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Encyclopedia > Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel

Born October 21, 1833
Stockholm, Sweden
Died December 10, 1896
Sanremo, Italy
Occupation Chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite.

Alfred Bernhard Nobel  (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, SwedenDecember 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. He owned Bofors, a major armaments manufacturer, which he had redirected from its previous role as an iron and steel mill. In his last will, he used his enormous fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes. The synthetic element Nobelium was named after him. Alfred Nobel This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Imperia (IM) Mayor Claudio Borea Elevation 15 m Area 54 km² Population  - Total (as of 2004) 56,903  - Density 936/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Sanremesi or Sanremaschi Dialing code 0184 Postal code 18038 Frazioni San Romolo, Poggio, Bussana, Bussana Vecchia, Coldirodi... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ... Image File history File links Sv-Alfred Nobel. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Imperia (IM) Mayor Claudio Borea Elevation 15 m Area 54 km² Population  - Total (as of 2004) 56,903  - Density 936/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Sanremesi or Sanremaschi Dialing code 0184 Postal code 18038 Frazioni San Romolo, Poggio, Bussana, Bussana Vecchia, Coldirodi... An inventor is a person who creates new inventions, typically technical devices such as mechanical, electrical or software devices or methods. ... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ... Bofors is an iron works, cannon maker, and defence industry located in Karlskoga, Sweden. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... The chemical elements labelled as synthetic are unstable, with a half-life so short (ranging from a fraction of millisecond to a few million years) relative to the age of the Earth that any atoms of that element that may have been present when the Earth formed have long since... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting...

Contents

Personal background

Nobel, a descendant of the 17th century scientist, Olaus Rudbeck (1630-1708), was the third son of Immanuel Nobel (1801-1872). Born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833, he went with his family in 1842 to St. Petersburg, where his father (who had invented modern plywood) started a "torpedo" works. In 1859 this was left to the care of the second son, Ludvig Nobel (1831-1888), by whom it was greatly enlarged, and Alfred, returning to America with his family and his father after the bankruptcy of their family business, devoted himself to the study of explosives, and especially to the safe manufacture and use of nitroglycerine (discovered in 1847 by Ascanio Sobrero, one of his fellow-students under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Torino). Several explosions were reported at their family-owned factory in Heleneborg, and a disastrous one in 1864 killed Alfred's younger brother Emil and several other workers. Olaus Rudbeckius Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (1630-1702), Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university. ... Immanuel Nobel ( 1801- 1872), Swedish engineer, architect, inventor and industrialist. ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Toy constructed from plywood. ... A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy ships or submarines. ... Ludvig Nobel Ludvig Nobel (1831-1888) was Alfred Nobels second oldest brother. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Nitroglycerin (also nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, or glyceryl trinitrate) is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... Ascanio Sobrero (1812-1888) was an Italian chemist who discovered nitroglycerin in 1847 while working under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Torino, who had worked with the explosive material guncotton. ... Théophile-Jules Pelouze (also known as Jules Pelouze, Théophile Pelouze, Theo Pelouze, or TJ Pelouze) was a French chemist. ... The University of Turin (Università degli Studi di Torino, UNITO) is the university of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy. ...


Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been honoring men and women from all corners of the globe for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and for work in peace. The foundations for the prize were laid in 1895 when Alfred Nobel wrote his last will, leaving much of his wealth to the establishment of the Nobel Prize.


Less well known is that Alfred Nobel also wrote a book. His only book, Nemesis, a prose tragedy in four acts about Beatrice Cenci, partly inspired by Percy Bysshe Shelley's blank verse tragedy in five acts The Cenci, was printed when he was dying, and the whole stock except for three copies was destroyed immediately after his death, being regarded as scandalous and blasphemous. The first surviving edition (bilingual Swedish-Esperanto) was published in Sweden in 2003. The play has been translated to Slovenian via the Esperanto version. Nemesis is a tragedy in four acts written by Alfred Nobel, the man behind the Nobel Prizes. ... The portrait associated with Beatrice Cenci attributed to Guido Reni that Shelley saw in Palazzo Colonna in 1818, sparking his interest Beatrice Cenci (February 6, 1577–August 22, 1599) was an Italian noblewoman. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... The Cenci was a verse drama by Percy Bysshe Shelley written in the summer of 1819, and inspired by a real Italian family, the Cencis (in particular, Beatrice Cenci). ... Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Alfred Nobel is buried in Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm. Norra begravningsplatsen Norra begravningsplatsen, translated as the Northern Burial Place but often referred to as the Northern Cemetery, is a major cemetery of Stockholm, Sweden in the area of the city known as Solna. ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ...


Dynamite

Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was incorporated in an absorbent inert substance like kieselguhr (diatomaceous earth) it became safer and more convenient to manipulate, and this mixture he patented in 1867 as dynamite. Nobel demonstrated his explosive for the first time that year, at a quarry in Redhill, Surrey, England. Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ... Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... A sample of diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous earth, also known as DE, diatomite, diahydro, kieselguhr, kieselgur, and Celite, is a naturally occurring, soft, chalk-like sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a person for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which is new, inventive, and... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ...


He next combined nitroglycerin with another explosive, gun-cotton, and obtained a transparent, jelly-like substance, which was a still more powerful explosive than dynamite. Gelignite, or Blasting gelatin as it was called, was patented in 1876, and was followed by a host of similar combinations, modified by the addition of potassium nitrate, and various other substances. Nitrocellulose (Cellulose nitrate, guncotton) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose (e. ... Gelignite, also known as Blasting gelatin, is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in nitroglycerine and mixed with wood pulp and sodium or potassium nitrate. ... Gelignite, also known as Blasting gelatin, is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in nitroglycerine and mixed with wood pulp and sodium or potassium nitrate. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


The Prizes

The erroneous publication in 1888 of a premature obituary of Nobel by a French newspaper, condemning his invention of dynamite, is said to have made him decide to leave a better legacy to the world after his death. The obituary stated Le marchand de la mort est mort ("The merchant of death is dead") and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday." On November 27, 1895 at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes, to be awarded annually without distinction of nationality. He died of a stroke on December 10, 1896 at Sanremo, Italy. The amount set aside for the Nobel Prize foundation was 31 million kronor (4,223,500.00 USD). Various notable people have had their death announced in error. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... -1... Nobel Prize medal. ... A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA),[1] is an acute neurologic injury in which the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Imperia (IM) Mayor Claudio Borea Elevation 15 m Area 54 km² Population  - Total (as of 2004) 56,903  - Density 936/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Sanremesi or Sanremaschi Dialing code 0184 Postal code 18038 Frazioni San Romolo, Poggio, Bussana, Bussana Vecchia, Coldirodi...


The first three of these prizes are for eminence in physical science, in chemistry and in medical science or physiology; the fourth is for the most remarkable literary work "in an ideal direction" and the fifth is to be given to the person or society that renders the greatest service to the cause of international brother/sisterhood, in the suppression or reduction of standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of peace congresses. Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The formulation about the literary prize, "in an ideal direction" (Swedish i idealisk riktning), is cryptic and has caused much consternation. For many years, the Swedish Academy interpreted "ideal" as "idealistic" (in Swedish idealistisk), and used it as a pretext to not give the prize to important but less romantic authors, such as Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg and Leo Tolstoy. This interpretation has been revised, and the prize given to, for example, Dario Fo and José Saramago, who definitely do not belong to the camp of literary idealism. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Photo of Henrik Ibsen in his older days Henrik Johan Ibsen (March 20, 1828 – May 23, 1906) was an influential Norwegian playwright who was largely responsible for the rise of the modern realistic drama (dubbed the father of modern drama). It is said that Ibsen is the most frequently performed... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9, 1828 [O.S. August 28] – November 20, 1910 [O.S. November 7]) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of... Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist playwright, theater director and actor, and composer. ... José Saramago (pron. ...


When reading Nemesis in its original Swedish and looking at his own philosophical and literary standpoint, it seems possible that his intention might have been rather the opposite of that first believed - that the prize should be given to authors who fight for their ideals against such authorities as God, Church and State.


There was also quite a lot of room for interpretation by the bodies he had named for deciding on the physical sciences and chemistry prizes, given that he had not consulted them before making the will. In his one-page testament he stipulated that the money should go to discoveries or inventions in the physical sciences and to discoveries or improvements in chemistry. He had opened the door to technological awards, but he had not left instructions on how to do the split between science and technology. Since the deciding bodies he had chosen in these domains were more concerned with science than technology it is not surprising that the prizes went to scientists and not to engineers, technicians or other inventors. In a sense the technological prizes announced recently by the World Technology Network are an indirect (and thus not funded by the Nobel foundation) continuation of the wishes of Nobel, as he set them out in his testament. The World Technology Network (WTN) is a global virtual think tank whose members are focused on the business or science of bringing important emerging technologies into reality. ...


In 2001, his great-grandnephew, Peter, asked the Bank of Sweden to differentiate its award to economists given "in Alfred Nobel's memory" from the five other awards. This has caused much controversy whether the prize for Economics is actually a "Nobel Prize" (see Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel). Face-to-face trading interactions among on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics, as a social science, studies the production, distribution, and consumption of commodities. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (in Swedish Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ...


Nobel Prize rumors

There is no Nobel Prize for mathematics (the Fields Medal is often considered to be the equivalent in terms of prestige). A common legend states that Nobel decided against a prize in mathematics because a woman - said to be either his fiancé, wife, or mistress - rejected him for or cheated on him with a famous mathematician, often claimed to be Gösta Mittag-Leffler. There is no historical evidence to support the story, and Nobel was never married. The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ... Magnus Gustaf (Gösta) Mittag-Leffler (16 March 1846–7 July 1927) was a Swedish mathematician. ...


References

  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Schück, H, and Sohlman, R., (1929). The Life of Alfred Nobel. London: William Heineman Ltd.
  • Alfred Nobel US Patent No 78,317, dated May 26, 1868

External links

  • Alfred Nobel - Man behind the Prizes
  • Biography at the Norwegian Nobel Institute
  • Nobelprize.org
  • A german branch or followup (germ.)
Nobel Prizes
ChemistryLiteraturePeacePhysicsPhysiology or Medicine
Prize in memory of Alfred Nobel: Economics


Nobel Prize medal. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel[1] (Swedish: Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, or more acurately the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual...

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Alfred Nobel

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alfred Nobel (531 words)
Alfred was the third son of Emmanuel Nobel[?] (1801-1872), born at Stockholm, but, at an early age he went with his family to St.
In 1859 this was left to the care of the second son, Ludvig Emmanuel[?] (1831-1888), by whom it was greatly enlarged, and Alfred, returning to Sweden with his father, devoted himself to the study of explosives, and especially to the manufacture and use of nitroglycerin.
Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was incorporated with an absorbent, inert substance like kieselguhr[?] it became safer and more convenient to manipulate, and this mixture he patented in 1867 as dynamite.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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