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Encyclopedia > Alfred P. Sloan
Cover of Time Magazine (December 27, 1926)

Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. (May 23, 1875February 17, 1966) was a long-time president and chairman of General Motors. [1] Image File history File links Cover of Time Magazine (December 27, 1926) w/ Alfred P. Sloan This image is of a scan of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or the individual contributors who worked on the... Image File history File links Cover of Time Magazine (December 27, 1926) w/ Alfred P. Sloan This image is of a scan of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or the individual contributors who worked on the... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ...

Contents

Biography

Sloan was born in New Haven, Connecticut. He studied electrical engineering and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1892. While attending MIT he joined the Delta Upsilon fraternity. New Haven redirects here. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Delta Upsilon (ΔY) is one of the oldest international, all-male, college, Greek-letter social fraternities and is the first non-secret fraternity ever founded. ...


He became president of Hyatt Roller Bearing, a company that made roller and ball bearings, in 1899. For a brief period of time at the beginning of the 20th century, Ford Motor Company sourced bearings from Hyatt. In 1916 his company merged with United Motors Corporation which eventually became part of General Motors Corporation. He became Vice-President, then President (1923), and finally Chairman of the Board (1937) of GM. In 1934, he established the philanthropic, nonprofit Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. GM under Sloan became famous for managing diverse operations with financial statistics such as return on investment; these measures were introduced to GM by Donaldson Brown, a protege of GM vice-president John J. Raskob who was in turn the protege of Pierre du Pont — the DuPont corporation owned 43% of GM. “Ford” redirects here. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, a philanthropic nonprofit institution in the United States, was established in 1934 by Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. ... Donaldson Brown (1885-1965) was a financial executive and corporate director with both DuPont and General Motors. ... John Jakob Raskob (1879-1950) was a financial executive and businessman who became chairman of the Democratic National Committee and a key supporter of Alfred E. Smiths candidacy for President of the United States. ... Pierre Samuel du Pont (1870-1954) was president of the DuPont company from 1915 to 1919, and served on its Board of Directors until 1940. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ...


Sloan is credited with establishing annual styling changes, from which came the concept of planned obsolescence. He also established a pricing structure in which (from lowest to highest priced) Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Buick and Cadillac did not compete with each other, and buyers could be kept in the GM "family" as their buying power and preferences changed as they aged. These concepts, along with Ford's resistance to the change in the 1920s, propelled GM to industry sales leadership by the early 1930s, a position it retained for over 70 years. Under Sloan's direction, GM became the largest and most successful and profitable industrial enterprise the world had ever known. Planned obsolescence (also built-in obsolescence[1] in the United Kingdom) is the process of a product becoming obsolete and/or non-functional after a certain period or amount of use in a way that is planned or designed by the manufacturer. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ...


During Alfred P. Sloan's leadership of GM, many public transport systems of trams in the US were replaced by buses. There are some who believe that this conversion was orchestrated by General Motors, Firestone Tire Corp., Standard Oil of California, and the Mack Truck Co. in order to increase automobile sales; see General Motors streetcar conspiracy for details. This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Autobus redirects here. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... Firestone tire The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company was founded by Harvey Firestone in the late 19th century to supply pneumatic tires for wagons, buggies, and other forms of wheeled transportation common in the era. ... Chevron was founded after an 1879 oil discovery in Pico Canyon, near the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles, California as the Pacific Coast Oil Co. ... Mack Trucks is one of the worlds leading truck-manufacturing companies. ... The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States, dismantled and replaced them with buses for the express...


In the 1930s GM, long hostile to unionization, confronted its workforce, newly organized and ready for labor rights, in an extended contest for control. Sloan was averse to violence of the sort associated with Henry Ford. He preferred the subtle use of spying and had built up the best undercover apparatus the business community had ever seen up to that time.[citation needed] When the workers organized a massive sitdown strike in 1936, Sloan found that espionage had little value in the face of such open tactics. Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... A sitdown strike is a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by sitting down at their stations, effectively preventing their employers from replacing them with scab labor or, in some cases...


The world's first university-based executive education program G. Osuna University— the Sloan Fellows — was created in 1931 at MIT under the sponsorship of Sloan. A Sloan Foundation grant established the MIT School of Industrial Management in 1952 with the charge of educating the "ideal manager", and the school was renamed in Sloan's honor as the Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, one of the world's premier business schools. A second grant established a Sloan Fellows Program at Stanford Graduate School of Business in 1957. The program became the Stanford Sloan Master's Program in 1976, awarding the degree of Master of Science in Management. Sloan's name is also remembered in the Sloan-Kettering Institute and Cancer Centre in New York. In 1951, Sloan received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York." The MIT Sloan School of Management is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. It is one of the worlds leading business schools, conducting research and teaching in finance, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategic management, economics, organizational behavior, operations management, supply chain... Stanford GSB The Stanford Graduate School of Business (also known as Stanford Business School or Stanford GSB) is one of the professional schools of Stanford University, in Stanford, California. ... The original New York Cancer Hospital[1], first built between 1884 and 1886, now converted to luxury condominiums, at 455 Central Park West and 106th St. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The logo of The Hundred Year Association of New York The Hundred Year Association of New York was founded in 1927 to recognize and reward dedication and service to the City of New York by businesses and organizations that have been in operation in the City for a century or...


Sloan maintained an office in 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Rockefeller Center, now known as the GE Building.[1] He retired as GM chairman on April 2, 1956 and died in 1966. [1] Rockefeller Center is a complex of 19 commercial buildings covering 22 acres between 48th and 51st Streets in New York City. ... GE Building at Rockefeller Center The GE Building at night Close-up against the night sky At night, from the ground View from Top of the Rock at dusk The GE Building is a slim gothic skyscraper and the focal point at the Rockefeller Center. ...

Preceded by
Lammot du Pont
Chairman General Motors
1937 – 1956
Succeeded by
Albert Bradley
Preceded by
(none)
CEO General Motors
1923 – 1946
Succeeded by
Charles Erwin Wilson
Preceded by
Pierre S. du Pont
President General Motors
1923 – 1937
Succeeded by
William S. Knudsen

General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... Charles Erwin Wilson (July 18, 1890 - September 26, 1961), American businessman and politician, was United States Secretary of Defense from 1953 to 1957 under President Eisenhower. ... Pierre Samuel du Pont (1870-1954) was president of the DuPont company from 1915 to 1919, and served on its Board of Directors until 1940. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... William S. Knudsen, March 25, 1879-April, 27, 1948, was a leading automobile industry executive and a general in the U.S. Army. ...

Criticism

In 2005, Sloan's work at GM has come under criticism for creating a complicated accounting system that has been placed upon American manufacturers that prevents the implementation of lean manufacturing methods thus leading to companies which cannot compete effectively with non-Sloan companies such as Toyota. In a nutshell, the criticism is that by using Sloan's methods a company will value inventory just the same as cash and thus there is no penalty for building up inventory. However, carrying excessive inventory is detrimental to a company's operation and induces significant hidden costs. (Waddell & Bodek 2005) Lean manufacturing is the production of goods using less of everything compared to mass production: less human effort, less manufacturing space, less investment in tools, and less engineering time to develop a new product. ... Toyota Motor Corporation ) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently is the worlds largest automaker. ...


Another factor is that Sloan considered people on the shop floor to be expendable as a variable cost item to manufacturing. This view is the opposite of how Toyota views employees. Toyota looks to shop floor employees as their main source of cost savings and productivity improvements. (Waddell & Bodek 2005) Toyota Motor Corporation ) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently is the worlds largest automaker. ...


Some critics claim that Sloan was also instrumental in the demise of public city transport throughout the United States; see General Motors streetcar conspiracy for details. The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States, dismantled and replaced them with buses for the express...


GM was found guilty of violating anti-trust laws and fined $5,000 and each executive was ordered to pay a fine of $1


Philanthropy

The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation is a philanthropic non-profit organization in the United States. It was established in 1934 by Alfred P. Sloan, Jr., then-President and Chief Executive Officer of General Motors. The Foundation's programs and interests fall into the areas of science and technology, standard of living, economic performance, and education and careers in science and technology. The total assets of the Sloan Foundation have a market value of about $1.8 billion. The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, a philanthropic nonprofit institution in the United States, was established in 1934 by Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. ... Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Chief Executive redirects here. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


The Sloan Foundation bankrolled the 1956 Warner Bros. cartoon Yankee Dood It, which promotes mass production. A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “WB” redirects here. ... Yankee Dood It is a Looney Tunes cartoon episode from first shown in threatrical release October 13, 1956. ...


Quotes

  • "The business of business is business."
  • "A car for every purse and purpose." (Sloan 1963, p. 438)
  • "I am sure we all realize that this struggle that is going on though the World is really nothing more or less than a conflict between two opposing technocracies manifesting itself to the capitalization of economic resources and products and all that sort of thing." - May 1941
  • "It seems clear that the Allies are outclassed on mechanical equipment, and it is foolish to talk about modernizing their Armies in times like these, they ought to have thought of that five years ago. There is no excuse for them not thinking of that except for the unintelligent, in fact, stupid, narrow-minded and selfish leadership which the democracies of the world are cursed with… But when some other system develops stronger leadership, works hard and long, and intelligently and aggressively - which are good traits - and, superimposed upon that, develops the instinct of a racketeer, there is nothing for the democracies to do but fold up. And that is about what it looks as if they are going to do." - June 1940

See also

The Alfred P. Sloan Prize is an award given each year, starting in 2003, to a film at the Sundance Film Festival. ... The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, a philanthropic nonprofit institution in the United States, was established in 1934 by Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. ... The Sundance Film Festival is a film festival in the state of Utah in the United States. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...

Further reading

  • McDonald, John. A Ghost’s Memoir: The Making of Alfred P. Sloan’s 'My Years with General Motors'. MIT Press, 2003, ISBN 0262632853 online review; McDonald was the ghost-writer and Alfred D. Chandler was the researcher
  • Christopher D.McKenna, "Writing the ghost-writer back in: Alfred Sloan, Alfred Chandler, John McDonald and the intellectual origins of corporate strategy" Management and Organizational History 2006, Vol 1(2): 107–126
  • Pelfrey, William. Billy, Alfred and General Motors. Amacom Publishing, 2006.
  • Waddell, William H.; Bodek, Norman [2005]. Rebirth of American Industry - A Study of Lean Management. ISBN 0-9712436-3-8. 
  • Dobbs, Michael. "Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged Nazi Collaboration." Washington Post. November 30, 1998.[2]
  • Black, Edwin. "Hitler's carmaker". Jerusalem Post. Dec. 6, 2006. [3]
  • Sloan, Alfred P. "My Years at General Motors" New York: Doubleday, 1964.

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. ...

References

  1. ^ a b "Alfred P. Sloan Jr. Dead at 90; G.M. Leader and Philanthropist; Alfred P. Sloan Jr., Leader of General Motors, Is Dead at 90", New York Times, February 18, 1966. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "Alfred P. Sloan Jr., who shaped the General Motors Corporation into one of the world's largest manufacturing enterprises, died of a heart attack yesterday afternoon at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center here. He was 90 years old." 

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, whose total assets had a market value of over $1.5 billion in 2005
  • Review of Klein and Olson's film Taken for a Ride
  • Contribution of Alfred P. Sloan to changes in rapid transit systems
  • Extract from Bradford C. Snell, American Ground Transport: A Proposal for Restructuring the Automobile, Truck, Bus and Rail Industries. Report presented to the Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, United States Senate, February 26, 1974, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1974, pp. 16-24.
  • Hitler's Carmaker: The inside story of how General Motors helped mobilize the Third Reich
  • Find Law
  • Taken for a Ride

 
 

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