman  (Arabic)
The Pledge
Location of
Capital
(and largest city)
Algiers
36°42′N, 3°13′E
Official languages Arabic
Recognised regional languages Berber
Demonym Algerian
Government Presidential Republic
 -  President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
 -  Prime Minister Abdelaziz Belkhadem
Establishment
 -  Hammadid dynasty from 1014 
 -  Ottoman rule from 1516 
 -  French rule from 1830 
 -  Independence from France July 5, 1962 
Area
 -  Total 2,381,740 km² (11th)
919,595 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2007 estimate 33,333,216 (35th)
 -  1998 census 29,100,867 
 -  Density 14/km² (196th)
36/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $253.4 billion (38th)
 -  Per capita information needed (88th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $102.026 billion (48th)
 -  Per capita $3,086 (84th)
Gini (1995) 35.3 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.733 (medium) (104th)
Currency Algerian dinar (DZD)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .dz
Calling code +213
1 French is equally used as an administrative language though not on an official basis. Algerian Arabic, an Arabic vernacular is the most common native language. Berber languages, are recognized as "national languages", and are co-official in Kabylia (specifically the Kabyle language.)

Algeria (Arabic: الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir IPA: [ælʤæˈzæːʔir], Berber: Image:Algeria in Tifinagh.svg, Dzayer [ldzæjər]), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is the second largest country on the African continent[1] and the 11th largest country in the world in terms of total area.[2] It is bordered by Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mali and Mauritania in the southwest, a few kilometers of the Western Sahara in the west, Morocco in the northwest, and the Mediterranean Sea in the north. Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Kassaman or Qassaman (The Pledge) (Arabic: ‎) is the national anthem of Algeria. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... The President is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian armed forces. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ... The Prime Minister is the head of government of Algeria. ... Abdelaziz Belkhadem (born November 8, Algeria) is an Algerian politician. ... The fertile coastal plain of North Africa, especially west of Tunisia, is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib). ... The Hammadids, an offshoot of the Zirids, were a Berber dynasty who ruled an area roughly corresponding to modern Algeria for about a century and a half, until, weakened by the Banu Hilals incursions, they were destroyed by the Almohads. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The dinar is the currency of Algeria. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .dz is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Algeria. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle: ,  , pronounced ) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


Algeria is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Arab League, and OPEC. It also contributed towards the creation of the Arab Maghreb Union. Constitutionally, Algeria is defined as an Islamic, Arab, and Amazigh (Berber) country.[3] UN redirects here. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a large group of countries[1][2] made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, and Ecuador (which rejoined OPEC in November 2007). ... The Arab Maghreb Union is a Pan-Arab trade agreement aiming for economic and political unity in northern Africa. ... -1... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...

Contents

Etymology

Al-jazā’ir is itself a truncated form of the city's older name jazā’ir banī mazghannā, "the islands of (the tribe) Bani Mazghanna", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi. Al_Idrisis world map from 1154. ... Yaqut (Yaqut ibn-Abdullah al-Hamawi) (1179 - 1229) was an Arab biographer and geographer. ...


History

Main article: History of Algeria

The fertile coastal plain of North Africa, especially west of Tunisia, is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib). ...

Ancient history

Roman arch of Trajan at Thamugadi (Timgad), Algeria
Roman arch of Trajan at Thamugadi (Timgad), Algeria

Algeria has been inhabited by Berbers (or Imazighen) since at least 10,000 BC. After 1000 BC, the Carthaginians began establishing settlements along the coast. The Berbers seized the opportunity offered by the Punic Wars to become independent of Carthage, and Berber kingdoms began to emerge, most notably Numidia. In 200 BC, however, they were once again taken over, this time by the Roman Republic. When the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Berbers became independent again in many areas, while the Vandals took control over other parts, where they remained until expelled by the generals of the Byzantine Emperor, Justinian I. The Byzantine Empire then retained a precarious grip on the east of the country until the coming of the Arabs in the eighth century. Roman Arch of Trajan at Thamugadi (Timgad), Algeria - late 1800s TITLE: Timgad - Arch of Triumph de Trajan côte nord ouest CALL NUMBER: LOT 13560-2, no. ... Roman Arch of Trajan at Thamugadi (Timgad), Algeria - late 1800s TITLE: Timgad - Arch of Triumph de Trajan côte nord ouest CALL NUMBER: LOT 13560-2, no. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Islamization and Berber (Amaari) dynasties

Having converted the Kutama of Kabylie to its cause, the Shia Fatimids overthrew the Rustamids, and conquered Egypt. They left Algeria and Tunisia to their Zirid vassals; when the latter rebelled and adopted Sunnism, the Shia Fatimids sent in the Banu Hilal, a populous Arab tribe, to weaken them. This initiated the Arabization of the region. The Almoravids and Almohads, Berber dynasties from the west founded by religious reformers, brought a period of relative peace and development; however, with the Almohads' collapse, Algeria became a battleground for their three successor states, the Algerian Zayyanids, Tunisian Hafsids, and Moroccan Marinids. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Spanish Empire started attacking and subsuming a few Algerian coastal settlements. The Kutama were a Berber tribe,in the region of Jijel, a member of the great Bavares orientaux confederation of the Maghreb. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Zayyaneyoon (in Arabic: زيانيون), A berber dynasty that ruled western Algeria between 1236-1554 AD. They were based in Tlemcen. ... Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369... Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...


Ottoman rule

Algeria was brought into the Ottoman Empire by Khair ad-Din and his brother Aruj in 1517, and they established Algeria's modern boundaries in the north and made its coast a base for the Ottoman corsairs; their privateering peaked in Algiers in the 1600s. Piracy on American vessels in the Mediterranean resulted in the First (1801–1805) and Second Barbary War (1815) with the United States. The piracy acts forced people captured on the boats into slavery; alternatively when the pirates attacked coastal villages in southern and western Europe the inhabitants were forced into slavery.[4] Raids by Barbary pirates on Western Europe did not cease until 1816, when a Royal Navy raid, assisted by six Dutch vessels, destroyed the port of Algiers and its fleet of Barbary ships. Spanish occupation of Algerian ports at this time was a source of concern for the local inhabitants. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Ahaggar Mountains Categories: Algeria images ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Ahaggar Mountains Categories: Algeria images ... The Ahaggar Mountains (Arabic: ‎), also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Sahara, southern Algeria. ... Painting of Khair ad Din, founder of modern Algeria At about the time Spain was establishing its presidios in the Maghreb, the Muslim privateer brothers Aruj and Khair ad Din -- the latter known to Europeans as Barbarossa, or Red Beard--were operating successfully off Tunisia under the Hafsids. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... Oruç Reis captures a galley Aruj or Oruc Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis) (c. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Belligerents United States Sweden(until 1802) Barbary States (Ottoman Empire regencies) Commanders Richard Dale William Eaton Edward Preble Hassan Bey Murad Reis Strength 7 Ships 10 US Marines and Soldiers Christian Mercenaries Arab Mercenaries 4000 Casualties and losses 2 Ships destroyed 2 Marines killed, 3 wounded Christian/Arab Mercenaries killed... Combatants United States British Empire (from 1815) Barbary states: Algiers Tripoli Tunis Commanders Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... Slave redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


French colonization

Constantine, Algeria 1840
Constantine, Algeria 1840

On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algiers in 1830.[5] In contrast to Morocco and Tunisia, the conquest of Algeria by the French was long and particularly violent and resulted in the disappearance of about a third of the Algerian population.[6] France was responsible for the extermination of 1.5 million Algerians. According to Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison, the French pursued a policy of extermination against the Algerians. Image File history File links Constantine_Algerien_002. ... Image File history File links Constantine_Algerien_002. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French historian. ...


The French conquest of Algeria was slow due to intense resistance from such as Emir Abdelkader, Ahmed Bey and Fatma N'Soumer. Indeed the conquest was not technically complete until the early 1900s when the last Tuareg were conquered. `Abd al-Qādir al-Jazāirī. ... Ahmed Bey or Hadj Ahmed Bey (1784 - 1850) was the last Bey of Constantine. ... A painting from Kabylia, 1990 showing Lalla Fatma NSoumer Lalla Fadhma (or Fatma) nSoumer (Werja, Kabylie 1830 - Béni Slimane 1863) was an important figure of the Algerian resistance movement during the first years of the French colonial conquest of Algiers. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile, however, the French made Algeria an integral part of France, a status that would end only with the collapse of the Fourth Republic in 1958. Tens of thousands of settlers from France, Spain, Italy, and Malta moved in to farm the Algerian coastal plain and occupy significant parts of Algeria's cities. These settlers benefited from the French government's confiscation of communal land, and the application of modern agriculture techniques that increased the amount of arable land.[7] Algeria's social fabric suffered during the occupation: literacy plummeted,[8] while land confiscation uprooted much of the population. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, people of European descent in Algeria (or natives like Spanish people in Oran), as well as the native Algerian Jews (typically Sephardic in origin), became full French citizens. After Algeria's 1962 independence, they were called Pieds-Noirs. In contrast, the vast majority of Muslim Algerians (even veterans of the French army) received neither French citizenship nor the right to vote. Spaniard redirects here. ... View of Oran Coat of arms of Oran Oran (Arabic:, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Post-independence

In 1954, the National Liberation Front (FLN) launched the Algerian War of Independence which was a guerrilla campaign. By the end of the war, newly elected President Charles de Gaulle, understanding that the age of empire was ending, held a plebiscite, offering Algerians three options. This resulted in an overwhelming vote for complete independence from the French Colonial Empire. Over one million people, 10% of the population, then fled the country for France in just a few months in mid-1962. These included most of the 1,025,000 Pieds-Noirs, as well as 81,000 Harkis (pro-French Algerians serving in the French Army).[9] The National Liberation Front , (Arabic: Jabhat al-TaḩrÄ«r al-WaÅ£anÄ«, French: Front de Libération Nationale aka FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... Guerrilla redirects here. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Harki (from the Arabic Haraka: movement) was the generic term for Muslim Algerians serving as auxiliaries with the French Army, during the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 to 1962. ...


Algeria's first president was the FLN leader Ahmed Ben Bella. He was overthrown by his former ally and defence minister, Houari Boumédienne in 1965. Under Ben Bella the government had already become increasingly socialist and authoritarian, and this trend continued throughout Boumédienne's government. However, Boumédienne relied much more heavily on the army, and reduced the sole legal party to a merely symbolic role. Agriculture was collectivised, and a massive industrialization drive launched. Oil extraction facilities were nationalized. This was especially beneficial to the leadership after the 1973 oil crisis. However, the Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil which led to hardship when the price collapsed during the 1980s oil glut. Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... Houari Boumédienne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) (August 23, 1932 – December 27, 1978) (Arabic: هواري بومدين) served as as Algerias in his position as as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976, and from then on as President of Algeria to his death... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum...


In foreign policy, Algeria was a member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement. A dispute with Morocco over the Western Sahara nearly led to war. While Algeria shares much of its history and cultural heritage with neighbouring Morocco, the two countries have had somewhat hostile relations with each other ever since Algeria's independence. This is for two reasons: Morocco's disputed claim to portions of western Algeria (which led to the Sand War in 1963), and Algeria's support for the Polisario Front, an armed group of Sahrawi refugees seeking independence for the Moroccan-ruled Western Sahara, which it hosts within its borders in the city of Tindouf. Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... moroco, different maps. ... Combatants Morocco Algeria The Sand War occurred along the Algerian-Moroccan border in October 1963, and was a Moroccan attempt to claim the Tindouf and the Bechar areas that France annexed to French Algeria a few decades earlier. ... The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and [[Río de Oro]]) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the separation... “Sahraoui” redirects here. ... Tindouf, also written Tinduf, (Arabic: تندوف) is a city and wilaya in the west of Algeria, population 30,000. ...


Within Algeria, dissent was rarely tolerated, and the state's control over the media and the outlawing of political parties other than the FLN was cemented in the repressive constitution of 1976.


Boumédienne died in 1978, but the rule of his successor, Chadli Bendjedid, was little more open. The state took on a strongly bureaucratic character and corruption was widespread. Chadli Bendjedid (Arabic: ) (born April 14, 1929 at Zeitouna, near Annaba) was President of Algeria from February 9, 1979 to January 11, 1992. ... In sociological theories, bureaucracy is an organizational structure characterized by regularized procedure, division of responsibility, hierarchy, and impersonal relationships. ...


The modernization drive brought considerable demographic changes to Algeria. Village traditions underwent significant change as urbanization increased. New industries emerged, agricultural employment was substantially reduced. Education was extended nationwide, raising the literacy rate from less than 10% to over 60%. There was a dramatic increase in the fertility rate to 7-8 children per mother. Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Children reading. ... The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ...


Therefore by 1980, there was a very youthful population and a housing crisis. The new generation struggled to relate to the cultural obsession with the war years and two conflicting protest movements developed: left-wingers, including Berber identity movements; and Islamic 'intégristes'. Both groups protested against one-party rule but also clashed with each other in universities and on the streets during the 1980s. Mass protests from both camps in Autumn 1988 forced Bendjedid to concede the end of one-party rule. Elections were planned to happen in 1991. In December 1991, the Islamic Salvation Front won the first round of the country's first multi-party elections. The military then intervened and cancelled the second round. It forced then-president Bendjedid to resign and banned all political parties based on religion (including the Islamic Salvation Front). A political conflict ensued, leading Algeria into the violent Algerian Civil War. States in which a single party is constitutionally linked to power are coloured in brown. ... FIS emblem The Islamic Salvation Front (Arabic: الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ, al-Jabhah al-Islāmiyah lil-Inqādh) (French: Front Islamique du Salut) is an outlawed Islamist political party in Algeria. ... The Algerian National Assembly elections of 1991 were cancelled by a military coup after the first round, triggering the Algerian Civil War. ... Combatants Algerian government Islamic Armed Movement (MIA) Islamic Salvation Army (AIS) others. ...


More than 160,000 people were killed between 17 January 1992 and June 2002. Most of the deaths were between militants and government troops, but a great number of civilians were also killed. The question of who was responsible for these deaths was controversial at the time amongst academic observers; many were claimed by the Armed Islamic Group. Though many of these massacres were carried out by Islamic extremists, the Algerian regime also used the army and foreign mercenaries to conduct attacks on men, women and children and then proceeded to blame the attacks upon various Islamic groups within the country.[10] is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) is a Khawarij terrorist organization that wants to overthrow the Algerian government and replace it with an Islamic state. ...

Elections resumed in 1995, and after 1998, the war waned. On 27 April 1999, after a series of short-term leaders representing the military, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the current president, was elected.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 272 KB) La côte dAlger (Algérie), vue depuis la basilique Notre-Dame dAfrique. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 272 KB) La côte dAlger (Algérie), vue depuis la basilique Notre-Dame dAfrique. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ...


By 2002, the main guerrilla groups had either been destroyed or surrendered, taking advantage of an amnesty program, though sporadic fighting continued in some areas (See Islamic insurgency in Algeria (2002–present)). Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Algeria Mauritania[1] Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb Free Salafist Group (GSL) Commanders Amari Saifi Nabil Sahraoui† Abou Mossaab Abdelouadoud Strength 300 fighters Casualties 4,000-6,000 dead on both sides The Islamic insurgency in Algeria (2002–present) is...


The issue of Berber language and identity increased in significance, particularly after the extensive Kabyle protests of 2001 and the near-total boycott of local elections in Kabylie. The government responded with concessions including naming of Tamazight (Berber) as a national language and teaching it in schools. The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... The Kabyles are a Berber people whose traditional homeland is highlands of Kabylie (or Kabylia) in northeastern Algeria. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ...


Much of Algeria is now recovering and developing into an emerging economy. The high prices of oil and gas are being used by the new government to improve the country's infrastructure and especially improve industry and agricultural land. Recently, overseas investment in Algeria has increased[citation needed]. The term emerging markets is commonly used to describe business and market activity in industrializing or emerging regions of the world. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ...


Geography

Topographic map of Algeria
Topographic map of Algeria
Main article: Geography of Algeria

Most of the coastal area is hilly, sometimes even mountainous, and there are a few natural harbours. The area from the coast to the Tell Atlas is fertile. South of the Tell Atlas is a steppe landscape, which ends with the Saharan Atlas; further south, there is the Sahara desert. The Ahaggar Mountains (Arabic: جبال هقار‎), also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Sahara, southern Algeria. They are located about 1,500 km (932 miles) south of the capital, Algiers and just west of Tamanghasset. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 626 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1574 × 1507 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 626 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1574 × 1507 pixel, file size: 2. ... Map of Algeria Algeria comprises 2,381,741 square kilometers of land, more than four-fifths of which is desert, in northern Africa, between Morocco and Tunisia. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The Aurès Mountains also known as the Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas Mountains. ... The Ahaggar Mountains (Arabic: ‎), also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Sahara, southern Algeria. ... Tamanghasset (Arabic: ولاية تمنراست ) is an oasis city and wilaya in southern Algeria, in the Ahaggar Mountains. ...


Algiers, Oran , Constantine, and Annaba are Algeria's main cities. This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... This article is about the city in Algeria. ... Position of Constantine in Algeria. ... A small beach in Annaba with the city skyline in background. ...


Climate and hydrology

Northern Algeria is in the temperate zone and has a mild, Mediterranean climate. Its broken topography, however, provides sharp local contrasts in both prevailing temperatures and incidence of rainfall. Year-to-year variations in climatic conditions are also common. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ...


In the Tell Atlas, temperatures in summer average between 21 and 24 °C and in winter drop to 10 to 12 °C. Winters are not particularly cold, but the humidity level is high. In eastern Algeria, the average temperatures are somewhat lower, and on the steppes of the High Atlas plateaux, winter temperatures are only a few degrees above freezing. A prominent feature of the climate in this region is the sirocco, a dusty, choking south wind blowing off the desert, sometimes at gale force. This wind also occasionally reaches into the coastal Tell.[1] This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Village in the high atlas High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (or Haut Atlas), is a mountain range in central Morocco. ... Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or, rarely, siroc is a strong southerly to southeasterly wind in the Mediterranean that originates from the Sahara and similar North African regions. ...

In Algeria, only a relatively small corner of the torrid Sahara lies across the Tropic of Cancer in the torrid zone. In this region even in winter, midday desert temperatures can be very hot. After sunset, however, the clear, dry air permits rapid loss of heat, and the nights are cool to chilly. Enormous daily ranges in temperature are recorded. Image File history File links Auteur : Bertrand Devouard Lieu : Sud de lAlgérie Date : décembre 2004-janvier 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Ahaggar Mountains ... Image File history File links Auteur : Bertrand Devouard Lieu : Sud de lAlgérie Date : décembre 2004-janvier 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Ahaggar Mountains ... The Ahaggar Mountains (Arabic: ‎), also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Sahara, southern Algeria. ... For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Cancer (novel). ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ...


Rainfall is fairly abundant along the coastal part of the Tell Atlas, ranging from 400 to 670 mm annually, the amount of precipitation increasing from west to east. Precipitation is heaviest in the northern part of eastern Algeria, where it reaches as much as 1000 mm in some years. Farther inland, the rainfall is less plentiful. Prevailing winds that are easterly and north-easterly in summer change to westerly and northerly in winter and carry with them a general increase in precipitation from September through December, a decrease in the late winter and spring months, and a near absence of rainfall during the summer months. Algeria also has ergs, or sand dunes between mountains, which in the summer time when winds are heavy and gusty, temperatures can get up to 110 °F (43 °C). The prevailing winds are the trends in speed and direction of wind over a particular point on the earths surface. ... Issaouane Erg, Algeria. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Algeria

The head of state is the President of the Republic, who is elected to a five-year term, renewable once. Algeria has universal suffrage at 18 years of age.[1] The President is the head of the Council of Ministers and of the High Security Council. He appoints the Prime Minister who is also the head of government. The Prime Minister appoints the Council of Ministers. Image File history File links Abdelaziz_Bouteflika_2001. ... Image File history File links Abdelaziz_Bouteflika_2001. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ... The President is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian armed forces. ... Algeria has a long history of revolution and regime change, making the political climate dynamic and often in a state of change. ... The President is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian armed forces. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... The Prime Minister is the head of government of Algeria. ...


The Algerian parliament is bicameral, consisting of a lower chamber, the National People's Assembly (APN), with 380 members; and an upper chamber, the Council Of Nation, with 144 members. The APN is elected every five years. The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


Under the 1976 constitution (as modified 1979, and amended in 1988, 1989, and 1996) Algeria is a multi-party state. All parties must be approved by the Ministry of the Interior. To date, Algeria has had more than 40 legal political parties. According to the constitution, no political association may be formed if it is "based on differences in religion, language, race, gender or region."


Maghreb Arab Union

Tensions between Algeria and Morocco in relation to the Western Sahara conflict have put great obstacles in the way of tightening the Maghreb Arab Union, which was nominally established in 1989 but carried little practical weight with its coastal neighbors.[12] // The Western Sahara area has never formed a state in the modern sense of the word. ... Arab Maghreb Union Pan Arab project aming at economic and political union in northern Africa, initiated in 1989. ...


Provinces and districts

Main articles: Provinces of Algeria and Districts of Algeria
Further information: Municipalities of Algeria
Map of the provinces of Algeria numbered according to the official order

Algeria is currently divided into 48 provinces (wilayas), 553 districts (daïras) and 1,541 municipalities (communes, baladiyahs). Each province, district, and municipality is named after its seat, which is mostly also the largest city. Map of the provinces of Algeria in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of all communes in the North African country of Algeria, currently (As of 1983), there are 1,541 communes in the country, the population data is from June, 25th 1998. ... Image File history File links Algeria_wilayas. ... Image File history File links Algeria_wilayas. ... Map of the provinces of Algeria in alphabetical order. ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision of several countries, including Algeria, Morocco, Sudan, and Oman. ... A Daïra (Arabic: ‎ circle; plural Dawaïr) is a subdivision of a wilaya in Algeria and in Western Sahara. ... This is a list of all communes in the North African country of Algeria, currently (As of 1983), there are 1,541 communes in the country, the population data is from June, 25th 1998. ... This is a list of all communes in the North African country of Algeria, currently (As of 1983), there are 1,541 communes in the country, the population data is from June, 25th 1998. ... Baladiyah is an arab subdivision term that can be translated as municipality. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...


According to the Algerian constitution, a province is a territorial collectivity enjoying some economic freedom. The People's Provincial Assembly is the political entity governing a province, which has a "president", who is elected by the members of the assembly. They are in turn elected on universal suffrage every five years. The "Wali" (Prefect or governor) directs each province. This person is chosen by the Algerian President to handle the PPA's decisions. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Wāli is an administrative title that was used during the Muslim Empire to designate governers of administrative divisions. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... The President is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria. ...


The administrative divisions have changed several times since independence. When introducing new provinces, the numbers of old provinces are kept, hence the non-alphabetical order. With their official numbers, currently (since 1983) they are:[1]


1 Adrar
2 Chlef
3 Laghouat
4 Oum el-Bouaghi
5 Batna
6 Béjaïa
7 Biskra
8 Béchar
9 Blida
10 Bouira
11 Tamanghasset
12 Tébessa Adrar is a province of southwestern Algeria. ... Chlef (Arabic: ولاية الشلف ) is a wilaya in Algeria. ... Laghouat (Arabic: ولاية الأغواط) is a province (wilaya) in central Algeria. ... Oum el-Bouaghi (Arabic: ولاية أم البواقي ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Batna is a is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Béjaïa (Arabic: ولاية بجاية , Berber : Bgayet) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Biskra (Arabic: ولاية بسكرة , Berber : Tibeskert) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Bechar is a wilaya of Algeria. ... The capital of Bilda Province is Blida. ... Bouira (Arabic: ولاية البويرة ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Tamanghasset (Arabic: ولاية تمنراست ) is a wilaya in southern Algeria. ... Tébessa (Arabic: ولاية تبسة ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ...


13 Tlemcen
14 Tiaret
15 Tizi Ouzou
16 Algiers
17 Djelfa
18 Jijel
19 Sétif
20 Saida
21 Skikda
22 Sidi Bel Abbes
23 Annaba
24 Guelma Tlemcen (Arabic: تلمسان) is a province (wilayah) of Algeria. ... Tiaret (Arabic: ولاية تيارت ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Tizi Ouzou (Arabic: تيزي وزو , Berber : Tizi Wezzu) is a wilaya in Algeria. ... Map of Algeria showing Algiers province The Wilaya of Algiers (Arabic : ولاية الجزائر) is an administrative subdivision of Algeria, adopted from the old French département of Algiers. ... Djelfa is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Jijel (Arabic: ولاية جيجل ) is a coastal wilaya in eastern Algeria. ... Sétif (Arabic: ولاية سطيف ) is a province in northern Algeria. ... Saida is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Skikida is a province of Algeria. ... Sidi Bel Abbes (Arabic: ولاية سيدي بلعباس ) is one of the wilayas, or provinces, of Algeria in Saharan Africa. ... Annaba (Arabic: ولاية عنابة ) is a small province in the north-eastern corner of Algeria. ... Guelma (Arabic:ولاية قالمة ) is a wilaya in eastern Algeria. ...


25 Constantine
26 Médéa
27 Mostaganem
28 M'Sila
29 Mascara
30 Ouargla
31 Oran
32 El Bayadh
33 Illizi
34 Bordj Bou Arréridj
35 Boumerdès
36 El Tarf Constantine Province is one of the 48 provinces of Algeria. ... Médéa (Arabic: ولاية المدية ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Mostaganem is a wilaya of Algeria. ... MSila (also spelled Msila or MSila) (Arabic: ولاية المسيلة) is a wilaya of Northern Algeria. ... Mascara (also known by its possible transliteration Muaskar) (Arabic: ولاية معسكر) is a city and wilaya in Algeria. ... Ouargla (Arabic: ورقلة ) is a wilaya in southern Algeria. ... Capital is Oran, Algeria. ... El Bayadh (Arabic: ولاية البيض ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Illizi (Arabic: ولاية اليزي ) is a wilaya in the south-eastern corner of Algeria. ... Bordj Bou Arréridj (Arabic: ولاية برج بوعريريج) is a province and in the east Algeria around 200 Km away from the capital Algiers. ... Boumerdès (Arabic: ولاية بومرداس ) is a wilaya of northern Algeria, between Algiers and Tizi-Ouzou, with its capital at the coastal city of Boumerdès (formerly Rocher-Noir) just east of Algiers. ... El Tarf (Arabic: ولاية الطارف ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ...


37 Tindouf
38 Tissemsilt
39 El Oued
40 Khenchela
41 Souk Ahras
42 Tipasa
43 Mila
44 Aïn Defla
45 Naama
46 Aïn Témouchent
47 Ghardaïa
48 Relizane Tindouf, also written Tinduf, (Arabic: تندوف) is wilaya in the west of Algeria, population 30,000 (not including approximately 160,000 Sahrawi refugees). ... Tissemsilt (Arabic: ولاية تسمسيلت ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... El Oued (Arabic: ولاية الوادي) is a Saharan wilaya of Algeria (wilaya no. ... Khenchela (Arabic: ولاية خنشلة ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Souk Ahras (Arabic: ولاية سوق أهراس ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Tipasa (Arabic: ولاية تيبازة ) Tibaza, older Tefessedt) is a province on the coast of Algeria, Its capital is Tipasa, 50 km west of the capital of Algeria. ... Mila (Arabic: ولاية ميلة ) is a wilaya of Algeria, whose capital is Mila. ... Aïn Defla (Arabic: ولاية عين الدفلى) is a province (wilaya) in northern Algeria. ... Naama (Arabic: ولاية النعامة ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Aïn Témouchent (Arabic: ولاية عين تموشنت ) is a province in northwestern Algeria. ... Ghardaïa (Arabic: ولاية غرداية ) is a wilaya in eastern Algeria. ... Relizane (Arabic: ولاية غليزان ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Algeria

The fossil fuels energy sector is the backbone of Algeria's economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. The country ranks fourteenth in petroleum reserves, containing 11.8 billion barrels (1,880,000,000 m³) of proven oil reserves with estimates suggesting that the actual amount is even more. The U.S. Energy Information Administration reported that in 2005, Algeria had 160 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves, the eighth largest in the world.[13] // Current GDP per capita grew 40% in the Sixties reaching a peak growth of 538% in the Seventies. ... Petro redirects here. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Algeria’s financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria’s finances in 2000 and 2001 benefited from an increase in oil prices and the government’s tight fiscal policy, leading to a large increase in the trade surplus, record highs in foreign exchange reserves, and reduction in foreign debt. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector have had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards, however. In 2001, the government signed an Association Treaty with the European Union that will eventually lower tariffs and increase trade. In March 2006, Russia agreed to erase $4.74 billion of Algeria's Soviet-era debt[14] during a visit by President Vladimir Putin to the country, the first by a Russian leader in half a century. In return, president Bouteflika agreed to buy $7.5 billion worth of combat planes, air-defense systems and other arms from Russia, according to the head of Russia's state arms exporter Rosoboronexport.[15][16] IMF redirects here. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the worlds richest countries, which provides financial services such as debt restructuring, debt relief, and debt cancellation to indebted countries and their creditors. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... ). External debt is the part of a countrys debt owed to creditors outside the country. ... Invest redirects here. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... CCCP redirects here. ... The President of Russia (Russian: ) is the Head of State and highest office within the Government of Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Algeria also decided in 2006 to pay off its full $8bn (£4.3bn) debt to the Paris Club group of rich creditor nations before schedule. This will reduce the Algerian foreign debt to less than $5bn in the end of 2006. The Paris Club said the move reflected Algeria's economic recovery in recent years. The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the worlds richest countries, which provides financial services such as debt restructuring, debt relief, and debt cancellation to indebted countries and their creditors. ... The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the worlds richest countries, which provides financial services such as debt restructuring, debt relief, and debt cancellation to indebted countries and their creditors. ...


Agriculture

Since Roman times Algeria has been noted for the fertility of its soil. 25% of Algerians are employed in the agricultural sector.[17]


A considerable amount of cotton was grown at the time of the United States' Civil War, but the industry declined afterwards. In the early years of the twentieth century efforts to extend the cultivation of the plant were renewed. A small amount of cotton is also grown in the southern oases. Large quantities of a vegetable that resembles horsehair, an excellent fibre, are made from the leaves of the dwarf palm. The olive (both for its fruit and oil) and tobacco are cultivated with great success. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Look up mane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


More than 7,500,000 acres (30,000 km²) are devoted to the cultivation of cereal grains. The Tell is the grain-growing land. During the time of French rule its productivity was increased substantially by the sinking of artesian wells in districts which only required water to make them fertile. Of the crops raised, wheat, barley and oats are the principal cereals. A great variety of vegetables and fruits, especially citrus products, are exported. Algeria also exports figs, dates, esparto grass, and cork. It is the largest oat market in Africa. Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Geological strata giving rise to an Artesian well. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Binomial name Stipa tenacissima L. - Esparto grass Esparto, or esparto grass, also known as halfah grass or needle grass, Stipa tenacissima, is a perennial grass grown in northwest Africa and southern Spain for fiber production for paper making. ... For other uses, see Cork. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ...


Algeria is known for Bertolli's olive oil spread, although the spread has an Italian background. For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ...


Demographics

Demographics of Algeria, Data of FAO, year 2005; number of inhabitants in thousands.
Demographics of Algeria, Data of FAO, year 2005; number of inhabitants in thousands.

The current population of Algeria is 33,333,216 (July 2007 est.).[1] About 70% of Algerians live in the northern, coastal area; the minority who inhabit the Sahara are mainly concentrated in oases, although some 1.5 million remain nomadic or partly nomadic. Almost 30% of Algerians are under 15. Algeria has the fourth lowest fertility rate in the Greater Middle East after Cyprus, Tunisia, and Turkey. Image File history File links Algeria_demography. ... Image File history File links Algeria_demography. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... Demographics of Algeria, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate Graph of Total Fertility Rates vs. ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East. ...


97% of the population is classified ethnically as Berber/Arab and religiously as Sunni Muslim, the few non-Sunni Muslims are mainly Ibadis, representing 1.3%, from the M'Zab valley. (See also Islam in Algeria.) A mostly foreign Roman Catholic community of about 45,000 people exists, along with about 350,000 Protestant Christians, and some 500 Jewish. The Jewish community of Algeria, which once constituted 2% of the total population, has substantially decreased due to emigration, mostly to France and Israel. Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... The Mzab, or Mzab is a region of the northern Sahara, in the Ghardaïa wilaya, or province, of Algeria, around 500km south of Algiers. ... Islam, the religion of almost all of the Algerian people, pervades most aspects of life. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Jews and Judaism have a rather long history in Algeria. ...


Europeans account for less than 1% of the population, inhabiting almost exclusively the largest metropolitan areas. However, during the colonial period there was a large (15.2% in 1962) European population, consisting primarily of French people, in addition to Spaniards in the west of the country, Italians and Maltese in the east, and other Europeans in smaller numbers known as pieds-noirs, concentrated on the coast and forming a majority in cities like Bône, Oran, Sidi Bel Abbès, and Algiers. Almost all of this population left during or immediately after the country's independence from France. For a specific analysis of the population of France, see Demographics of France. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... A small beach in Annaba with the city skyline in background. ... View of Oran Coat of arms of Oran Oran (Arabic:, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ... Sidi Bel Abbes (Arabic: ولاية سيدي بلعباس ) is one of the wilayas, or provinces, of Algeria in Saharan Africa, as well that wilayas capital. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ...

A Dancer in Biskra, published in March 1917 National Geographic.
A Dancer in Biskra, published in March 1917 National Geographic.

Housing and medicine continue to be pressing problems in Algeria. Failing infrastructure and the continued influx of people from rural to urban areas has overtaxed both systems. According to the UNDP, Algeria has one of the world's highest per housing unit occupancy rates for housing, and government officials have publicly stated that the country has an immediate shortfall of 1.5 million housing units.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1540 × 2172 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1540 × 2172 pixel, file size: 1. ... Dancer in Biskra, published in March 1917 National Geographic. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ...


Women make up 70 percent of Algeria’s lawyers and 60 percent of its judges. Women dominate medicine. Increasingly, women are contributing more to household income than men. Sixty percent of university students are women, according to university researchers.[18]


Gays and lesbians have made their presence known by creating blogs and chat fora. These online fora have been flourishing since the first gay Algerian chat appeared in 2005.


Ethnic groups

Most Algerians are Berber or Arab, by language or identity, but almost all Algerians are Berber in origin.[1] Today, the Arab-Berber issue is often a case of self-identification or identification through language and culture, rather than a racial or ethnic distinction. The Berber people are divided into several ethnic groups, Kabyle in the mountainous north-central area, Chaoui in the eastern Atlas Mountains, Mozabites in the M'zab valley, and Tuareg in the far south. Small pockets of Black African populations also are in Algeria. Turkish Algerians represent 5% of the population and are living mainly in the big cities.[citation needed] Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ... Panoramic view of Ghardaïa (Tagherdayt) with the dry bed of Wadi Mzab on the right side. ... For other senses of this name, see Tuareg (disambiguation). ...


Education

Young inhabitants of Algiers in the streets of the Kasbah of Algiers.
Young inhabitants of Algiers in the streets of the Kasbah of Algiers.

Education is officially compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15. In the year 1997, there was an outstanding amount of teachers and students in primary schools. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... For the San Diego music venue, see The Casbah. ...


In Algeria there are 10 universities, seven colleges, and five institutes for higher learning. The University of Algiers (founded in 1909), which is located in the capital of Algeria, Algiers has about 267,142 students.[19] The Algerian school system is structured into Basic, General Secondary, and Technical Secondary levels:

Basic
Ecole fondamentale (Fundamental School)
Length of program: 10 years
Age range: age 6 to 15 old
Certificate/diploma awarded: Brevet d'Enseignement Moyen B.E.M.
General Secondary
Lycée d'Enseignement général (School of General Teaching) , lycées polyvalents (General-Purpose School)
Length of program: 3 years
Age range: age 15 to 18
Certificate/diploma awarded: Baccalauréat de l'Enseignement secondaire
(Bachelor's Degree of Secondary School)
Technical Secondary
Lycées d'Enseignement technique (Technical School)
Length of program: 3 years
Certificate/diploma awarded: Baccalauréat technique (Technical Bachelor's Degree)

Culture

Martyrs Monument
Mosque in Algiers.
Mosque in Algiers.

Modern Algerian literature, split between Arabic and French, has been strongly influenced by the country's recent history. Famous novelists of the twentieth century include Mohammed Dib, Albert Camus, and Kateb Yacine, while Assia Djebar is widely translated. Among the important novelists of the 1980s were Rachid Mimouni, later vice-president of Amnesty International, and Tahar Djaout, murdered by an Islamist group in 1993 for his secularist views.[20] In philosophy and the humanities, Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, was born in El Biar in Algiers; Malek Bennabi and Frantz Fanon are noted for their thoughts on decolonization; Augustine of Hippo was born in Tagaste (modern-day Souk Ahras); and Ibn Khaldun, though born in Tunis, wrote the Muqaddima while staying in Algeria. Algerian culture has been strongly influenced by Islam, the main religion. The works of the Sanusi family in pre-colonial times, and of Emir Abdelkader and Sheikh Ben Badis in colonial times, are widely noted. The Latin author Apuleius was born in Madaurus (Mdaourouch), in what later became Algeria. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 237 KB) Description Une mosquée à Alger (Algérie). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 237 KB) Description Une mosquée à Alger (Algérie). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Jean Amrouche (1907-1962) Marguerite Taos Amrouche (1913-1976) Rachid Boudjedra (1914-) Albert Camus(1913-1960) Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) Mohammed Dib (1920-2003) Tahar Djaout (1954-1993) Assia Djebar (1936-) Frantz Fanon, originally from Martinique (1925-1961) Mouloud Feraoun (1913-1962) Mouloud Mammeri (1917-1989) Rachid Mimouni (1945-1995... Mohammed Dib (1920-2003) was an Algerian author who wrote over 30 novels, as well as numerous short storys, poems, and childrens literature. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... Kateb Yacine (1929 - 1989) was an Algerian writer. ... Assia Djebar is the pen-name of Fatima-Zohra Imalayen (born August 4, 1936), an Algerian novelist, translator and filmmaker. ... Rachid Mimouni (In Arabic:رشيد ميموني) (November 20, 1945 – February 12, 1995) was an Algerian writer, teacher and human rights activist. ... Tahar Djaout (1954-1993) was an Algerian journalist, poet, and fiction writer. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Hotels in El Biar by night El Biar is a suburb of Algiers, Algeria. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Malek Bennabi is a prominent Algerian thinker, born in 1905 and dead in 1973. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... The city of Tagaste, now the present Souk-Ahras in Algeria, was situated in the northeast highlands of Numidia. ... Souk Ahras (Arabic: ولاية سوق أهراس ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Muqaddimah records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... Islam, the religion of almost all of the Algerian people, pervades most aspects of life. ... The Senussi or Sanusi are Muslim nomads who live in the Libyan Desert, many of whom raise camels and goats. ... `Abd al_Qādir al_Jazāirī. ... Abd al Hamid Ben Badis, president and Founder(in 1931)of the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema(Association des Uléma Musulmans Algériens, AUMA), is an important figure of the muslim reform movement in Algeria, during the first half of 20th century. ... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... Madaurus, or Madaura (see also for homonyms) is a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman province of Numidia. ...


The Algerian musical genre best known abroad is raï, a pop-flavored, opinionated take on folk music, featuring international stars such as Khaled and Cheb Mami. However, in Algeria itself the older, highly verbal chaabi style remains more popular, with such stars as El Hadj El Anka, Dahmane El Harrachi and El Hachemi Guerouabi, while the tuneful melodies of Kabyle music, exemplified by Idir, Ait Menguellet, or Lounès Matoub, have a wide audience. For more classical tastes, Andalusi music, brought from Al-Andalus by Morisco refugees, is preserved in many older coastal towns. For a more modern style, the English born and of Algerian descent, Potent C is gradually becoming a success for younger generations. Encompassing a mixture of folk, raï, and British hip hop it is a highly collective and universal genre. Algerian music is virtually synonymous with raï among foreigners; the musical genre has achieved great popularity in France, Spain and other parts of Europe. ... Raï (Arabic: راي) is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African-American and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture. ... Khaled Hadj Brahim (born 29 February 1960), better known as Khaled (Arabic: خالد), is a raï singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist born in Sidi-El-Houri in Oran Province of Algeria. ... Cheb Mami, real name Mohamed Kélifati (born July 11, 1966, Saïda, Algeria) is an Algerian-born raï singer. ... Chaabi is the popular music of North Africa. ... El-Hadj El Hachmi Guerouabi (January 6, 1938 - July 17, 2006) An Algerian singer and composer and one of the Grand Masters of the Algiers-based Chaâbi music. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... // Biography: Idir Idir was born in 1949 at Aït Lahcène a Berber village in Haute-Kabylia. ... Lounis Aït Menguellet is a Berber singer from Kabylie, Algeria, who sings in the Berber language. ... Matoub Lounès (in the middle) with his friends, notably Mourad Nechab known to be his favorite, and family in Kabylie. ... Andalusian classical music is a style of classical music found across North Africa, though it evolved out of the music of Andalusia between the 10th and 15th centuries. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ...


Although “ raï". is welcomed and praised as a glowing cultural emblem for Algeria, there was time when raï’s come across critical cultural and political conflictions with Islamic and government policies and practices, post-independency. Thus the distribution and expression of raï music became very difficult. However, “then the government abruptly reversed its position in mid-1985. In part this was due to the lobbying of a former liberation army officer turned pop music impresario, Colonel Snoussi, who hoped to profit from raï if it could be mainstreamed.” [21] In addition, given both nations’ relations, Algerian government was pleased with the music’s growing popularity in France. Although the music is ore widely accepted on the political level, it still faces severe conflictions with the populace of Islamic faith in Algeria. Raï (Arabic: راي) is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African-American and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture. ...


In painting, Mohammed Khadda[22] and M'Hamed Issiakhem have been notable in recent years.

See also: List of Algerian writers

Jean Amrouche (1907-1962) Marguerite Taos Amrouche (1913-1976) Rachid Boudjedra (1914-) Albert Camus(1913-1960) Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) Mohammed Dib (1920-2003) Tahar Djaout (1954-1993) Assia Djebar (1936-) Frantz Fanon, originally from Martinique (1925-1961) Mouloud Feraoun (1913-1962) Mouloud Mammeri (1917-1989) Rachid Mimouni (1945-1995...

Languages

Main article: Languages of Algeria
Trilingual welcome sign in the Isser Municipality (Boumerdès), written in Arabic, Kabyle (Tifinagh), and French.
Trilingual welcome sign in the Isser Municipality (Boumerdès), written in Arabic, Kabyle (Tifinagh), and French.

Most Algerians speak Algerian Arabic. Arabic is spoken natively in dialectal form ("Darja") by some 83 percent of the population.[23] However, in the media and on official occasions the spoken language is Standard Arabic. % speaking Berber in each wilaya in 1966 The official language of Algeria is Arabic, as specified in its constitution since 1963. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Kabyle is a Berber language (Kabyle: ,  , pronounced ) spoken by the Kabyle people. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Algerian Arabic is the dialect or dialects of Arabic native to Algeria. ... Modern Standard Arabic is the dialect of Arabic used in almost all writing and in formal spoken contexts. ...


The Berbers (or Imazighen), who form approximately 45 percent of the population,[23] largely speak one of the various dialects of Tamazight as opposed to Arabic. But a majority can use both Berber and Algerian Arabic. Arabic remains Algeria's only official language, although Tamazight has recently been recognized as a national language alongside it.[24] Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Arabic redirects here. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ...


Ethnologue counts eighteen living languages within Algeria, splitting both Arabic and Tamazight into several different languages, as well as including Korandje, which is unrelated to Arabic or Tamazight.[25] Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Korandje is by far the most northerly of the Songhay languages. ...


The language issue is politically sensitive, particularly for the Berber minority, which has been disadvantaged by state-sanctioned Arabization. Language politics and Arabization have partly been a reaction to the fact that 130 years of French colonization had left both the state bureaucracy and much of the educated upper class completely Francophone, as well as being motivated by the Arab nationalism promoted by successive Algerian governments. The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ...


French is still the most widely studied foreign language, but very rarely spoken as a native language. Since independence, the government has pursued a policy of linguistic Arabization of education and bureaucracy, with some success, although many university courses continue to be taught in French. Recently, schools have started to incorporate French into the curriculum as early as children start to learn Arabic, as many Algerians are fluent in French. French is also used in media and commerce. A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


Military

Main article: Military of Algeria

The Armed forces of Algeria consist of: The armed forces of Algeria is comprised of the Peoples National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), and Territorial Air Defense Force. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ...

It is the direct successor of the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN), which fought French colonial occupation during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). The Peoples National Army (ANP) is the land force of the Algerian military and the largest of the Maghreb countries. ... The Algerian Air Force (QJJ) is the aerial arm of the Algerian Peoples Military. ... The Armée de Libération Nationale or ALN (French, National Liberation Army) was the armed wing of the nationalist Front de Libération National (FLN) during the Algerian War of Independence. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam...


The People's National Army consists of 127,500 members, with some 100,000 reservists. The army is under the control of the president, who also is minister of National Defense (current president is Abdelaziz Bouteflika). Defense expenditures accounted for some $2.67 billion or 3.5% of GDP. One and a half years of national military service is compulsory for males. The President is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian armed forces. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ...


Algeria is a leading military power in North Africa and has its force oriented toward its western (Morocco) and eastern (Libya) borders. Its primary military supplier has been the former Soviet Union, which has sold various types of sophisticated equipment under military trade agreements, and the People's Republic of China. Algeria has attempted, in recent years, to diversify its sources of military material. Military forces are supplemented by a 45,000-member gendarmerie or rural police force under the control of the president and 30,000-member Sûreté nationale or Metropolitan police force under the Ministry of the Interior.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ...


Recently, the Algerian Air Force signed a deal with Russia to purchase 49 MiG-29SMT and 6 MiG-29UBT at an estimated $1.5 Billion. They also agreed to return old airplanes purchased from the Former USSR. Russia is also building 2 636-type diesel submarines for Algeria.[26] The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... Former USSR is the name given to the region of Europe and Asia comprising former republics of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), which dissolved in 1991. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria

There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria including Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad, the first capital of the Hammadid empire; Tipasa, a Phoenician and later Roman town; and Djémila and Timgad, both Roman ruins; M'Zab Valley, a limestone valley containing a large urbanized oasis; also the Casbah of Algiers is an important citadel. The only natural World Heritage Sites is the Tassili n'Ajjer, a mountain range. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Al Qala of Beni Hammad is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Algeria located close to the Algerian coast west of Algiers. ... The Hammadids, an offshoot of the Zirids, were a Berber dynasty who ruled an area roughly corresponding to modern Algeria for about a century and a half, until, weakened by the Banu Hilals incursions, they were destroyed by the Almohads. ... Tipasa (Arabic: ولاية تيبازة ) Tibaza, older Tefessedt, Chenoua Bazar): A town on the coast of Algeria, capital of the wilaya of the same name, 30 mi (50 km) W. of the capital. ... Djémila (Cuicul) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Algeria on the northern coast east of Algiers. ... Timgad (Arabic, تيمقاد Thamugadi, called Thamugas by the Romans, was a Roman colonial town in North Africa founded by the Emperor Trajan around 100 AD. The ruins are noteworthy for being one of the best extant examples of the grid plan as used in Roman city planning. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Panoramic view of Ghardaïa (Tagherdayt) with the dry bed of Wadi Mzab on the right side. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... For the San Diego music venue, see The Casbah. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Landsat image of the Tassili nAjjer The Tassili nAjjer (Arabic: تصلة ناجر) is a mountain range in the Sahara desert in southeast Algeria. ...


See also

Algeria Portal
  • List of Algeria-related topics
  • Arab diaspora
  • French Colonial Union

Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... This is a list of Algeria-related articles: Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Abdelaziz Bouteflika - Algiers - Annaba - Annaba (city) - Archeology of Algeria B Berber C Communications... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f CIA World Factbook
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook Rank Order - Area
  3. ^ http://www.apn-dz.org/apn/english/constitution96/preambule.htm Constitution 1996
  4. ^ Barbary Pirates — Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911
  5. ^ Alistair Horne, (2006). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962 (New York Review Books Classics). 1755 Broadway, New York, NY 10019: NYRB Classics, 29-30. ISBN 1-59017-218-3. 
  6. ^ (French) - http://gallica.bnf.fr/, La démographie figurée de l'Algérie, op.cit., p.260 et 261.
  7. ^ Alistair Horne, (2006). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962 (New York Review Books Classics). 1755 Broadway, New York, NY 10019: NYRB Classics, 32. ISBN 1-59017-218-3. 
  8. ^ Country Data
  9. ^ Marketplace: Pied-noirs breathe life back into Algerian tourism
  10. ^ Khilafah - An overview of recent events in Algeria
  11. ^ Arabic German Consulting www.Arab.de (accessed 4 April 2006)
  12. ^ Bin Ali calls for reactivating Arab Maghreb Union, Tunisia-Maghreb, Politics, 2/19/1999 www.arabicnews.com (accessed 4 April 2006)
  13. ^ Algeria Country Analysis Brief, EIA, March 2005. Retrieved 18 Jan 2007.
  14. ^ Brtsis, brief on Russian defence, trade, security and energy
  15. ^ "Russia agrees Algeria arms deal, writes off debt", Reuters, March 11, 2006. 
  16. ^ (French) "La Russie efface la dette algérienne", Radio France International, March 10, 2006. 
  17. ^ CIA factbook
  18. ^ A Quiet Revolution in Algeria: Gains by Women - New York Times
  19. ^ Algeria - Education
  20. ^ Tahar Djaout French Publishers' Agency and France Edition, Inc. (accessed 4 April 2006)
  21. ^ Gross, Joan, David McMurray, and Ted Swedenburg. "Arab Noise and Ramadan Nights: Raï, Rap, and Franco-Maghrebi Identities." Diaspora 3:1 (1994): 3- 39. [Reprinted in The Anthropology of Globalization: A Reader, ed. by Jonathan Xavier and Renato Rosaldo.
  22. ^ Mohammed Khadda official site (accessed 4 April 2006)
  23. ^ a b (French) - http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/AXL/, Jacques Leclerc, L’aménagement linguistique dans le monde. CIRAL (Centre international de recherche en aménagement linguistique).
  24. ^ (French) - « Loi n° 02-03 portant révision constitutionnelle », adopted on 10 April 2002.
  25. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed., Dallas, Texas: SIL International. (accessed 4 April 2006).
  26. ^ Venezuela's Chavez to finalise Russian submarines deal". Breitbart (2007=06-14). Retrieved on 2007-06-14.

is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Ageron, Charles-Robert (1991). Modern Algeria. A History from 1830 to the Present. Translated from French and edited by Michael Brett. London: Hurst. ISBN 086543266X.
  • Aghrout, Ahmed and Bougherira, Redha M. (2004). Algeria in Transition: Reforms and Development Prospects. Routledge. ISBN 041534848X
  • Bennoune, Mahfoud (1988). The Making of Contemporary Algeria: Colonial Upheavals and Post-Independence Development, 1830–1987. Cambridge U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521301505.
  • Fanon, Frantz (1966). The Wretched of the Earth. Grove Press. ASIN B0007FW4AW, ISBN 0802141323 (2005 paperback).
  • Horne, Alistair (1977). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962. Viking Adult. ISBN 0670619647, ISBN 1-59017-218-3 (2006 reprint)
  • Roberts, Hugh (2003). The Battlefield: Algeria, 1988–2002. Studies in a Broken Polity. London: Verso. ISBN 185984684X.
  • Ruedy, John (1992). Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253349982.
  • Stora, Benjamin (2001). Algeria, 1830–2000. A Short History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801437156.

Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Sir Alistair Allan Horne (November 9, 1925-) is a British historian of modern France. ...

External links

Find more about Algeria on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Algeria at the Open Directory Project
  • El Mouradia official presidential site (in French and Arabic)
  • National People's Assembly official parliamentary site
  • Algeria entry at The World Factbook
  • Algeria travel guide from Wikitravel
Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Algeria - MSN Encarta (827 words)
Algeria was a colony of France from the mid-19th century until it won independence in 1962 in one of the bloodiest independence struggles in history.
Algeria’s economy was underdeveloped and based largely on agriculture at the time of independence, and the government soon began efforts to modernize it.
Algeria is bounded on the east by Tunisia and Libya; on the south by Niger, Mali, and Mauritania; and on the west by Morocco.
Algeria. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (3385 words)
N Algeria is subject to earthquakes, which, as in 1954, 1980, and 2003, may be devastating, killing and injuring thousands.
Roman civilization in Algeria had been eroded by incursions of Berbers, and the destruction wreaked by the Vandals (who passed through Algeria on their way to Tunisia) in 430–431 marked the end of effective Roman control.
A number of small Muslim states rose and fell in Algeria, but generally the eastern part of the country came under the influence of dynasties centered in Tunisia (notably the Aghlabid of Kairouan) and the western part was controlled by states centered in Morocco (notably the Almoravids and Almohads).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m