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Encyclopedia > Algae
Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii.
Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii.

Algae (sing. alga) are a large and diverse group of simple plant-like organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. The largest and most complex marine forms are called seaweeds. They are considered "plant-like" because of their photosynthetic ability, and "simple" because they lack the distinct organs of higher plants such as leaves and vascular tissue. Though the prokaryotic Cyanobacteria (commonly referred to as Blue-green algae) were traditionally included as "algae" in older textbooks, many modern sources regard this as outdated[1][2] and restrict the term algae to eukaryotic organisms.[3] All true algae therefore have a nucleus enclosed within a membrane and chloroplasts bound in one or more membranes.[1] Algae constitute a paraphyletic and polyphyletic group:[1] they do not represent a single evolutionary direction or line, but a level or grade of organization that may have developed several times in the early history of life on Earth. In computing, the algae programming language is an interpreted programming language for numerical analysis, a branch of mathematics. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (900x722, 561 KB) Close-up of a red alga (Laurencia), a marine seaweed from Hawaii. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (900x722, 561 KB) Close-up of a red alga (Laurencia), a marine seaweed from Hawaii. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdÉ™(ÊŠ)ËŒfʌɪtÉ™/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ... Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ...


Algae lack leaves, roots, and other organs that characterize higher plants. They are distinguished from protozoa in that they are photosynthetic. Many are photoautotrophic, although some groups contain members that are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some unicellular species rely entirely on external energy sources and have reduced or lost their photosynthetic apparatus. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... The term mixotrophic can describe organisms (usually algae or bacteria) capable of deriving metabolic energy both from photosynthesis and from external energy sources. ... Osmotrophy is the study of osmology, popularly referred to as ubeterology, and it focuses on the interaction between osmots and trophots. ... Myzocytosis is a method of feeding found in some heterotrophic organisms. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


All algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from the cyanobacteria, and so produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria. Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Families Chromatiaceae Ectothiorhodospiraceae Halothiobacillaceae The purple sulfur bacteria are a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, collectively referred to as purple bacteria. ... Green sulfur bacteria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Contents

Ecology

Algae are most prominent in bodies of water, but are also common in terrestrial environments. However, terrestrial algae are usually rather inconspicuous and far more common in moist, tropical regions than dry ones, because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land. Algae are also found in other situations, such as on snow and on exposed rocks in symbiosis with a fungus as lichen. The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... Binomial name Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille Watermelon snow is snow that is reddish or pink in color, with the slight scent of a fresh watermelon. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ...


The various sorts of algae play significant roles in aquatic ecology. Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column — called phytoplankton — provide the food base for most marine food chains. In very high densities (so-called algal blooms) these algae may discolor the water and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms. Seaweeds grow mostly in shallow marine waters, however some have been recorded to a depth of 300 m.[4]Some are used as human food or harvested for useful substances such as agar, carrageenan, or fertilizer. Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom or marine bloom or water bloom is a rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carrageenans or carrageenins (pronounced ) are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. ...


Study of algae

The lineage of algae according to Thomas Cavallier-Smith. The three supergroups Archaeplastida, Chromalveolata and Cabozoa of eukaryotic algae are denoted to reflect the table below. Endosymbiotic events are noted by dotted lines.
The lineage of algae according to Thomas Cavallier-Smith. The three supergroups Archaeplastida, Chromalveolata and Cabozoa of eukaryotic algae are denoted to reflect the table below. Endosymbiotic events are noted by dotted lines.

The study of marine and freshwater algae is called phycology or algology. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x619, 7 KB) Kupirijo This is needed to explain the lineage of algae. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (540x619, 7 KB) Kupirijo This is needed to explain the lineage of algae. ... The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ... The chromalveolates (Chromalveolata) are a hypothetical grouping of eukaryotes, comprising the Chromista and alveolates, as suggested by Tom Cavalier-Smith. ... A Bikont is a eukaryotic cell with two flagella. ... Phycology (or algology) (from Greek: φύκος, phykos, seaweed; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), a subdiscipline of botany, is the scientific study of algae. ...


The US Algal Collection is represented by almost 300,000 accessioned and inventoried herbarium specimens.[2]


Classification

While Cyanobacteria have been traditionally included among the algae, referred to as the Cyanophytes or blue-green algae, recent works on algae usually exclude them due to large differences such as the lack of membrane-bound organelles, the presence of a single circular chromosome, the presence of peptidoglycan in the cell walls, and ribosomes different in size and content from eukaryotes [5][6]. Rather than in chloroplasts, they conduct photosynthesis on specialized infolded cytoplasmic membranes called thylakoid membranes. Therefore, they differ significantly from the algae despite occupying similar ecological niches. Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of eubacteria. ... Introduction A thylakoid is a phospholipid bilayer membrane internal to chloroplasts. ...


By modern definitions algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane-bound organelles called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA and are similar in structure to cyanobacteria, presumably representing reduced cyanobacterial endosymbionts. The exact nature of the chloroplasts is different among the different lines of algae, reflecting different endosymbiotic events. The table below lists the three major groups of algae and their lineage relationship is shown in the figure on the left. Note many of these groups contain some members that are no longer photosynthetic. Some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts, while others have lost them entirely. Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ...

Supergroup affiliation Members Endosymbiont Summary
Primoplantae/
Archaeplastida
Cyanobacterium These algae have primary chloroplasts, i.e. the chloroplasts are surrounded by two membranes and probably developed through a single endosymbiotic event. The chloroplasts of red algae have chlorophylls a and d (often), and phycobilins, while those of the green alga have chloroplasts with chlorophyll a and b. Higher plants are pigmented similarly to green algae and probably developed from them, and thus Chlorophyta is a sister taxon to the plants; sometimes they are grouped as Viridiplantae.
Cabozoa
or
Excavata and Rhizaria
Green alga

These groups have green chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b [5]. Their chloroplasts are surrounded by four and three membranes, respectively, and were probably retained from an ingested green alga. An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... subgroups Glaucophyta Rhodophyta (Red algae) Viridiplantae (green plants) (= Chlorobionta) Green algae (grade group) Embryophyta (Land plants) Primoplantae is a group of organisms that includes green plants (green algae and land plants), red algae, and an obscure group of single-celled algae called the glaucophytes. ... The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ... Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Red algae Classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Possible classes Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete The glaucophytes (Glaucophyta Skuja), also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ... Phycobilins are the chromophores of phycobiliproteins (photosynthetic pigments) found in cyanobacteria and in the chloroplasts of red algae, glaucophytes and some cryptomonads (though not in green algae and higher plants). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Viridiplantae (literally green plants) are a clade comprising the green algae and embryophyte plants. ... A Bikont is a eukaryotic cell with two flagella. ... This article is about the protist group called excavates. ... Phyla Cercozoa Foraminifera Radiolaria The Rhizaria are a major line of protists. ... Genera Chlorarachnion Gymnochlora Lotharella Cryptochlora Bigelowiella Chlorarachniophytes are a small group of algae occasionally found in tropical oceans. ... The euglenids are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, commonly found in freshwater especially when rich in organic materials, with a few marine and endosymbiotic members. ...


Chlorarachniophytes, which belong to the phylum Cercozoa, contain a small nucleomorph, which is a relict of the alga's nucleus. The Cercozoa are a group of protists, including most amoeboids and flagellates that feed by means of filose pseudopods. ... Nucleomorphs are small, reduced eukaryotic nuclei found in certain plastids. ... The term relict is used to refer to surviving remnants of natural phenomena. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ...


Euglenids, which belong to the phylum Euglenozoa, live primarily in freshwater and have chloroplasts with only three membranes. It has been suggested that the endosymbiotic green algae were acquired through myzocytosis rather than phagocytosis. Typical Classes Euglenoidea Kinetoplastea Diplonemea Postgaardea The Euglenozoa are a large group of flagellate protozoa. ... Myzocytosis is a method of feeding found in some heterotrophic organisms. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ...

Chromalveolata
or
Chromista and Alveolata
Red alga

These groups have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and c, and phycobilins. The latter chlorophyll type is not known from any prokaryotes or primary chloroplasts, but genetic similarities with the red algae suggest a relationship there. The chromalveolates (Chromalveolata) are a hypothetical grouping of eukaryotes, comprising the Chromista and alveolates, as suggested by Tom Cavalier-Smith. ... Phyla Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta The Chromista are a eukaryotic supergroup, which may be treated as a separate kingdom or included among the Protista. ... The alveolates are a major line of protists. ... Phyla Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta The Chromista are a eukaryotic supergroup, which may be treated as a separate kingdom or included among the Protista. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes. ... Orders Class Pavlovophyceae    Pavlovales Class Prymnesiophyceae    Prymnesiales    Phaeocystales    Isochrysidales    Coccolithales The haptophytes, classed either as the Prymnesiophyta or Haptophyta, are a group of algae. ... Typical genera Order Cryptomonadales    Campylomonas    Chilomonas    Chroomonas    Cryptomonas    Falcomonas    Geminigera    Guillardia    Hemiselmis    Plagioselmis    Proteomonas    Storeatula    Rhodomonas    Teleaulax Order Goniomonadales    Goniomonas The cryptomonads are a small group of flagellates, most of which have chloroplasts. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagellates are a large group of flagellate protists. ...


In the first three of these groups (Chromista), the chloroplast has four membranes, retaining a nucleomorph in cryptomonads, and they likely share a common pigmented ancestor.


The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but there is considerable diversity in chloroplasts among the group, as some members have acquired theirs from different sources. The Apicomplexa, a group of closely related parasites, also have plastids called apicoplasts. Apicoplasts are not photosynthetic but appear to have a common origin with dinoflagellates chloroplasts. Classes & Subclasses Aconoidasida Haemosporasina Piroplasmasina Blastocystea Conoidasida Coccidiasina Gregarinasina The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists, characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... The Apicoplast is a relict, non-photosynthetic plastid found in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. ...

It was W.H.Harvey (1811 — 1866) who first divided the algae into four divisions based on their pigmentation. This is the first use of a biochemical criterion in plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions were: red algae (Rhodophyta), brown algae (Heteromontophyta), green algae (Chlorophyta) and Diatomaceae (Dixon, 1973 p.232).[7] William Henry Harvey (1852) William Henry Harvey (February 5, 1811–May 15, 1866) was an Irish botanist who specialised in algae. ...


Forms of algae

Most of the simpler algae are unicellular flagellates or amoeboids, but colonial and non-motile forms have developed independently among several of the groups. Some of the more common organizational levels, more than one of which may occur in the life cycle of a species, are A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Flagellata from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia) Green alga (Chlamydomonas) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. ... Amoeba (Chaos diffluens) Foraminiferan (Ammonia tepida) Heliozoan (Actinophrys sol) Amoeboids are cells that move or feed by means of temporary projections, called pseudopods (false feet). ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ...

  • Colonial: small, regular groups of motile cells
  • Capsoid: individual non-motile cells embedded in mucilage
  • Coccoid: individual non-motile cells with cell walls
  • Palmelloid: non-motile cells embedded in mucilage
  • Filamentous: a string of non-motile cells connected together, sometimes branching
  • Parenchymatous: cells forming a thallus with partial differentiation of tissues

In three lines even higher levels of organization have been reached, with full tissue differentiation. These are the brown algae [3]—some of which may reach 50 m in length (kelps)[8]—the red algae [4], and the green algae [5]. The most complex forms are found among the green algae (see Charales and Charophyta), in a lineage that eventually led to the higher land plants. The point where these non-algal plants begin and algae stop is usually taken to be the presence of reproductive organs with protective cell layers, a characteristic not found in the other alga groups. Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... Thallus is an undifferentiated vegetative tissue (without specialization of function) of some non-mobile organisms, which were previously known as the thallophytes. ... The Heterokontophyta (Phaeophyta or brown algae, singular: brown alga) is a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds of colder Northern Hemisphere waters. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdÉ™(ÊŠ)ËŒfʌɪtÉ™/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Genera Chara Lamprothamnium Nitella Tolypella The Charales are an order of green algae, and are believed to be the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Classes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Zygnemophyceae    Zygnematales    Desmidiales Charophyceae    Coleochaetales    Charales The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Divisions Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes are the most familiar...


The first plants on earth evolved from shallow freshwater algae much like Chara some 400 million years ago. These probably had an isomorphic alternation of generations and were probably heterotrichous. Fossils of isolated land plant spores suggest land plants may have been around as long as 475 million years ago.[citation needed]


Algae and symbioses

Some species of algae form symbiotic relationships with other organisms. In these symbioses, the algae supply photosynthates (organic substances) to the host organism providing protection to the algal cells. The host organism derives some or all of its energy requirements from the algae. Examples include For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ...

  • lichens: a fungus is the host, usually with a green alga or a cyanobacterium as its symbiont. Both fungal and algal species found in lichens are capable of living independently, although habitat requirements may be greatly different from those of the lichen pair.
  • corals: algae known as zooxanthellae are symbionts with corals. Notable amongst these is the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, found in many hard corals. The loss of Symbiodinium, or other zooxanthellae, from the host is known as coral bleaching.
  • sponges: green algae live close to the surface of some sponges, for example, breadcrumb sponge (Halichondria panicea). The alga is thus protected from predators; the sponge is provided with oxygen and sugars which can account for 50 to 80% of sponge growth in some species.[9]

For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Zooxanthellae are golden-brown intracellular endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa, especially anthozoans. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Warm pink and yellow host coral organism due to stress. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1766 Halichondria panicea, commonly known as the breadcrumb sponge, is a species of marine demosponge belonging to the family Halichondriidae. ...

Life-cycle

Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta, the three main algal Phyla, have life-cycles which show tremendous variation with considerable complexity. In general there is an asexual phase where the seaweed's cells are diploid, a sexual phase where the cells are haploid followed by fusion of the male and female gametes. Asexual reproduction is advantageous in that it permits efficient population increases, but less variation is possible. Sexual reproduction allows more variation but is more costly because of the waste of gametes that fail to mate, among other things. Often there is no strict alternation between the sporophyte and gametophyte phases and also because there is often an asexual phase, which could include the fragmentation of the thallus.[8][10][6] Red algae Classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes. ... For other uses, see phyla. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Gametes (in Greek: γαμέτες) —also known as sex cells, germ cells, or spores—are the specialized cells that come together during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ...


See also

Conceptacle In phycology, conceptacles are specialised cavities of seaweeds that contain the reproductive organs. ...


Numbers and distribution

In the British Isles the UK Biodiversity Steering Group Report estimated there to be 20,000 algal species in the UK, freshwater and marine, about 650 of these are seaweeds. Another checklist of freshwater algae reported only about 5000 species. It seems therefore that the 20,000 is an overestimate or an error (John, 2002 p.1).[11]


The Smithsonian collection of algae has over 300,000 specimens. [12]


World-wide it is thought that there are over 5,000 species of red algae, 1,500 — 2,000 of brown algae and 8,000 of green algae. In Australia it is estimated that there are over 1,300 species of red algae, 350 species of brown algae and approximately 2,000 species of green algae totalling 3,650 species of algae in Australia.[13]


Around 400 species appear to be an average figure for the coastline of South African west coast.[14] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


669 marine species have been described from California (U.S.A.).[15]


642 entities are listed in the check-list of Britain and Ireland (Hardy and Guiry, 2006).[16]


Distribution

No publication has been found which attempts to discuss the general distribution of algae in the seas world-wide. However, notes and comments have been made by some authors. The floristic discontinuities may appear to determined by geographical features such as Antarctica, long distances of ocean or general land masses. However, the distances between Norway, the Faroes and Iceland do not show great changes in distribution.[4]


There has been dispersal in some species by ships, water currents and the like; further, some algae can quickly become entangled and make drifting mats.[17] Two red species have been introduced from the Pacific to Europe and the Mediterranean: Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot and Asparagopsis armata Harvey,[18] A. armata is a native of Australia.[4]Colpomenia peregrina is a native of the Pacific but has also invaded Europe. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Colpomenia peregrina is a seaweed (alga) not native to the British Isles but recorded in Ireland since 1934. ...


Britain and Ireland

  • Hardy, F.G. and Guiry, M.D. 2006. A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. British Phycological Society, London. ISBN 3 906166 35 X
  • Cullinane, J.P. 1973. Phycology of the South Coast of Ireland. The Cork University Press, University College Cork.

Northumberland and Durham (England)

  • Hardy, F.G. and Aspinall, R.J. 1988. An Atlas of the Seaweeds of Northumberland and Durham. Northumberland Biological Records Centre. The Hancock Museum. The University Newcastle upon Tyne. Special publication: 3. ISBN 0 9509680 5 6

Northern Ireland

  • Morton, O. 1994. Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Ulster Museum, Belfast. ISBN 0 900761 28 8

Ireland: County Donegal

  • Morton, O. The marine macroalgae of County Donegal, Ireland. Bull. Ir. biogeog. Soc. 27:3 - 164.

Isle of Man

  • Knight, M. and Park, M.W. 1931. Manx algae. An algal survey of the south end of the Isle of Man. L.M.B.C. Mem. Typ. Br. Mar. Pl. 390: 1 - 155.

Arctic

  • Kjellman, F.R. 1883. The algae of the Arctic Sea. K. sevenka. VetenskAkad. Handl. 20: 1 - 350.

Greenland

  • Lund, S. 1959. The Marine Algae of East Greenland. I. Taxonomical part. Meddr. Grønland 156: 1 - 247.

Faroe Islands

  • Borgesen, F. 1903. Marine Algae, pp.339 - 532. In, Warming, E. (Ed.), Botany of the Faröes Based Upon Danish Investigations. Part II. Copenhagen. [reprint 1970]

Atlantic(east coast)/Europe

  • Cabioc'h,J., Floc'h,J-Y., Le Toquin, A., Boudouresque, C-F., Meinesz, A. and Verlaque, M. 1992. Guide des algues des mers d'Europe. Delachaux et Niestlé, Switzerland.
  • Gayral, P. 1958 Algues de la Côte Atlantique Marocaine. Rabat.
  • Gayral, P. 1966. Algues des Côtes Françaises. Paris.

Canary Islands.

  • Borgesen,F. 1925. Marine algae from the Canary Islands, especially from Tenerife and Gran Canaria. I. Chlorophyceae. Biol. Meddr 5: 1 - 113.
  • Borgesen,F. 1926. Marine algae from the Canary Islands especially from Tenerife and Gran Canaria. II. Phaeophyceae. Biol. Meddr 6: 1 - 112.
  • Borgesen,F. 1927. Marine algae from the Canary Islands. III. Rhodophyceae. Part I, Bangiales and Nemalionales. Biol. Meddr 6: 1 - 97.
  • Borgesen,F. 1929. Marine algae from the Canary Islands. III Rhodophyceae. Part II. Cryptonemiales, Gigartinales and Rhodymeniales. Biol. Meddr 8: 1 - 97.
  • Borgesen,F. 1930. Marine algae from the Canary Islands. III Rhodophyceae. Part II. Cryptonemiales, Gigartinales and Rhodymeniales. Biol. Meddr 9: 1 - 159.

North America

  • Taylor, W.R. 1957. Marine Algae of the Northeastern Coast of North America. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
  • Abbott, I.A. and Hollenberg, G.J. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press, California.
  • Wehr, J.D. and Sheath, R.G. 2003. Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification. Academic Press, USA.

South Africa

  • Stegenga, H. Bolton, J.J. and Anderson, R.J. 1997. Seaweeds of the South African West Coast. Bolus Herbarium Number 18, Publication jointly financed by the Fourcade Bequest and the Research Committee of the University of Cape Town and the Foundation for Research Development.

New Zealand

  • Lindauer, V.W., Chapman, V.J. and Aiken, M. 1961. The Marine Algae of New Zealand. Part II. Phaeophyta. Nova Hedwigia 3: 129 - 350.
  • Chapman, V.J. 1969. The Marine Algae of New Zealand. Part III issues 1. Lehre: J.Cramer, 1 - 113.
  • Chapman, V.J. and Dromgoole, F.I. 1970. The Marine Algae of New Zealand. Part III issues 2. Lehre: J.Cramer, 115 - 154.
  • Chapman, V.J. and Parkinson, P.G. 1974 The Marine Algae of New Zealand. Part III issues 3. Lehre: J.Cramer,155 - 278.
  • Chapman, V.J. 1979 The Marine Algae of New Zealand. Part III issues 4. Lehre: J.Cramer, 279 - 420.

Uses of algae

Seaweed is used as a fertilizer
Seaweed is used as a fertilizer

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1971 KB) Picture taken by myself in Koksijde, Belgium august 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Algae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1971 KB) Picture taken by myself in Koksijde, Belgium august 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Algae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ...

Fertilizer

For centuries seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; Orwell writing in the 16th Century referring to drift weed in South Wales: "This kind of ore they often gather and lay in heaps where it heats and rots, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast it on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley" and "After spring tides or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse brackets, and carry the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass" (Chapman p.35).[19]


Algae are used by humans in many ways. They are used as fertilizers, soil conditioners and are a source of livestock feed.[8] Because many species are aquatic and microscopic, they are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places. An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ...


Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner, it is dredged from the sea floor and crushed to form a powder.[8] It is still harvested around the coasts of Brittany in France and off Falmouth, Cornwall (also extensively in western Ireland) and is a popular fertilizer in these days of organic gardening investigated Falmouth maerl and found that L. corallioides predominated down to 6 m and P. calcareum from 6-10 m (Blunden et al., 1981).[20][21] Maerl Maerl is a collective name for two or three species of red algae in the Corallinacease. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ...


Chemical analysis of maerl showed that it contained 32.1% CaCO3 and 3.1% MgCO3 (dry weight).


Energy source

Main article: algaculture
  • Algae can be used to make biodiesel (see algaculture), bioethanol and biobutanol and by some estimates can produce vastly superior amounts of vegetable oil, compared to terrestrial crops grown for the same purpose.
  • Algae can be grown to produce biohydrogen. In 1939 a German researcher named Hans Gaffron, while working at the University of Chicago, observed that the algae he was studying, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (a green-alga), would sometimes switch from the production of oxygen to the production of hydrogen.[7] Gaffron never discovered the cause for this change and for many years other scientists failed to repeat his findings. In the late 1990s professor Anastasios Melis, a researcher at the University of California at Berkeley, discovered that if the algae culture medium is deprived of sulfur it will switch from the production of oxygen (normal photosynthesis), to the production of hydrogen. He found that the enzyme responsible for this reaction is hydrogenase, but that the hydrogenase lost this function in the presence of oxygen. Melis found that depleting the amount of sulfur available to the algae interrupted its internal oxygen flow, allowing the hydrogenase an environment in which it can react, causing the algae to produce hydrogen. [8] Chlamydomonas moeweesi is also a good strain for the production of hydrogen.
  • Algae can be grown to produce biomass, which can be burned to produce heat and electricity. [9]

An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Binomial name Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dang. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2). ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ...

Pollution control

  • Algae are used in wastewater treatment facilities, reducing the need for greater amounts of toxic chemicals than are already used.
  • Algae can be used to capture fertilizers in runoff from farms. When subsequently harvested, the enriched algae itself can be used as fertilizer.
  • Algae Bioreactors are used by some powerplants to reduce CO2 emissions. [10] The CO2 can be pumped into a pond, or some kind of tank, on which the algae feed. Alternatively, the bioreactor can be installed directly on top of a smokestack. This technology has been pioneered by Massachusetts-based GreenFuelTechnologies.[11]

Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... A promising branch of bio-engineering is the development of Algae Bioreactors. ... The word emission generally means sending something out. ...

Stabilizing substances

Chondrus crispus, (probably confused with Mastocarpus stellatus, common name: Irish moss), is also used as "carrageen". The name carrageenan comes from the Irish Gaelic for Chondrus crispus. It is an excellent stabiliser in milk products - it reacts with the milk protein caesin, other products include: petfoods, toothpaste, ice-creams and lotions etc.[14][22] Alginates in creams and lotions are absorbable through the skin.[23] Binomial name Chondrus crispus Stackhouse Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, moss of the rock) is a species of red algae (Chondrus crispus) which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. ... Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Chait, Carragheen, or Carrageen Moss, is closely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus. ... Binomial name Chondrus crispus Stackhouse Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, moss of the rock) is a species of red algae (Chondrus crispus) which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. ...


Nutrition

Seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia; They are excellent sources of many vitamins including: A, B1, B2, B6, niacin and C. They are rich in iodine, potassium, iron, magnesium and calcium.[24] For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...


Algae is commercially cultivated as a nutritional supplement. One of the most popular microalgal species is Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), which is a Cyanobacteria (known as blue-green algae), and has been hailed by some as a superfood.[12] Other algal species cultivated for their nutritional value include; Chlorella (a green algae), and Dunaliella (Dunaliella salina), which is high in beta-carotene and is used in vitamin C supplements. Species About 35. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Species Chlorella vulgaris pyrenoidosa Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chlorella is a genus of single-celled green algae, belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. ... Species D. salina In taxonomy, Dunaliella is a genus of algae, specifically of the Dunaliellaceae. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ...


In China at least 70 species of algae are eaten as is the Chinese "vegetable" known as fat choy (which is actually a cyanobacterium). Roughly 20 species of algae are used in everyday cooking in Japan.[24] Fat choy (Nostic flagelliforme), also known as black moss or hair moss, is a cyanobacterium (a type of fresh water algae) that is used as a vegetable in Chinese cuisine. ... Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. ...


Certain species are edible; the best known, especially in Ireland is Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) O. Kuntze (Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze, common name: dulse).[13] This is a red alga which is dried and may be bought in the shops in Ireland. It is eaten raw, fresh or dried, or cooked like spinach. Similarly, Durvillaea Antarctica [14] is eaten in Chile, common name: cochayuyo. [15] Binomial name (Linnaeus) Kuntze, 1891 Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze, also called Dulse, dillisk, dilsk or creathnach, is a red algae (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville. ... Binomial name Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Kuntze, 1891 Dulse (Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze), also called dillisk, dilsk, dulse or creathnach, is a red alga (Rhodophyta) that grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. ...


Porphyra (common name: purple laver), is also collected and used in a variety of ways (e.g. "laver bread" in the British Isles). In Ireland it is collected and made into a jelly by stewing or boiling. Preparation also involves frying with fat or converting to a pinkish jelly by heating the fronds in a saucepan with a little water and beating with a fork. It is also collected and used by people parts of Asia, specifically China, Korea (gim and Japan (nori) and along most of the coast from California to British Columbia. The Hawaiians and the Maoris of New Zealand also use it. Porphyra is a genus of red algae. ... Laver is an edible seaweed that has high content of mineral salts, particularly iodine and iron. ... For other uses, see Nori (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...


One particular use is in "instant" puddings, sauces and creams. Ulva lactuca (common name: sea lettuce), is used locally in Scotland where it is added to soups or used in salads. Alaria esculenta (common name: badderlocks or dabberlocks), is used either fresh or cooked, in Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Ireland. Binomial name Alaria esculenta Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville. ... This article is about the country. ...


The oil from some algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Arachidonic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid), is very high in Parietochloris incisa, (a green alga) where it reaches up to 47% of the triglyceride pool (Bigogno C et al. Phytochemistry 2002, 60, 497). [16] [17] Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6). ...


It is a known fact that fish oil contains the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid, commonly known as DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA; but The Martek Biosciences Corporation who discovered the source of DHA to be from algae manufactures DHA from algae, which is where fish get their DHA, explains J. Casey Lippmeier, Martek's senior scientist.


The algae are eaten by smaller marine life such as copepods, "and those are eaten by slightly larger fish," says Lippmeier. The DHA gets passed along the food chain, all the way up to the biggest fish, but the original source is the algae.


You can refer to the following npr.org link for an article on algae and omega-3 fatty acids; http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15823852.


Other uses

There are also commercial uses of algae as agar.[22]


The natural pigments produced by algae can be used as an alternative to chemical dyes and coloring agents.[18] Many of the paper products used today are not recyclable because of the chemical inks that they use, paper recyclers have found that inks made from algae are much easier to break down. There is also much interest in the food industry into replacing the coloring agents that are currently used with coloring derived from algal pigments.Algea can be used to make pharmaceuticals[25]Sewage can be treated with algae as well[26] Some Cosmetics can come from microalgae as well. In Israel, a species of green algae is grown in water tanks, then exposed to direct sunlight and heat which causes it to become bright red in color. It is then harvested and used as a natural pigment for foods such as Salmon.[19] Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ...


Alginates

Between 100,000 and 170,000 wet tons of Macrocystis are harvested annually in California for alginate extraction and abalone feed.[20] [21] Species Macrocystis pyrifera Macrocystis is a genus of kelp. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Further references to the uses

  • Guiry, M.D. and Blunden, G. (Eds) 1991. Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-92947-6
  • Mumford, T.F. and Miura, A. 1988. 4. Porphyra as food: cultivation and economics. p.87 — 117. In Lembi, C.A. and Waaland, J.R. (Ed.) Algae and Human Affairs. 1988. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 32115 8

Collecting and preserving specimens

Seaweed specimens can be collected and preserved for research. Such preserved specimens will keep for two or three hundred years. Those of Carl von Linné (1707 — 1778) are still available for reference, and are used. Specimens may be collected from the shore; those below low tide must be collected by diving or dredging. The whole algal specimen should be collected, that is the holdfast, stipe and lamina. Specimens of algae reproducing will be the more useful for identification and research. When collected the details of the location and site should be noted. They can then be preserved pressed on paper or in a preserving liquid such as alcohol or solution of 5 per cent formalin/seawater. However, formalin is reported to be carcinogenic.[13] A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné  ?, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... A holdfast is a rootlike plant structure that anchors a seaweed. ...


Ecology

Biological Exposure Scale

The ecology of the shores of the British Isles, including a discussion of the different shores from sheltered to exposed along with an exposure scale, is given by Lewis (1964).[27] An exposure scale of five stages is given:- Very Exposed Shores; Exposed Shores; Semi-exposed Shores; Sheltered Shores and Very Sheltered Shores. Factors indicating the differences between these exposure scales are detailed. Very Exposed Shores have a wide Verrucaria zone entirely above the upper tide level, a Porphyra zone above the barnacle level and Lichina pygmaea is locally abundant. The eulittoral zone is dominated by barnacles and limpets with a coralline belt in the very low littoral along with other Rhodophyta and Alaria in the upper sublittoral. Exposed shores show a Verrucaria belt mainly above the high tide, with Porphyra and Lichina pygmaea. The mid shore is dominated by barnacles, limpets and some Fucus. Some Rhodophyta. Himanthalia and some Rhodophyta such as Mastocarpus and Corallina are found in the low littorral with Himanthalia, Alaria and Laminaria digitata dominant in the upper sublittoral. The semi-exposed shores show a Verrucaria belt just above high tide with clear Pelvetia in the upper-littoral and Fucus serratus in the lower-littoral. Limpets, barnacles and short Fucus vesiculosus midshore. Fucus serratus with Rhodophyta, (Laurencia, Mastocarpus stellatus, Rhodymenia and Lomentaria). Laminaria and Saccorhiza polyschides and small algae common in the sublittoral. The sheltered shores show a narrow Verrucaria zone at high water and a full sequence of fucoids: Pelvetia, Fucus spiralis, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, Ascophyllum nodosum. Laminaria digitata is dominant the upper sublittoral. The very sheltered shores show a very narrow zone of Verrucaria, the dominance of the littoral by a full sequence of the fucoids and Ascophyllum covering the rocks. Laminaria saccharina, Halidrys, Chondrus and or Furcellaria.[27] Orders Ascothoracica Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: See article: Limpet If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Species Including: A. esculenta (dabberlocks) (California kelp) Brown algae, in the Kingdom Chromista, Order Laminariales and Family Alariaceae there are up to 14 species of the Genus Alaria known world-wide. ... Species Including: A. esculenta (dabberlocks) (California kelp) Brown algae, in the Kingdom Chromista, Order Laminariales and Family Alariaceae there are up to 14 species of the Genus Alaria known world-wide. ... Species Laminaria japonica . ... Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Chait, Carragheen, or Carrageen Moss, is closely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus. ...


Common names

  • Alaria sculenta Dabberlocks[28]; Edible kelp
  • Chorda filum Sea lace[28]
  • Colpomena peregrina Oyster thief[28]
  • Fucus ceranoides Horned wrack[28]
  • Fucus serratus Toothwrack[28]
  • Fucus spirals Spiral wrack[28]
  • Haldrys siliquosa Sea oak[28]
  • Halurus euisetifolius Seatail[28]
  • Himanthalia elongata Sea thong[28]; Thong-weed
  • Laminaria digitata Tangle[28]; Oarweed
  • Laminaria hyperborea Curvie[28]
  • Laminaria saccharina Sea belt[28]; Sugar Kelp; Sugarwrack
  • Laurencia pinnatifida Pepper dulse[28]
  • Padin pavonia Peacocks[28]
  • Plocamium vulgare Cockscomb[28]
  • Polyides caprinus Goat tang[28]
  • Polysiphonia elongata Lobster horns[28]
  • Porphyra umbilicalis Purple laver[28]; Laver
  • Saccorhiza polyschides Furbelows[28]

Binomial name Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis Knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis) is a large, common, brown, edible seaweed of the northern Atlantic Ocean. ... Binomial name Chondrus crispus Stackhouse Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, moss of the rock) is a species of red algae (Chondrus crispus) which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. ... Species F. serratus F. vesiculosus Fucus is a genus of seaweed that lives in the intertidal zones of rocky shores. ... Binomial name L. Fucus serratus is a seaweed of the north Atlantic Ocean, known as toothed wrack or serrated wrack [1]. It is olive–brown in colour and similar to F. vesiculosus and Fucus spiralis. ... Bladder wrack is a seaweed that was the original source of iodine, discovered in 1812, and was used extensively to treat goiter, a swelling of the thyroid gland related to insufficient iodine. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus) Kuntze, 1891 Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze, also called Dulse, dillisk, dilsk or creathnach, is a red algae (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville. ... Pelvetia canaliculata (L.) Dcne. ... Binomial name Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753 Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, a green alga in the Division Chlorophyta, is the type species of the genus Ulva and also known as sea lettuce. ...

Examples

Atractophora hypnoides P.L. Crouan & H.M.Crouan is a rare red alga (Rhodophyta) found in the British Isles, France and some Atlantic Islands and is the only species of the genus found in the British Isles. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA: , from Greek: (rhodon) = rose + (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are a large group, about 5,000–6,000 species [1] of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Binomial name Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis Knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis) is a large, common, brown, edible seaweed of the northern Atlantic Ocean. ... Genera Chara Lamprothamnium Nitella Tolypella The Charales are an order of green algae, and are believed to be the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Genus Codium Codium is a genus of seaweed in the Chlorophyta of the Order Bryopsidales. ... Species F. serratus F. vesiculosus Fucus is a genus of seaweed that lives in the intertidal zones of rocky shores. ... Binomial name Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753 Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, a green alga in the Division Chlorophyta, is the type species of the genus Ulva and also known as sea lettuce. ... Species Laminaria japonica . ... Lemanea is the generic name for an alga of which there are two species in the British Isles:- Lemanea fluviatilis (L.) C.Ag. ... Species Macrocystis pyrifera Macrocystis is a genus of kelp. ... Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Chait, Carragheen, or Carrageen Moss, is closely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus. ... Pelvetia canaliculata (L.) Dcne. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus) Kuntze, 1891 Palmaria palmata (L.) Kuntze, also called Dulse, dillisk, dilsk or creathnach, is a red algae (Rhodophyta) previously referred to as Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville. ... Porphyra is a genus of red algae. ... Binomial name Ruprecht 1852 Postelsia, also known as the sea palm (not to be confused with the southern sea palm) or palm seaweed, is a genus of kelp. ...

See also

An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... An Algae farm. ... The Heterokontophyta (Phaeophyta or brown algae, singular: brown alga) is a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds of colder Northern Hemisphere waters. ... Classes[1] Bryopsidophyceae Chlorophyceae Pedinophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Prasinophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorophyta, a division of green algae, includes about 8000 species[2][1] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. ... Coccolithophores (also called coccolithophorids) are single-celled algae, protists and phytoplankton belonging to the division haptophytes. ... In phycology, conceptacles are specialised cavities of seaweeds that contain the reproductive organs. ... Genera 39 genera Coralline algae are red algae in the Family Corallinaceae characteriuzed by a thallus covered with calcareous deposits. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... The golden algae or chrysophytes are a large group of heterokont algae, found mostly in freshwater. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... River in Madagascar relatively free of sediment load An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species Laminaria japonica . ... For other uses, see Nori (disambiguation). ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae (Rhodophyta, IPA: , from Greek: (rhodon) = rose + (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are a large group, about 5,000–6,000 species [1] of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Yellow-green algae or xanthophytes are an important group of heterokont algae. ... Binomial name Kützing Marimo (Japanese: 毬藻 marimo), also known as Cladophora ball, Lake ball, or Moss Balls in English, is a species of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) found in a number of lakes in the northern hemisphere. ... Phycology is the study of marine algae (seaweeds) and history is the study of the past human activities. ...

References

Cited references

  1. ^ a b c Nabors, Murray W., 2004. Introduction to Botany. Pearson Education, Inc., San Fransisco, CA.
  2. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000. Algae: [1].
  3. ^ Allaby, M ed. 1992. The Concise Dictionary of Botany. Oxford University Press, Oxford
  4. ^ a b c www.algaebase.org
  5. ^ a b Biology 8th ed. Losos, Jonathan B., Mason, Kenneth A., Singer, Susan R., McGraw-Hill. 2007.
  6. ^ FIU BOT4404 Lecture Notes
  7. ^ Dixon, P.S. 1973 Biology of the Rhodophyta. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh. ISBN 0 05 002485 X
  8. ^ a b c d Thomas, D.N. 2002 Seaweeds. The Natural History Museum, London. ISBN 0 565 09175 1
  9. ^ http://uwsp.edu/cnr/UWEXlakes/laketides/vol26-4/vol26-4.pdf
  10. ^ Lobban, C.S. and Harrison, P.J. 1997. Seaweed Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge Uiversity Press. ISBN 0-521-40897-00
  11. ^ John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. and Brook, A.J. 2002. The Freshwater Algae Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 77051 3
  12. ^ Algae Research/ Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
  13. ^ a b Huisman, J.M. 2000. Marine Plants of Australia. University of Western Australian Press, Australian Biological Resources Study. ISBN 1 876268 33 6
  14. ^ a b Stegenga, H., Bolton, J.J. and Anderson, R.J. 1997. In Hall, A.V. (Ed.) Seaweeds of the South African West coast. Bolus Herbarim No. 18. ISBN 0-7992-1793-X
  15. ^ Abbott, I.A. and Hollenberg, G.J. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press, California. ISBN 0-8047-0867-3
  16. ^ Hardy, F.G. and Guiry, M.D. 2006. A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. Britiah Phycological Society, London. ISBN 3-906166-35-X
  17. ^ Kain, J.M. and Noron, T.A. 1990. Marine ecology. p.397. in Cole, K.M. and Sheath, R.G. 1990. Biology of Red Algae. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 343101 1
  18. ^ Guiry, M.D. and Garbary, D.J.. A Geographical and Taxonomic Guide to European Seaweeds of Economic Importance. in Seaweeds Resources In Europe: Uses and Potential. ed. Guiry, M.D. and Blunden, G. 1991. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0 471 92947 6
  19. ^ Chapman, V.J. 1950. Seaweeds and their Uses. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London
  20. ^ Blunden, G., Farnham, W.F. Jephson, N., Barwell, C.J., Fenn, R.H. and Plunkett, B.A. 1981 The composition of maerl beds of economic interest in northern Brittany, Cornwall, and Ireland. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium. 10: 651 - 656
  21. ^ Blunden, G., Campbell, S.A., Smith, J.R., Guiry, M.D., Hession, C.C. and Griffin, R.L. 1997. Chemical and physical characterization of calcified red algal deposits known as maërl. J. Applied. phycol. 9: 11 - 17
  22. ^ a b Lewis, J.G., Stanley, N.F and Guist, G.G. 1988. 9 Commercial production of algal hydrocolloides. in Lembi, C.A. and Waaland, J.R. (Eds.) Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ISBN 0 521 32115 8
  23. ^ Roeck-Holtzhauer,Y de Uses of Seaweeds in Cosmetics. in Guiry, M.D. and Blunden, G. 1991. Seaweed Resources in Europe; Uses and Potential. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 471 92947 6
  24. ^ a b Mondragon, J. and Mondragon, J. 2003. Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Sea Challengers Publications, Monterey, California. ISBN 0-930118-29-4
  25. ^ Capture and sequestration of CO2From Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae
  26. ^ Industrial and other uses - Department of Botany - Smithsonian Museum of Natural History
  27. ^ a b Lewis, J.R. 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. The English Universities Press, London
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Dickson,C.I. 1963. Brtish Seaweeds. The Kew Series, Eyre & Spottiswoode

This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Identification

  • Abbott, I.A. and Hollenberg, G.J. 1976. Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press, California. ISBN 0-8047-0867-3
  • Brodie, J.A. and Irvine, L.M. 2003. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1 Part 3B. The Natural History Museum, London. ISBN 1 898298 87 4
  • Burrows, E.M. 1991. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 2. British Museum (Natural History), London. ISBN 0-565-00981-8
  • Christensen, T. 1987. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Tribophyceae. Volume 4. British Museum (Natural History), London. ISBN 0-565-00980-X
  • Dixon, P.S. and Irvine, L.M. 1977. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Part 1. Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. British Museum (Natural History), London. ISBN 0 565 00781 5
  • Irvine, L.M. 1983. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1, Part 2A. British Museum (Natural History), London. ISBN 0-565-00871-4
  • Irvine, L.M. and Chamberlain, Y.M. 1994. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1 Part 2B. The Natural History Museum, London. ISBN 0 11 310016 7
  • Fletcher, R.L. 1987. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 3 Part 1. British Museum (Natural History), London. ISBN 0-565-00992-3
  • John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. and Brook, J.A. (Eds.) 2002. The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, UK. ISBN 0 521 77051 3
  • Stegenga, H., Bolton, J.J. and Anderson, R.J.1997. Seaweeds of the South African west coast. Boltus Herbarium, University of Cape Town. ISBN 0-7992-1793-x
  • Taylor, W.R. 1957. Marine algae of the north-eastern coasts of North America. Revised edition. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor.

General

  • Chapman, V.J. 1950.p.36. Seaweeds and their Uses. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London.
  • Guiry, M.D. and Blunden, G. (Eds) 1991. Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-92947-6
  • Lembi, C.A. and Waaland, J.R. (Eds.) 1988. Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-32115-8

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Algae
  • AlgaeBase - a comprehensive database of over 35,000 Algae (132,000 names), including seaweeds, with over 5000 images and some 40,000 references.
  • Index Nominum Algarum
  • www.phyco.org; a wiki-based site that is focused on energy production from algae.
  • biodieselnow.com biodiesel production-biodiesel from algae
  • Australian freshwater algae - Sydney Botanic Gardens
  • Learn about Algae & Algal Blooms - Rural Chemical Industries (Aust.) Pty Ltd.
  • Harmful Algal Blooms - "Red tide" - National Office for Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Blooms, USA.
  • Patent ListingAlgae Related United States Patents
  • Algae Section, National Museum of Natural History - Smithsonian Institution
  • www.plantphysiol.org
  • Cyanosite, a webserver for cyanobacterial research
  • Algae Growth
  • Blanket Weed
  • British Phycological Society
  • Seaweed site by Michael Guiry
  • http://www.botanicgardens.ie/educ/vis12.htm
  • http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/rhodophyta.html - Introduction to Rhodophyta]
  • http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/algae/
  • http://www.marlin.ac.uk - Marlin
  • http://www.mbari.org/staff/conn/botany/flora/reds.htm - Monterey Bay Flora
  • http://www.mbari.org/staff/conn/botany/flora/browns.htm - Monterey Bay Flora
  • http://www.mbari.org/staff/conn/botany/flora/green.htm - Monterey Bay Flora
  • http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1616252,00.html


Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Download high resolution version (454x765, 178 KB)Coconut Palm on Martinique. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern, or pteridophyte, is any one of a group of some twenty thousand species of plants classified in the Division Pteridophyta, formerly known as Filicophyta. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Plant cell structure Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key respects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, describes, classifies and names plants. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ... Studying a plant sample in the Herbarium In botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... An open pond Spirulina farm Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ... Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are the only significant factors in determining population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are considered to be insignificant. ... In aquaculture, the broodstock is a group of sexually mature individuals of a cultured species that is kept separate for breeding purposes. ... A freshwater prawn farm is an aquaculture business designed to raise and produce freshwater prawn or shrimp1 for human consumption. ... Krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. ... Because of their large size, rapid growth, and palatability, a number of tilapiine cichlids are at the focus of major aquaculture efforts, specifically various species of Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia colloquially known as tilapias. ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artifical conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... The U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish Industry began in the early 1960s in Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. ... Tailwater refers to a type of trout fishery. ... Hirudiculture is the culture, or farming, of leeches in both natural and artificial environments. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Sea louse is the designation of ectoparasitic copepods Lepeoptheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus both parasitic on salmonids ... The National Fish Hatchery System was established by the U.S. Congress in 1871 through the creation of a U.S. Commissioner for Fish and Fisheries. ... Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN) is a viral disease of penaeid shrimp that causes mass mortality (up to 90%) among the Western Blue Shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris) and severe deformations in the Pacific White Shrimp (). It occurs in Pacific farmed and wild shrimp, but not in wild shrimp on the... The Yellowhead disease (YHD) is a viral infection of shrimp, in particular of the Giant Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon), one of the two major species of farmed shrimp. ... White spot syndrome (WSS) is a viral infection of penaeid shrimp. ... Taura syndrome is one of the more devastating diseases affecting the shrimp farming industry worldwide. ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... The WorldFish Center (originally International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management or ICLARM) is an international research center specializing in fisheries and related aquatic resources. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Population ecology is a major subfield of ecology—one that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment. ... Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. ... Often referred to by the acronym VPA, is a modelling technique commonly used in fisheries science for reconstructing historical fish numbers at age using information on death of individuals each year. ... Trophic cascades occur when predators in a food chain suppress the abundance of their prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation (or herbivory if the intermediate trophic level is an herbivore). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Population dynamics. ... Functional ecology is the branch of ecology that focuses on the roles, or functions, that species play in the community or ecosystem in which they occur. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... The Sea Around Us Project is devoted to studying the impact of fisheries on the worlds marine ecosystems. ... Earthtrust is a non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to wildlife protection. ... The FRV Scotia Fisheries Research Services (FRS) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Executive, part of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The National Fisheries Research and Development Institute or NFRDI, is a scientific body operated by the South Korean government, under the authority of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science(CEFAS) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government department the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... Seafood Watch is a program designed to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. ... Sustainable seafood is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ... A fish aggregating (or aggregation) device (FAD) is a man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). ... A fishing light attractor is an underwater light that can be used to attract fish of many species, including baitfish, and larger fish. ... Cyanide fishing is an illegal form of fishing common in South East Asia, which usually uses the chemical compound sodium cyanide - a close relation of potassium cyanide. ... Blast fishing or dynamite fishing describes the practice of using dynamite, homemade bombs or other explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection. ... A Flosser is an angler who uses the method of flossing to catch fish mainly from the Salmon species. ... Drift nets are nets used in oceans. ... Ghost nets are fishing nets that have been lost by fishermen. ... The Celtic Explorer, a research vessel engaged in bottom trawling Bottom trawling (known in the scientific community as Benthic trawling) is a fishing method which involves towing trawl nets along the sea floor, as opposed to pelagic trawling, where a net is towed higher in the water column. ... A piscicide is a substance which is poisonous to fish. ... ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels. ... EconMult is a general fleet model to be used in fisheries modelling. ... EconSimp is a bioeconomic management model of the Barents Sea fisheries. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Individual fishing quotas (popularly abbreviated to IFQ) are a means by which many governments have tried to regulate fishing. ... Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS), in the context of fisheries, is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as a broadening of traditional enforcing national rules over fishing, to the support of the hroader problem of fisheries management[1]. Internationally, the basis of law for... Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) are used in commercial fishing to allow environmental and fisheries regulatory organizations to monitor, minimally, the position, time at a position, and course and speed of fishing vessels. ... In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively-immature juveniles of the target species. ... Cetacean bycatch is the technical term for the incidental capture of non-target cetacean species by fisheries. ... The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ... The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... Marine reserve is an area of the sea which has legal protection against fishing or development. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Founded in 1973 by fishermen, the National Coalition for Marine Conservation (NCMC) is the USAs oldest public advocacy group dedicated exclusively to conserving ocean fish and their environment. ... The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) is an intergovernmental organisation responsible for the management and conservation of tunas and tuna-like species in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas. ... The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent non-profit organization that aims to promote sustainable fishery practices. ... The Pacific Whiting Conservation Cooperative (PWCC) is a harvest and research cooperative formed by four companies that participate in the catcher/processor sector of the Pacific whiting (aka hake, Merluccius productus) fishery -- Alaska Ocean Seafoods, American Seafoods, Glacier Fish Co. ... opened for signature - 29 April 1958 entered into force - 20 March 1966 objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, considering that because of the development of modern technology some of these resources are in danger of being overexploited... Walther Herwig (February 25, 1838 - December 16, 1912) was a Prussian administrative lawyer, and the founder of the German fisheries science. ... Dr. Daniel Pauly is a Professor and Director of the Fisheries Centre. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... A turtle excluder device. ... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... Fishing from a Pier Fishing is both the recreation and sport of catching fish (for food or as a trophy), and the commercial fishing industry of catching or harvesting seafood (either fish or other aquatic life-forms, such as shellfish). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ...

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Algae - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2842 words)
Algae have been traditionally regarded as simple plants, and indeed some are closely related to the higher plants.
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