Western Philosophy 19th-century philosophy 20th-century philosophy |
| Name In the 18th century the philosophies of The Enlightenment would begin to have dramatic effect, and the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau would have an electrifying effect on a new generation of thinkers. ...
It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ...
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| | Birth | February 15, 1861(1861-02-15) is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...
Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...
| Death | December 30, 1947 (aged 86) is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...
Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...
| School/tradition | Metaphysics | Influences | Kant, Hegel, Bergson Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ...
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...
Henri Bergson Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859 _ January 4, 1941) was a French philosopher, influential in France, but out of the main currents of his time. ...
| **Alfred North Whitehead**, OM (February 15, 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. He wrote on algebra, logic, foundations of mathematics, philosophy of science, physics, metaphysics, and education. With Bertrand Russell, he coauthored the epochal *Principia Mathematica*. The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ...
is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...
Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...
See also Ramsgate (disambiguation) for other places with this name. ...
For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ...
For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...
is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...
Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government - Type Mayor-City Council - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area - Total 7. ...
For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...
Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ...
A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ...
This article is about the branch of mathematics. ...
Logic (from Classical Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...
Foundations of mathematics is a term sometimes used for certain fields of mathematics itself, namely for mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, proof theory, model theory, and recursion theory. ...
Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ...
A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...
Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ...
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 â€“ 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...
The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910-1913. ...
## Life
Although his grandfather, Thomas Whitehead, was known for having founded Chatham House Academy, a fairly successful school for boys, Alfred North was educated at Sherborne School, Dorset, then considered one of the best public schools in the country. His childhood was described as over-protected, but when at school he excelled in sports, mathematics and was head prefect of his class. Chatham House, also known as the Royal Institute of International Affairs is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs. ...
Sherborne School is an English public school for boys in the town of Sherborne in north-west Dorset, England. ...
Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ...
The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...
Between 1880 and 1910, Whitehead studied, taught, and wrote mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge, spending the 1890s writing his *Treatise on Universal Algebra* (1898) and the 1900s collaborating with his former pupil, Russell, on the first edition of *Principia Mathematica*. On Whitehead the mathematician and logician, see Grattan-Guinness (2000, 2002), and Quine's chapter in Schilpp (1941), reprinted in Quine (1995). Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names Kingâ€™s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street...
The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...
The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910-1913. ...
Whitehead married Evelyn Wade, an Irish woman from France, in 1891; they had a daughter and two sons. One son died in action while serving in the Royal Flying Corps during World War I. Meanwhile, Russell spent much of 1918 in prison because of his pacifist activities. Although Whitehead visited his co-author in prison, he did not take his pacifism seriously, while Russell sneered at Whitehead's later speculative Platonism and panpsychism. After the war, Russell and Whitehead seldom interacted, and Whitehead contributed nothing to the 1925 second edition of *Principia Mathematica*. The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. // Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ...
â€œThe Great War â€ redirects here. ...
Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ...
Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ...
Panpsychism, in philosophy, is either the view that all parts of matter involve mind, or the more holistic view that the whole universe is an organism that possesses a mind. ...
The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910-1913. ...
Whitehead was always interested in theology, especially in the 1890s. This may be explained by the fact that his family was firmly anchored in the Church of England: his father and uncles were vicars, while his brother would become bishop of Madras. Perhaps influenced by his wife and the writings of Cardinal Newman, Whitehead leaned towards Roman Catholicism. Prior to the Great War, he considered himself an agnostic. Later he returned to religion, without formally joining any church. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...
The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...
Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ...
John Henry Newman John Henry Newman (February 21, 1801—August 11, 1890), English cardinal, was born in London, the eldest son of John Newman, banker, of the firm of Ramsbottom, Newman and Co. ...
The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...
Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...
Concomitantly, Whitehead developed a keen interest in physics: his fellowship dissertation examined James Clerk Maxwell's views on electricity and magnetism. His attitudes towards mathematics and physics were more philosophical than purely scientific; he was more concerned about their scope and nature, rather than about particular tenets and paradigms. Without much prospect of ever attaining a professorship in mathematics, Whitehead left Cambridge just as the first volume of the *Principia* appeared. The pretext for leaving the *alma mater* was his protest at the dismissal of a Trinity College colleague because of an adulterous affair. James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 â€“ 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist from Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. His most significant achievement was aggregating a set of equations in electricity, magnetism and inductance â€” eponymously named Maxwells equations â€” including an important modification (extension) of the AmpÃ¨res...
Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...
For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ...
He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1922 to 1923. The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy (more generally known as the Aristotelian Society) was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880[1] which resolved to constitute a society of about twenty and to include ladies; the society to meet fortnightly, on Mondays at 8 oclock...
The period between 1910 and 1924 was mostly spent at University College London and Imperial College London, where he taught and wrote on physics, the philosophy of science, and the theory and practice of education. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society since 1903 and was elected to the British Academy in 1931. In physics, Whitehead articulated a rival doctrine to Einstein's general relativity. His theory of gravitation is now discredited because its predicted variability of the gravitational constant **G** disagrees with experimental findings.[1]. A more lasting work was his *Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge* (1919), a pioneering attempt to synthetize the philosophical underpinnings of physics; the text proved too hermetic to influence professional physicists, however. Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ...
Affiliations Russell Group Association of MBAs IDEA League Association of Commonwealth Universities Golden Triangle Oak Ridge Associated Universities Nobel laureates 14 Website http://www. ...
A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...
â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ...
For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ...
In theoretical physics, Whiteheads theory of gravitation was introduced by the distinguished mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead in 1922. ...
According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ...
Whitehead's address *The Aims of Education* (1916) pointedly criticized the formalistic approach of modern British teachers who do not care about culture and self-education of their disciples: "Culture is activity of thought, and receptiveness to beauty and humane feeling. Scraps of information have nothing to do with it." He was sixty-three when Henry Osborn Taylor invited him to implement his ideas and teach philosophy at Harvard University. This was a subject he had not previously taught, but was always interested in. The Whiteheads spent the rest of their life in the United States. The aged philosopher did not retire from Harvard until 1937. After his death ten years later, there was no funeral, as his body was cremated. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...
Harvard redirects here. ...
Despite abstruse mathematical and metaphysical questions associated with his name, Whitehead had wise and witty opinions about a vast range of human endeavour. These opinions pepper the many essays and speeches he gave on various topics between 1915 and his death (1917, 1925a, 1927, 1929a, 1929b, 1933, 1938). His Harvard lectures (1924-37) are studded with quotations from his favourite poets, Wordsworth and Shelley. Most Sunday afternoons when they were in Cambridge, the Whiteheads hosted an open house to which all Harvard students were welcome, and during which talk flowed freely. Some of the *obiter dicta* Whitehead spoke on these occasions were recorded by Lucien Price, a Boston journalist, who published them in 1954. That book also includes a remarkable picture of Whitehead as the aged sage holding court. It was at one of these open houses that the young Harvard student B.F. Skinner credits a discussion with Whitehead as providing the inspiration for his work Verbal Behavior in which language is analyzed from a Behaviorist perspective.^{[1]} Wordsworth redirects here. ...
Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 â€“ July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ...
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ...
Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on language. ...
The standard biography is mainly by his Harvard student Victor Lowe; see Lowe (1985) and Lowe and Schneewind (1990). A comprehensive appraisal of Whitehead's work is difficult because (unlike his colleague Russell) Whitehead left no Nachlass; his family carried out his instructions that all of his papers be destroyed after his death. There is also no critical edition of Whitehead's writings. A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of the literary estate of an author who has died. ...
## Process philosophy The genesis of Whitehead's process philosophy may be attributable to the shocking collapse of the Newtonian physics that he had witnessed. His metaphysical views began to emerge in his 1920 *The Concept of Nature* and were fully framed in the 1925 treatise *Science and the Modern World*, also an important study in the history of ideas, and the role of science and mathematics in the rise of Western civilization. Though indebted to Henri Bergson's philosophy of change, Whitehead was also a Platonist who "saw the definite character of events as due to the "ingression" of timeless entities"^{[2]}. Process philosophy identifies metaphysical reality with change and dynamism. ...
The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ...
For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...
Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859â€“January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ...
Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ...
In 1927, Whitehead was asked to give the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh. These were published in 1929 as *Process and Reality*, the book that founded process philosophy, a major contribution to Western metaphysics. Able exponents of process philosophy include Charles Hartshorne and Nicholas Rescher. The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ...
The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...
Process and Reality (1929) is Alfred North Whiteheads opus explicating the Philosophy of Organism, a philosophy of subjectivity as process itself. ...
Process philosophy identifies metaphysical reality with change and dynamism. ...
Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ...
Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 â€“ October 9, 2000) was a prominent philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics. ...
Nicholas Rescher (born July 15, 1928 in Hagen, Germany) is an American philosopher, affiliated for many years with the University of Pittsburgh, where he is currently University Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Center for the Philosophy of Science. ...
*Process and Reality* is famous for its defense of theism, although Whitehead's God differs essentially from the revealed God of Abrahamic religion. Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism gave rise to process theology, thanks to Hartshorne, John B. Cobb, Jr, and David Ray Griffin. Some Christians and Jews find process theology a fruitful way of understanding God and the universe. Just as the entire universe is in constant flow and change, God, as source of the universe, is viewed as growing and changing. ^{[3]} Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ...
Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions â€“ Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions â€“ Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] â€“ which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham ×Ö·×‘Ö°×¨Ö¸×”Ö¸× ; Arabic: Ibrahim Ø§Ø¨Ø±Ø§Ù‡ÙŠÙ… ) as a part of their sacred history. ...
Philosophy of Organism is Alfred North Whiteheads ism. Also called Organic Realism. ...
Process theology (also known as neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861â€“1947). ...
John B. Cobb, Jr. ...
David Ray Griffin (born 1939) is a retired professor of philosophy of religion and theology and a proponent of an alternative 9/11 theory that implicates members of the United States government as being involved in the attacks. ...
This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...
This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...
For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ...
The main tenets of Whitehead's metaphysics were summarized in his last and most accessible work, *The Adventures of Ideas* (1933), which also provides definitions of beauty, truth, art, adventure, and peace. He believed that "there are no whole truths; all truths are half-truths. It is trying to treat them as whole truths that plays the devil." Whitehead's political views sometimes appear to be libertarianism without the label. He wrote: "Now the intercourse between individuals and between social groups takes one of two forms, force or persuasion. Commerce is the great example of intercourse by way of persuasion. War, slavery, and governmental compulsion exemplify the reign of force." On the other hand, many Whitehead scholars read his work as providing a philosophical foundation for the social liberalism of the New Liberal movement that was prominent throughout Whitehead's adult life. Randall C. Morris claims that "...there is good reason for claiming that Whitehead shared the social and political ideals of the new liberals."^{[4]} This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ...
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...
Slave redirects here. ...
Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ...
A signal technical feature of *Process and Reality* is its philosophical use of mereological and topological notions. Bowman Clarke argued in the 1980s that the mereotopology of *Process and Reality* was seriously flawed, and showed how it could be repaired. Simons (1987) contains an accessible review of Clarke's work. The work of Clarke was criticized in Biacino and Gerla (1991) where one proves that in a model of Clarke's system of axioms the connection relation coincides with the overlapping relation. This is very far from Whitehead's ideas. Mereology is a collection of axiomatic formal systems dealing with parts and their respective wholes. ...
A MÃ¶bius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ...
Mereotopology is a formal theory, combining mereology and topology, of the topological relationships among wholes, parts, and the boundaries between parts. ...
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: **Alfred North Whitehead** Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...
Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...
## Notes **^** Skinner, B.F. 1957 Verbal Behavior, appendix **^** Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006 **^** Whitehead's rejection of mind-body dualism is similar to elements in faith traditions such as Buddhism. **^** (Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 51, No. 1., pp. 75-92. (p.92)) ...
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A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...
## See also In point-free geometry the notion of point is not assumed as a primitive and it is substituted with the more concrete notion of region. ...
The Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness, originally coined by philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, involves thinking something is a concrete reality when in fact it is merely a belief, opinion or concept about the way things are. ...
Panpsychism is the belief that mind, or consciousness, is omnipresent throughout the universe and is a fundamental aspect of the universe. ...
## Bibliography ### Works by Whitehead - 1898.
*A Treatise on Universal Algebra with Applications*. Cambridge Uni. Press. 1960 reprint, Hafner. - 1911.
*An Introduction to Mathematics*. Oxford Univ. Press. 1990 paperback, ISBN 0-19-500211-3. Vol. 56 of the *Great Books of the Western World* series. - 1917.
*The Organization of Thought Educational and Scientific*. Lippincott. - 1920.
*The Concept of Nature*. Cambridge Uni. Press. 2004 paperback, Prometheus Books, ISBN 1-59102-214-2. Being the 1919 Tarner Lectures delivered at Trinity College. - 1922.
*The Principle of Relativity with Applications to Physical Science*. Cambridge Uni. Press. - 1925 (1910-13), with Bertrand Russell.
*Principia Mathematica*, in 3 vols. Cambridge Uni. Press. Vol. 1 to *56 is available as a CUP paperback. - 1925a.
*Science and the Modern World*. 1997 paperback, Free Press (Simon & Schuster), ISBN 0-684-83639-4. Vol. 55 of the *Great Books of the Western World* series. - 1925b (1919).
*An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge*. Cambridge Uni. Press. - 1926.
*Religion in the Making*. 1974, New American Library. 1996, with introduction by Judith A. Jones, Fordham Univ. Press. - 1927.
*Symbolism, Its Meaning and Effect*. The 1927 Barbour-Page Lectures, given at the University of Virginia. 1985 paperback, Fordham University Press. - 1929.
*Process and Reality: An Essay in Cosmology*. 1979 corrected edition, edited by David Ray Griffin and Donald W. Sherburne, Free Press. (Part V. Final Interpretation) - 1929a.
*The Aims of Education and Other Essays*. 1985 paperback, Free Press, ISBN 0-02-935180-4. - 1929b.
*Function of Reason*. 1971 paperback, Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-1573-3. - 1933.
*Adventures of Ideas*. 1967 paperback, Free Press, ISBN 0-02-935170-7. - 1934.
*Nature and Life*. University of Chicago Press. - 1938.
*Modes of Thought*. 1968 paperback, Free Press, ISBN 0-02-935210-X. - 1947.
*Essays in Science and Philosophy*. Runes, Dagobert, ed. Philosophical Library. - 1947.
*The Wit and Wisdom of Whitehead*. Beacon Press. - 1951. "Mathematics and the Good" in Schilpp, P. A., ed., 1951.
*The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead*, 2nd. ed. New York, Tudor Publishing Company: 666-81. Also printed in: - in
*The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead*, 1941, P. A. Schilpp, Ed.; - in
*Science & Philosophy*; Philosophical Library, 1948. - 1953.
*A. N. Whitehead: An Anthology*. Northrop, F.S.C., and Gross, M.W., eds. Cambridge Univ. Press. - Price, Lucien, 1954.
*Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead*, with Introduction by Sir Ross David. Reprinted 1977, Greenwood Press Reprint, ISBN 0-8371-9341-9, and 2001 with Foreword by Caldwell Titcomb, David R. Godine Publisher, ISBN 1-56792-129-9. The Great Books Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica Inc. ...
The Tarner lectures are a series of public lectures in the philosophy of science given at Trinity College, Cambridge since 1916. ...
Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names Kingâ€™s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street...
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 â€“ 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...
The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910-1913. ...
The Great Books Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica Inc. ...
Process and Reality (1929) is Alfred North Whiteheads opus explicating the Philosophy of Organism, a philosophy of subjectivity as process itself. ...
### Works about Whitehead and his thought - Biacino L., Gerla G., 1991. "Connection structures",
*Notre Dame J. of Formal Logic*, 32 242-247. - Browning, Douglas and Myers, William T., eds., 1998.
*Philosophers of Process*. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 0-8232-1879-1, contains some primary texts including: - "Critique of Scientific Materialism"
- "Process"
- "Fact and Form"
- "Objects and Subjects"
- "The Grouping of Occasions"
- Durand G., 2007. "Des événements aux objets. La méthode de l'abstraction extensive chez A. N. Whitehead". Ontos Verlag.
- Ivor Grattan-Guinness, 2000.
*The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870-1940*. Princeton Uni. Press. - ------, 2002, "Algebras, Projective Geometry, Mathematical Logic, and Constructing the World: Intersections in the Philosophy of Mathematics of A. N. Whitehead,"
*Historia Mathematica 29*: 427-62. Many references. - Charles Hartshorne, 1972.
*Whitehead's Philosophy: Selected Essays, 1935-1970*. University of Nebraska Press - Kneebone, G., 2001, (1963).
*Mathematical Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics*. Dover reprint: ISBN 0-486-41712-3. The final chapter is a lucid introduction to some of the ideas in Whitehead (1919, 1925b, 1929). - LeClerc, Ivor, ed., 1961.
*The Relevance of Whitehead*. Allen & Unwin. - Lowe, Victor, 1962.
*Understanding Whitehead*. Johns Hopkins Uni. Press. - ------, 1985.
*A. N. Whitehead: The Man and His Work*, Vol. 1. Johns Hopkins U. Press. - Lowe and Schneewind, J. B., 1990.
*A. N. Whitehead: The Man and His Work*, Vol. 2. Johns Hopkins U. Press. - Richard Milton Martin, 1974.
*Whitehead's Categorial Scheme and Other Essays*. Martinus Nijhoff. - Mays, Wolfgang, 1959.
*The Philosophy of Whitehead*. Allen & Unwin. - ------, 1977.
*Whitehead's Philosophy of Science and Metaphysics: An Introduction to his Thought*. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. - Nobo, Jorge L., 1986.
*Whitehead's Metaphysics of Extension and Solidarity*. SUNY Press. - Willard Quine, 1941, "Whitehead and the rise of modern logic" in Schilpp (1941). Reprinted in his 1995
*Selected Logic Papers*. Harvard Uni. Press. - Nicholas Rescher, 1995.
*Process Metaphysics*. SUNY Press. - ------, 2001.
*Process Philosophy: A Survey of Basic Issues*. Univ. of Pittsburg Press. - Schilpp, Paul A., ed., 1941.
*The Philosophy of A. N. Whitehead* (The Library of Living Philosophers). New York: Tudor. - Simons, Peter, 1987.
*Parts*. Oxford Uni. Press. - Weber, Michel, 2006. Whitehead’s Pancreativism–The Basics. Ontos Verlag
- Will, Clifford, 1993.
*Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics*. Cambridge University Press. Ivor Grattan-Guinness (Born 23 June 1941, in Bakewell, England) is a prolific historian of mathematics and logic, at Middlesex University. ...
Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 â€“ October 9, 2000) was a prominent philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics. ...
Richard Milton Martin (1916-11. ...
W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 - December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ...
Nicholas Rescher (born July 15, 1928 in Hagen, Germany) is an American philosopher, affiliated for many years with the University of Pittsburgh, where he is currently University Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Center for the Philosophy of Science. ...
## External links Logic | Main articles | Reason · History of logic · Philosophical logic · Philosophy of logic · Mathematical logic · Metalogic · Logic in computer science The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ...
The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...
The Claremont School of Theology is a graduate school located in Claremont, California, offering Master of Art, Masters of Divinity, Doctorate of Ministry and Ph. ...
Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 â€“ October 9, 2000) was a prominent philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics. ...
Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...
John Lighton Synge (March 23, 1897â€“March 30, 1995) was an Irish mathematician and physicist. ...
Image File history File links Portal. ...
Logic (from Classical Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...
For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...
The history of logic documents the development of logic as it occurs in various rival cultures and traditions in history. ...
Philosophical logic is the application of formal logical techniques to problems that concern philosophers. ...
Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ...
Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ...
The metalogic of a system of logic is the formal proof supporting its soundness. ...
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...
| Key concepts and logics | Reasoning | Deduction · Induction · Abduction Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ...
Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning where the conclusion is necessitated or implied by previously known premises. ...
Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ...
Abduction, or inference to the best explanation, is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis that would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. ...
| Informal | Proposition · Inference · Argument · Validity · Cogency · Term logic · Critical thinking · Fallacies · Syllogism Informal logic is the study of arguments as presented in ordinary language, as contrasted with the presentations of arguments in an artificial (technical) or formal language (see formal logic). ...
This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ...
Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ...
In logic, an argument is a set of statements, consisting of a number of premises, a number of inferences, and a conclusion, which is said to have the following property: if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true or highly likely to be true. ...
In logic, the form of an argument is valid precisely if it cannot lead from true premises to a false conclusion. ...
An argument is cogent if and only if the truth of the arguments premises would render the truth of the conclusion probable (i. ...
Traditional logic, also known as term logic, is a loose term for the logical tradition that originated with Aristotle and survived broadly unchanged until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. ...
are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ...
Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
A syllogism (Greek: â€” conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ...
| Mathematical | Set · Syntax · Semantics · Wff · Axiom · Theorem · Consistency · Soundness · Completeness · Decidability · Formal system · Set theory · Proof theory · Model theory · Recursion theory Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ...
In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ...
Syntax in logic is a systematic statement of the rules governing the properly formed formulas (WFFs) of a logical system. ...
The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so conscientious logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. ...
In logic, WFF is an abbreviation for well-formed formula. ...
This article is about a logical statement. ...
Look up theorem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
In mathematical logic, a formal system is consistent if it does not contain a contradiction, or, more precisely, for no proposition Ï† are both Ï† and Â¬Ï† provable. ...
(This article discusses the soundess notion of informal logic. ...
In mathematical logic, a theory is complete, if it contains either or as a theorem for every sentence in its language. ...
A logical system or theory is decidable if the set of all well-formed formulas valid in the system is decidable. ...
In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ...
Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ...
Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ...
In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ...
Recursion theory, or computability theory, is a branch of mathematical logic dealing with generalizations of the notion of computable function, and with related notions such as Turing degrees and effective descriptive set theory. ...
| Zeroth-order | Boolean functions · Monadic predicate calculus · Propositional calculus · Logical connectives · Truth tables Zeroth-order logic is a term in popular use among practitioners for the subject matter otherwise known as boolean functions, monadic predicate logic, propositional calculus, or sentential calculus. ...
A Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. ...
In logic, the monadic predicate calculus is the fragment of predicate calculus in which all predicate letters are monadic (that is, they take only one argument), and there are no function letters. ...
In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus (or a sentential calculus) is a formal system in which formulas representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows to establish that certain formulas are theorems of the formal system. ...
In logic, a logical connective is a syntactic operation on sentences, or the symbol for such an operation, that corresponds to a logical operation on the logical values of those sentences. ...
Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ...
| Predicate | First-order · Quantifiers · Second-order ...
First-order logic (FOL) is a formal deductive system used by mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, and computer scientists. ...
In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ...
In mathematical logic, second-order logic is an extension of first-order logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. ...
| Modal | Deontic · Epistemic · Temporal · Doxastic In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ...
Deontic logic is the field of logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts. ...
Michaels the greatest boyfriend in the whole wide world, and Id love to call him in a phonebooth sometime. ...
In logic, the term temporal logic is used to describe any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time. ...
doxastic logic is a modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about beliefs. ...
| Other non-classical | Computability · Fuzzy · Linear · Relevance · Non-monotonic Classical logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used. ...
Introduced by Giorgi Japaridze in 2003, Computability logic is a research programme and mathematical framework for redeveloping logic as a systematic formal theory of computability, as opposed to classical logic which is a formal theory of truth. ...
Fuzzy logic is derived from fuzzy set theory dealing with reasoning that is approximate rather than precisely deduced from classical predicate logic. ...
In mathematical logic, linear logic is a type of substructural logic that denies the structural rules of weakening and contraction. ...
Relevance logic, also called relevant logic, is any of a family of non-classical substructural logics that impose certain restrictions on implication. ...
A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. ...
| | Controversies | Paraconsistent logic · Dialetheism · Intuitionistic logic · Paradoxes · Antinomies · Is logic empirical? A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal nontrivially with contradictions. ...
Dialetheism is a paraconsistent logic typified by its tolerance of at least some contradictions. ...
Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the logic used in mathematical intuitionism and other forms of mathematical constructivism. ...
Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Antinomy (Greek anti-, against, plus nomos, law) is a term used in logic and epistemology, which, loosely, means a paradox or unresolvable contradiction. ...
Is logic empirical? is the title of two articles that discuss the idea that the algebraic properties of logic may, or should, be empirically determined; in particular, they deal with the question of whether empirical facts about quantum phenomena may provide grounds for revising classical logic as a consistent logical...
| Key figures | Aristotle · Boole · Cantor · Carnap · Church · Frege · Gentzen · Gödel · Hilbert · Kripke · Peano · Peirce · Putnam · Quine · Russell · Skolem · Tarski · Turing · **Whitehead** For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...
Not to be confused with George Boolos. ...
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3, 1845[1] â€“ January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. ...
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany â€“ September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ...
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Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar â€“ 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ...
Gerhard Karl Erich Gentzen (November 24, 1909 â€“ August 4, 1945) was a German mathematician and logician. ...
Kurt GÃ¶del (IPA: ) (April 28, 1906 BrÃ¼nn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic) â€“ January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was an Austrian American mathematician and philosopher. ...
| name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ...
Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American philosopher and logician now emeritus from Princeton and teaches as distinguished professor of philosophy at CUNY Graduate Center. ...
Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano (August 27, 1858 â€“ April 20, 1932) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher best known for his contributions to set theory. ...
Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pÉs/), (September 10, 1839 â€“ April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...
Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher who has been a central figure in Western philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. ...
For people named Quine, see Quine (surname). ...
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 â€“ 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...
Albert Thoralf Skolem (May 23, 1887 - March 23, 1963) was a Norwegian mathematician. ...
// Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1902, Warsaw, Russian-ruled Poland â€“ October 26, 1983, Berkeley, California) was a logician and mathematician who spent four decades as a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley. ...
Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 â€“ 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ...
| Lists | Topics (basic • mathematical logic • basic discrete mathematics • set theory) · Logicians · Rules of inference · Paradoxes · Fallacies · Logic symbols This is a list of topics in logic. ...
For a more comprehensive list, see the List of logic topics. ...
This is a list of mathematical logic topics, by Wikipedia page. ...
This is a list of basic discrete mathematics topics, by Wikipedia page. ...
Set theory Axiomatic set theory Naive set theory Zermelo set theory Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory Kripke-Platek set theory with urelements Simple theorems in the algebra of sets Axiom of choice Zorns lemma Empty set Cardinality Cardinal number Aleph number Aleph null Aleph one Beth number Ordinal number Well...
A logician is a person, such as a philosopher or mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ...
This is a list of rules of inference. ...
This is a list of paradoxes, grouped thematically. ...
This is a list of fallacies. ...
In logic, a set of symbols is frequently used to express logical constructs. ...
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