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Encyclopedia > Algal bloom
Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society
Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society

An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system. Algal blooms may occur in freshwater as well as marine environments. Typically only one or a few phytoplankton species are involved and some blooms may be recognized by discoloration of the water resulting from the high density of pigmented cells. Although there is no officially recognized threshold level, algae can be considered to be blooming at concentrations of hundreds to thousands of cells per milliliter, depending on the causative species. Algal bloom concentrations may reach millions of cells per milliliter. Colors observed are green, yellowish-brown, or red. Bright green blooms may also occur. These are a result of blue-green algae, which are actually bacteria (cyanobacteria). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1454 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Algae Algal bloom Primoplantae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1454 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Algae Algal bloom Primoplantae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... A red tide resulting from a dinoflagellate bloom discoloring the water on the right An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ...


Some algal blooms are the result of an excess of nutrients (particularly phosphorus and nitrogen) into waters and higher concentrations of these nutrients in water cause increased growth of algae and green plants. As more algae and plants grow, others die. This dead organic matter becomes food for bacteria that decomposes it. With more food available, the bacteria increase in number and use up the dissolved oxygen in the water. When the dissolved oxygen content decreases, many fish and aquatic insects cannot survive. This results in a dead area. General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Algal blooms may also be of concern as some species of algae produce neurotoxins. At the high cell concentrations reached during some blooms, these toxins may have severe biological impacts on wildlife. Algal blooms composed of phytoplankters known to naturally produce biotoxins are often called Harmful Algal Blooms, or HABs. A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ...

Satellite image of a large coccolithophore bloom in the Bering Sea in 1998.

Algal blooms are monitored using biomass measurements coupled with the examination of species present. A widely-used measure of algal and cyanobacterial biomass is the chlorophyll concentration. Peak values of chlorophyll a for an oligotrophic lake are about 1-10 µg/l, while in a eutrophic lake they can reach 300 µg/l. In cases of hypereutrophy, such as Hartbeespoort Dam in South Africa, maxima of chlorophyll a can be as high as 3,000 µg/l.[1] [2] NASA SeaWiFS image taken on April 25, 1998, showing the coccolithophore bloom in the Bering Sea. ... NASA SeaWiFS image taken on April 25, 1998, showing the coccolithophore bloom in the Bering Sea. ... Coccolithophores (also called coccolithophorids) are single-celled algae, protists and phytoplankton belonging to the division haptophytes. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... An oligotrophic lake is a lake with low primary productivity, the result of low nutrient content. ... A eutrophic lake is shallow with high nutrient content. ... Hypereutrophic lakes are very nutrient-rich lakes characterized by frequent and severe nuisance algal blooms and low transparency. ... Hartbeespoort Dam (officially the Hartbeespoort Dam Reservoir) is a dam situated in the North West Province of South Africa at the latitude 25. ...

Contents

Red tide

Main Article Red tide A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ...


The so-called Red tide is an example of a naturally occurring estuarine or marine algal bloom. Red tide is caused by species of dinoflagellates, often present in sufficient numbers (thousands or millions of cells per milliliter) to turn the water a hue of red. Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ...


Black water

So-called black water is a dark discoloration of sea water, first described in the Florida Bay in January 2002.[3] Florida Bay is the shallow bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland (the Florida Everglades) and the Florida Keys. ...


Water treatment

Algal blooms sometimes occur in drinking water supplies. In such cases, toxins from the bloom can survive standard water purifying treatments. Researchers at Florida International University in Miami are experimenting with using 640-kilohertz ultrasound waves that create micropressure zones as hot as 3,700 °C. This breaks some water molecules into reactive fragments that can kill algae.[4] Florida International University, commonly known as FIU, is a public research university whose main campus is located in University Park in metropolitan Miami, Florida, in the United States. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Chemical structure of the ciguatoxin CTX1B Ciguatera is a foodborne illness poisoning in humans caused by eating marine species whose flesh is contaminated with a toxin known as ciguatoxin, which is present in many micro-organisms (particularly, the micro-algae Gambierdiscus toxicus) living in tropical waters. ... Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the worlds oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Chemical structure of Domoic acid Domoic acid, which causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is an amino acid phycotoxin (algal toxin) found associated with certain algal blooms [1]. In 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga called doumoi or hanayanagi (Chondria armata[2]) in Japan. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ...

References

  1. ^ Zohary, T.; and R. D. Roberts (1990). "Hyperscums and the population dynamics of Microcystis aeruginosa". J. Plankton Res. 12 (2): 423-432. doi:10.1093/plankt/12.2.423. ISSN 0142-7873. 
  2. ^ Bartram, J.; Wayne W. Carmichael, Ingrid Chorus, Gary Jones, and Olav M. Skulberg (1999). "Chapter 1. Introduction", Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. World Health Organization. ISBN 0-419-23930-8. Retrieved on 2007-06-09. 
  3. ^ Black water status report. Florida Marine Research Institute (2002, May 4). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  4. ^ Song, W.; Teshiba T., Rein K., and O'Shea K. E. (2005). "Ultrasonically induced degradation and detoxification of microcystin-LR (cyanobacterial toxin)". Environmental Science & Technology 39 (16): 6300-6305. doi:10.1021/es048350z. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Algal bloom Summary (1282 words)
Algal blooms in freshwater lakes and ponds tend to be caused by blue-green and green algae.
An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system.
A widely-used measure of algal and cyanobacterial biomass is the chlorophyll concentration.
Algal Bloom (937 words)
An algal bloom is a rapid rise in the population of some form of algae.
Algal blooms also are a problem recreational reasons.
Hysteresis is the phenomenon that when a parameter is changed in one direction, the model behavior (not blooming to blooming) changes at one particular value, while changing in the other direction (blooming to not blooming) changes at a different value (usually a very abrupt change).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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