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Encyclopedia > Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner
Lord Milner.
Lord Milner.

Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, KG, GCB, GCMG, PC (March 23, 1854May 13, 1925) was a controversial German-born British statesman and colonial administrator. He was noted for Milner's Kindergarten, a group of young men he mentored and who in some cases became important figures in running the British Empire and for his key influence on South African history, through the ruthless pursuit of British hegemony. Image File history File links This image was found at pinetreeweb. ... Image File history File links This image was found at pinetreeweb. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Milners Kindergarten is an informal reference to a group of Britons who served in the South African Civil Service under High Commissioner Alfred, Lord Milner, between the Second Boer War and the founding of the Union of South Africa. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Contents

Early life and education

He was born in Gießen, Hesse-Darmstadt (now part of west-central Germany), the only son of Charles Milner, M.D., whose wife was a daughter of Major-General John Ready, former Lieutenant-Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man. theatre in Giessen Architecture in Giessen Giessen (German spelling Gießen) is a city in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of both the Giessen district and the Giessen Administrative Region. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... John Ready (1777 - July 17, 1845) was a British army officer, who served as Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island from 1824 to 1831 and also as Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man from 1832 to 1845. ... A Lieutenant Governor or Lieutenant-Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


His paternal grandfather, an Englishman, settled in Germany and married a German woman. Their son, Charles Milner, practiced as a physician in London and later became Reader in English at Tübingen University. Alfred Milner was educated first at Tübingen, then at King's College London and under Jowett as a scholar of Balliol College, Oxford from 1872 to 1876. He graduated in 1877 with a first class in classics, having won the Hertford, Craven, Eldon and Derby scholarships and was elected to a fellowship of New College. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... In the academic hierarchy in the United Kingdom and some universities in Australia and New Zealand, Reader is the rank between senior lecturer (or principal lecturer in the New Universities) and professor. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A view from the campus Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, sometimes quotes as Eberhardina) is a public university located on the Neckar river, in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Kings College London is the largest college of the University of London and one of a number of university institutions founded in England in the early 19th century: only the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge have royal charters predating that of Kings. ... Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ... College name Balliol College Named after John de Balliol Established 1263 Sister College St Johns Master Andrew Graham JCR President Jack Hawkins Undergraduates 403 MCR President Chelsea Payne Graduates 228 Homepage Boatclub Balliol College, founded in 1263, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in... The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading scheme for undergraduate degrees (bachelors degrees and some masters degrees) in the United Kingdom. ... Hertford (Hartford or, in local pronunciation, /[h]ɑːʔֽfÉ™d/) is the county town of Hertfordshire, England, and is in the East Hertfordshire district of that county. ... For other uses, see Craven (disambiguation). ... The name Eldon can refer to several places and people. ... For other uses, see Derby (disambiguation). ... College name New College of St Mary Collegium Novum Oxoniensis/Collegium Sanctae Mariae Wintoniae Named after Mary, mother of Jesus Established 1379 Sister College Kings College Warden Prof. ...


At Oxford he formed a close friendship with Arnold Toynbee and was associated with his schemes of social work; subsequently he wrote a tribute to his friend, Arnold Toynbee: a Reminiscence (1895). This page is about the economic historian Arnold Toynbee; for the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee see this article. ...


He spoke with a trace of a German accent. However, right until the end of his life, Milner would call himself a "British race patriot". Milner had grand dreams of a global Imperial parliament, with its seat in London, with delegates of British descent from Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.


Journalism and politics

In 1881 he was called to the bar at the Inner Temple and joined the staff of the Pall Mall Gazette under John Morley, becoming assistant editor under W. T. Stead. Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... The Pall Mall Gazette was an evening newpaper founded in London February 7, 1865. ... John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn (1838 - 1923), known for the first part of his life simply as John Morley, was an English statesman and writer. ... William Thomas Stead (July 5, 1849 - April 15, 1912), English journalist, was born at Embleton, Northumberland, the son of a Congregational minister. ...


In 1885 he abandoned journalism, and became the Liberal candidate for the Harrow division of Middlesex in the general election, but was defeated. He acted as private secretary to George Goschen and in 1887, when Goschen became Chancellor of the Exchequer, was appointed his principal private secretary. He was later a member of the Coefficients dining club of social reformers set up in 1902 by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webb. 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... // The London Borough of Harrow is a London borough of outer northwest London. ... Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest (after Rutland). ... George Joachim Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen (10 August 1831 - 7 February 1907) was a British statesman and businessman ironically best remembered for being forgotten by Lord Randolph Churchill. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... Categories: UK Labour Party politicians | British MPs | Peers | Secretaries of State for the Colonies (UK) | 1859 births | 1947 deaths | People stubs ... Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Potter Webb (January 2, 1858 - April 30, 1943) (also called Beatrice Webb) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, usually referred to in the same breath as her husband, Sidney Webb. ...


In Egypt

It was by Goschen's influence that in 1889 he was made under-secretary of finance in Egypt. He remained in Egypt for four years, his period of office coinciding with the first great reforms, after the danger of bankruptcy had been avoided. Milner returned to England in 1892 and shortly thereafter published his England and Egypt, which at once became the authoritative account of the work done since the British occupation.


Later that year he was appointed chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue. In 1894 he was made CB and in 1895 KCB. The Inland Revenue was, until April 2005, a department of the British Government responsible for the collection of direct taxation, including income tax, national insurance contributions, capital gains tax, inheritance tax, corporation tax, petroleum revenue tax and stamp duty. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ...


In South Africa

Lord Milner Hotel at Matjiesfontein in South Africa.
Lord Milner Hotel at Matjiesfontein in South Africa.

Sir Alfred Milner remained at the Board of Inland Revenue until 1897. He was regarded as one of the clearest-headed and most judicious officials in the British service, and his position as a man of moderate Liberal views, who had been so closely associated with Goschen at the Treasury, Cromer in Egypt and Hicks-Beach (Lord St Aldwyn) and Sir William Vernon Harcourt while at the Inland Revenue, marked him as one in whom all parties might have confidence. The moment for testing his capacity in the highest degree had now come. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 542 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Gregorydavid 19:53, 10 January 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 542 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Gregorydavid 19:53, 10 January 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer (1841-1917) was a British statesman, diplomat and colonial administrator. ... The Rt Hon. ... Sir William Harcourt Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon Harcourt (October 14, 1827 - October 1, 1904) was a British Liberal statesman. ...


In April, Lord Rosmead resigned his posts of High Commissioner for Southern Africa and Governor of Cape Colony. The situation resulting from the Jameson raid was one of the greatest delicacy and difficulty, and Joseph Chamberlain, now colonial secretary, selected Milner as Lord Rosmead's successor. The choice was cordially approved by the leaders of the Liberal party and warmly recognized at a March 28, 1897 farewell dinner presided over by the future prime minister H. H. Asquith. The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments. Lord Hercules George Robert Robinson, 1st Baron Rosmead (December 19, 1824 - October 28, 1897) was a British colonial administrator. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ... The Rt. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ...


Sir Alfred Milner reached the Cape in May 1897 and after the difficulties with President Kruger over the Aliens' Law had been patched up, he was free by August to make himself personally acquainted with the country and peoples before deciding on the lines of policy to be adopted. Between August 1897 and May 1898 he travelled through Cape Colony, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Rhodesia and Basutoland. The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal". He came to the conclusion that there could be no hope of peace and progress in South Africa while there remained the "permanent subjection of British to Dutch in one of the Republics". City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paul Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul or Mamelodi which means mother of melodies for his ability to imitate bird calls), was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... An 1887 map showing the Crown Colony of Bechuanaland (shaded pink) and the Bechuanaland Protectorate (pink border) The Bechuanaland Protectorate (BP) was a protectorate established on March 31, 1885 by the United Kingdom in southern Africa. ... Anthem: Rise O Voices of Rhodesia (from 1974) Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Republic President¹  - 1970-1975 Clifford Dupont  - 1976-1978 John Wrathall Officer Administering the Government¹  - 1965-1970 Clifford Dupont Prime minister  - 1965-1979 Ian Smith Historical era Cold War  - Independence (UDI) November 11, 1965  - Republic declared March... The mountainous and largely arid land that came to be Basutoland was populated by San (bushmen, Qhuaique) until the end of the 16th century. ... The term Cape Dutch was used to describe the Dutch, French, German, and other European descended inhabitants of the Western Cape who from the 17th century into the 19th century who remained loyal subjects of European (first Dutch then later British) powers while their pastoralist trekking cousins: the Trekboers were... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Milner was referring to the situation in the Transvaal where after the discovery of gold thousands of fortune seekers had flocked from all over Europe, but mostly Britain. This influx of "Uitlanders" (foreigners) threatened their republic. Transvaal President Kruger refused to give the "Uitlanders" the right to vote.


The Boers (Afrikaner Farmers), had established the Transvaal as their promised land, after their Great Trek out of the Cape colony. A trek which’s purpose was to get away from the British rule. They had already successfully defended the Transvaal's annexation by the British Empire during the first Anglo-Boer War. A conflict that had emboldened them and which's peace treaty had made it very difficult for Britain to annex the Transvaal again and justify it diplomatically. For a British annexation of the Transvaal to happen again Britain needed a pretext. Trekboers on the Karoo. ... The First Boer War also known as the First Anglo-Boer War or the Transvaal War, was fought from December 16, 1880 until March 23, 1881. ...


The Independent Transvaal stood in the way of the British dream to control all of Africa from Cape to Cairo. Milner realised that with the discovery of gold in the Transvaal the balance of power in South Africa had shifted from Cape Town to Johannesburg. He feared that if the whole of South Africa was not brought under British control soon, the newly wealthy Transvaal controlled by Afrikaners, could unite with the Cape Afrikaners and jeopardise the whole British position in South Africa.


Milner also realised—as was shown by the triumphant re-election of Paul Kruger to the presidency of the Transvaal in February 1898—that the Pretoria government would never on its own initiative redress the grievances of the "Uitlanders". This gave Milner his pretext. Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


Milner would use the "Uitlander" question to his advantage. In a speech delivered at Graaff Reinet, an Afrikaner Bond stronghold in the British controlled Cape, on March 3, 1898, he said he was determined to secure freedom and equality for the British subjects in the Transvaal, and he urged the Dutch colonists to induce the Pretoria government to assimilate its institutions, and the temper and spirit of its administration, to those of the free communities of South Africa. The effect of this pronouncement was great and it alarmed the Afrikaners who at this time viewed with apprehension the virtual resumption by Cecil Rhodes of his leadership of the Progressive (British) party at the Cape. Graaff Reinet, a town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, 185 miles by rail NW by N of Port Elizabeth. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cecil Rhodes. ...


Milner had a dim view of Afrikaners, and in general saw the British as "a superior race". He had little interest in the peaceful resolution of the conflict. He came to the view that complete British hegemony could only be achieved through war. A negotiated peace was problematic as the Afrikaners outnumbered the British in both the Transvaal, Free Sate and the Cape.


Milner was not alone in his views. In a letter written (March 11) by another Briton John X. Merriman to President Steyn of the Free State: "The greatest danger lies in the attitude of President Kruger and his vain hope of building up a State on a foundation of a narrow unenlightened minority, and his obstinate rejection of all prospect of using the materials which lie ready to his hand to establish a true republic on a broad liberal basis. Such a state of affairs cannot last. It must break down from inherent rottenness." March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... John Xavier Merriman (1841-1926) was the last prime minister of the Cape Colony before the formation of South Africa in 1910. ... Martinus Theunis Steyn (October 2, 1857 - 1916) was a South African politician, last president of the Orange Free State. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ...


Although not all Bond leaders liked Kruger, they were ready to support Kruger, whether or not he granted reforms, and they sought to make Milner's position impossible. His difficulties were increased when at the general election in Cape Colony the Bond obtained a majority. Acting strictly in a constitutional manner, Milner thereupon (October 1898) called upon William Philip Schreiner to form a ministry, though aware that such a ministry would be opposed to any direct intervention of Great Britain in the Transvaal. The Afikander Bond (Dutch: Afrikander Union) more commonly referred to in Afrikaans as the Afrikaner Bond was a political party in the Cape Colony. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... The Afikander Bond (Dutch: Afrikander Union) more commonly referred to in Afrikaans as the Afrikaner Bond was a political party in the Cape Colony. ... William Philip Schreiner (30 August 1857 - 28 June 1919) (the Right Hon. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ...


Convinced that the existing state of affairs, if continued, would end in the loss of South Africa by Britain, Milner came to England in November 1898. He returned to the Cape in February 1899, fully assured of Joseph Chamberlain's support, though the government still clung to the hope that the moderate section of the Cape and Free State Dutch would induce Kruger to give the vote to the Uitlanders. He found the situation more critical than when he had left, ten weeks previously. Johannesburg was in a ferment, while General Sir William Butler, who acted as high commissioner in Milner's absence, had allowed it to be seen that he did not take a favourable view of the Uitlander grievances. Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... The Rt. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Sir William Francis Butler Sir William Francis Butler (31 October 1838 – 7 June 1910) was a 19th Century soldier, writer, and adventurer. ...


On May 4 Milner penned a memorable dispatch to the Colonial Office, in which he insisted that the remedy for the unrest in the Transvaal was to strike at the root of the evil---the political impotence of the injured. "It may seem a paradox," he wrote, "but it is true that the only way for protecting our subjects is to help them to cease to be our subjects." The policy of leaving things alone only led from bad to worse, and "the case for intervention is overwhelming." Milner felt that only the enfranchisement of the Uitlanders in the Transvaal would give stability to the South African situation. He had not based his case against the Transvaal on the letter of the Conventions, and regarded the employment of the word "suzerainty" merely as an "etymological question," but he realized keenly that the spectacle of thousands of British subjects in the Transvaal in the condition of "helots" (as he expressed it) was undermining the prestige of Great Britain throughout South Africa, and he called for "some striking proof" of the intention of the British government not to be ousted from its predominant position. This dispatch was telegraphed to London, and was intended for immediate publication; but it was kept private for a time by the home government. May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Helots were Peloponnesian Greeks who were enslaved under Spartan rule. ...


Its tenor was known, however, to the leading politicians at the Cape, and at the instance of Jan Hendik Hofmeyr a peace conference was held (May 31June 5) at Bloemfontein between the high commissioner and Kruger, the president of the Transvaal. Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr (July 4, 1845 - October 11, 1909), South African politician, was born at Cape Town. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Bloemfontein at night Bloemfontein (IPA: , Afrikaans and Dutch for fountain of Bloem (bloom) or flower fountain is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ...


Milner made three demands: The enactment by the Transvaal of a franchise law which would at once give the "Uitlanders" the vote; Use of English in the Transvaal parliament and; That all laws of the parliament should be vetted and approved by the British parliament. Demands Milner knew Kruger would never agree to. Kruger left the meeting in tears.


The Second Boer War

When the Second Boer War broke out in October 1899, Milner rendered the military authorities "unfailing support and wise counsels", being, in Lord Roberts's phrase "one whose courage never faltered". Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Canada Cape Colony Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Redvers Buller Frederick Roberts Herbert Kitchener Paul Kruger Martinus Steyn Louis Botha Christiaan de Wet Casualties 22,000 6,500 Civilians killed [mainly Boers]: 24,000+ The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as...


In February 1901 he was called upon to undertake the administration of the two Boer states, both now annexed to the British Empire, though the war was still in progress. He thereupon resigned the governorship of Cape Colony, while retaining the post of high commissioner. This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ...


During this time at the helm a number of concentration camps were created where 27,000 Boer women and children and more than 14,000 black South Africans died.


The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field. Milner therefore returned to England to spend a "hard-begged holiday," which was, however, mainly occupied in work at the Colonial Office. He reached London on May 24, 1901, had an audience with King Edward VII on the same day, was made a GCB and privy councillor, and was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Milner of St James's and Cape Town. Speaking next day at a luncheon given in his honor, answering critics who alleged that with more time and patience on the part of Great Britain, war might have been avoided, he asserted that what they were asked to "conciliate" was "panoplied hatred, insensate ambition, invincible ignorance." Flag of Orange River Colony The Orange River Colony was a British colony created by the annexation of the Orange Free State in 1900, after the Boer War. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ...


The peace

Meanwhile the diplomacy of 1899 and the conduct of the war had caused a great change in the attitude of the Liberal party in England towards Lord Milner, whom Leonard Courtney even characterized as "a lost mind." A violent agitation for his recall, in which Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman joined, was organized, but without success, and in August he returned to South Africa, where he plunged into the herculean task of remodelling the administration. In the negotiations for peace he was associated with Lord Kitchener, and the terms of surrender, signed at Pretoria on 31 May 1902, were drafted by him. In recognition of his services he was, on 1 July, made a viscount. Leonard Henry Courtney, 1st Baron Courtney (July 6, 1832 - 1918), English politician and man of letters, eldest son of JS Courtney, a banker, was born at Penzance. ... Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


Immediately following the conclusion of peace Milner published (June 21) the Letters Patent establishing the system of crown colony government in the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, and changing his title of administrator to that of governor. The reconstructive work necessary after the ravages of the war was enormous. He provided a steady revenue by the levying of a tax of 10% on the annual net produce of the gold mines, and devoted special attention to the repatriation of the Boers, land settlement by British colonists, education, justice, the constabulary, and the development of railways. While this work of reconstruction was in progress domestic politics in England were convulsed by the tariff reform movement and Joseph Chamberlain's resignation. Milner, who was then spending a brief holiday in Europe, was urged by Arthur James Balfour to take the vacant post of secretary of state for the colonies. This offer he declined (October 1, 1903), considering it more important to complete his work in South Africa, where economic depression was becoming pronounced. He was back in Johannesburg in December 1903, and had to consider the crisis in the gold-mining industry caused by the shortage of native labor. Reluctantly he agreed, with the assent of the home government, to the proposal of the mineowners to import Chinese coolies on a three-year contract with the first batch of Chinese reaching the Rand in June 1904. June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... The Rt. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


In the latter part of 1904 and the early months of 1905 Lord Milner was engaged on the elaboration of a scheme to provide the Transvaal with a system of representative government, a half-way house between crown colony administration and that of self-government. Letters patent providing for representative government were issued on March 31, 1905. For some time he had suffered in health from the incessant strain of work, and he determined to retire. He left Pretoria on April 2 and sailed for Europe on the following day. Speaking at Johannesburg on the eve of his departure, he recommended to all concerned the promotion of the material prosperity of the country and the treatment of Dutch and British on an absolute equality. Having referred to his share in the war, he added: "What I should prefer to be remembered by is a tremendous effort subsequent to the war not only to repair the ravages of that calamity but to re-start the colonies on a higher plane of civilization than they have ever previously attained." He left South Africa while the economic crisis was still acute and at a time when the voice of the critic was audible everywhere but, in the words of the colonial secretary Alfred Lyttelton, he had in the eight eventful years of his administration laid deep and strong the foundation upon which a united South Africa would arise to become one of the great states of the empire. On his return home his university honored him with the honorary degree of DCL. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Alfred Lyttelton (7 February 1857 - 5 July 1913) was a British politician and cricketer. ...


Experience in South Africa had shown him that underlying the difficulties of the situation there was the wider problem of imperial unity. In his farewell speech at Johannesburg he concluded with a reference to the subject. 'When we who call ourselves Imperialists talk of the British Empire, we think of a group of states bound, not in an alliance or alliances that can be made and unmade but in a permanent organic union. Of such a union the dominions of the sovereign as they exist to-day are only the raw material.' This thesis he further developed in a magazine article written in view of the colonial conference held in London in 1907. He advocated the creation of a permanent deliberative imperial council, and favored preferential trade relations between. the United Kingdom and the other members of the empire; and in later years he took an active part in advocating the cause of tariff reform and Imperial Preference. Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


In 1910 he became a founder of The Round TableA Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire, which helped to promote the cause of imperial federation. The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs is a policy matters journal relating to the British Commonwealth. ...


Censure motion

In March 1906, a motion censuring Lord Milner for an infraction of the Chinese labour ordinance, in not forbidding light corporal punishment of coolies for minor offences in lieu of imprisonment, was moved by a Radical member of the House of Commons. On behalf of the Liberal government an amendment was moved, stating that 'This House, while recording its condemnation of the flogging of Chinese coolies in breach of the law, desires, in the interests of peace and conciliation in South Africa, to refrain from passing censure upon individuals'. The amendment was carried by 355 votes to 135. As a result of this left-handed censure, a counter-demonstration was organized, led by Sir Bartle Frere, and a public address, signed by over 370,000 persons, was presented to Lord Milner expressing high appreciation of the services rendered by him in Africa to the crown and empire. Coolie refers to unskilled laborers from Asia of the 1800s to early 1900s who were sent to the United States, Australia, New Zealand, North Africa and the West Indies. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere, 1st Baronet (March 29, 1815 - May 29, 1884) was a British administrator. ...


Businessman

Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, though he remained active in the campaign for imperial free trade. In the period 1909 to 1911 he was a strong opponent of the budget of David Lloyd George and the subsequent attempt of the Liberal government to curb the powers of the House of Lords. This article is about the Rio Tinto mining company. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


World War I

Since Milner, who was a leading conservative, was the only Briton who had experience in civil direction of a war, Lloyd George turned to him in December 1916 when he formed his national government. He was made a member of the five person War Cabinet. Milner was probably the most competent member of the war cabinet after the prime minister himself and consequently became Lloyd George's fire fighter in many crises. He gradually became the second most powerful voice in the conduct of the war. Despite his conservative credentials he also gradually became disenchanted with the military leadership of the country which exercised a disproportionate influence on the conduct of war because of conservative support. He backed Lloyd George, who was even more disenchanted with the military, in his successful move to impose the convoy system on a reluctant admiralty, and in his less successful attempt to prevent the disastrous Passchendaele campaign in 1917. A War Cabinet is committee formed by a government in time of war. ...


Milner was a highly outspoken critic of the Austo-Hungarian war in Serbia arguing that "there is more widespread desolation being caused there (than) we have been familiar with in the case of Belgium". Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ...


He was an earnest advocate of inter-allied cooperation, attending an Allied conference in St. Petersburg in February 1917. He was in France as representative of the British cabinet in March 1918 when the Germans launched their great offensive, and was instrumental in getting General Ferdinand Foch appointed as Allied Generalissimo on March 26, 1918. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army. ... A generalissimo is a commissioned officer of the highest rank; the word is often translated as Supreme Commander or Commander in Chief. It is an Italian superlative substantive, which grammatically would actually be disallowed in Italian (superlatives can be made with adjectives only). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Lord Milner was appointed Secretary of State for War on April 19, 1918 and presided over the army council for the remainder of the war. He was appointed Colonial Secretary after the Khaki Election of 1918 and in that capacity attended the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and was one of the signatories of the Treaty of Versailles. The secretary of war in cabinet position was Henry Knox. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Khaki election is a term in British political history. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ...


Post World War I; England

After the War, Lord Milner assisted the Royal Agricultural Society in procuring Fordson tractors for the plowing and planting of grasslands, and communicated directly with Henry Ford by telegraph, per Henry Ford's book, 'My Life and Work', regarding Chapter 14. Was one of the homes of Queens Park Rangers Football Club played at before they moved to their permanent current home Loftus Road London W12 in 1917 ... Fordson Model F The Fordson tractor by the Ford Motor Company was the first agricultural tractor to be mass produced. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


Egypt again

His last great public service was, after serious rioting broke out, a mission to Egypt from December, 1919 to March, 1920 to make recommendations on British-Egyptian relations, specifically how to reconcile the British protectorate established in 1915 with Zaghlul Pasha's calls for self-government. The report of the Milner Commission formed the basis of a settlement which lasted for a number of years. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Saad Pasha Zaghlul Saad Pasha Zaghlul statue in Alexandria Saad Zaghlul (Arabic سعد زغلول; also: Saad Zaghloul, Sad Zaghloul Pasha ibn Ibrahim) (1859-August 23, 1927) was an Egyptian political figure. ...


Last years

Lord Milner retired in February of 1921. Later that year he married Lady Violet Georgina Gascoyne-Cecil, widow of Lord Edward Cecil. He remained active in the work of the Rhodes Trust and accepted, at the behest of Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, the chairmanship of a committee to examine a new imperial preference tariff. His work proved abortive when Baldwin lost the subsequent election. Violet Georgina Milner (née Maxse) (1872-1958) was an Edwardian society Lady and, later, editor of the political monthly, National Review. ... Lord Edward Herbert Gascoyne-Cecil (1867-1918) was a British soldier and colonial administrator in Egypt. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867–14 December 1947) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on three separate occasions. ...


Milner died in Sturry Court, near Canterbury on May 13, 1925 of sleeping sickness soon after returning from South Africa. His viscountcy, lacking suitable heirs, died with him. May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (134th in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and in animals. ...


Credo

Found among Milner's papers was his Credo, which was soon published to great acclaim. In Latin, the word credo means I believe. ...


"I am a Nationalist and not a cosmopolitan .... I am a British (indeed primarily an English) Nationalist. If I am also an Imperialist, it is because the destiny of the English race, owing to its insular position and long supremacy at sea, has been to strike roots in different parts of the world. I am an Imperialist and not a Little Englander because I am a British Race Patriot ... The British State must follow the race, must comprehend it, wherever it settles in appreciable numbers as an independent community. If the swarms constantly being thrown off by the parent hive are lost to the State, the State is irreparably weakened. We cannot afford to part with so much of our best blood. We have already parted with much of it, to form the millions of another separate but fortunately friendly State. We cannot suffer a repetition of the process." [1]


Notes

  1. ^ The Times, 25 July 1925

The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...

References

  • N. Ascherson, 'The War That Made South Africa', New York Review of Books, 6 December 1979, p.12.
  • E. B. Iwan-Müller, Lord Milner and South Africa (London, 1902)
  • W. B. Worsfold, Lord Milner's Work in South Africa (London, 1906)
  • W. T. Stead, "Sir Alfred Milner" in The Review of Reviews, vol. xx. (1899).
  • Lord Milner "Serbia's heartrending tragady"
  • Lucille Davie, Constitution Hill:Thomas Pakenham, the Boer War and the Old Fort (1, November, 2004)

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Charles Neal Ascherson, commonly known as Neal Ascherson (born October 5, 1931), is a Scottish journalist. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... William Thomas Stead (July 5, 1849 - April 15, 1912) was an English journalist. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 - 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

  • Biographical entry for Alfred Viscount Milner at New College, Oxford College Archives
  • NEXUS: A Short History of the Round Table - Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 12, Number 3 (April - May 2005)
  • My Life And Work, by Henry Ford, Chapter 14 references communication to Henry Ford in an appeal for tractors for England.
Political offices
Preceded by
The Lord Rosmead
Governor of Cape Colony
and
High Commissioner for Southern Africa
1897–1901
Succeeded by
Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson
Preceded by
Minister without Portfolio
1916–1918
Succeeded by
Preceded by
The Earl of Derby
Secretary of State for War
1918–1919
Succeeded by
Winston Churchill
Preceded by
Walter Hume Long
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Winston Churchill
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Viscount Milner
1902–1925
Succeeded by
Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner Summary (3843 words)
Alfred Milner was educated first at Tübingen, then at King's College London and under Jowett as a scholar of Balliol College, Oxford from 1872 to 1876.
On May 4 Milner penned a memorable dispatch to the Colonial Office, in which he insisted that the remedy for the unrest in the Transvaal was to strike at the root of the evil---the political impotence of the injured.
In March 1906, a motion censuring Lord Milner for an infraction of the Chinese labour ordinance, in not forbidding light corporal punishment of coolies for minor offences in lieu of imprisonment, was moved by a Radical member of the House of Commons.
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