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Encyclopedia > Alfred Metraux
Voodoo by Alfred Metraux
Voodoo by Alfred Metraux

ALFRED METRAUX (1902-1963), often described as "an ethnographer's ethnographer," was one of the most significant anthropologists and human rights leaders of the twentieth century. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ...


Early life

Born in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1902, he spent much of his childhood in Argentina where his father was a well known surgeon resident in Mendoza. He received his secondary and university education in Europe, at the Classical Gymnasium of Lausanne, the Ecole Nationale des Chartes in Paris, the Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales (Diplome, 1925). The Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Diplome, 1927) and the Sorbonne (Docteur es Lettres, 1928). He also studied in Sweden, in Goteborg’s Hogskola, and did research at the Goteborg Museum. Among his teachers were Marcel Mauss, Paul Rivet, and Erland von Nordenskiold. While he was still a student he entered into correspondence with Father John Cooper who introduced him to the American school of cultural anthropology. It is said that Father Cooper did not realize at first that his scholarly correspondent was only 19 and 20 years old. They actually met much later, when Metraux came to the United States; but Father Cooper seems to have had considerable influence on Alfred Metraux’s thought. Metraux combined in his work the best of both the European and the American tradition of historical anthropology. Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ...

Early career

His professional career was equally cosmopolitan. He founded and was the first director (1928 – 1934) of the Institute of Ethnology at the University of Tucuman(Argentina). In 1934-35, he led a French expedition to Easter Island, and in 1936 –38, he was a Fellow of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu. In 1939, he returned to Argentina and Bolivia for field research on a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1940, upon his return to the United States from South America, he was in residence at Yale University with a renewal of his Guggenheim Fellowship. That next year, he worked with the Cross Cultural Survey (now the Human Relations Area Files) on South American data and was associated with such people as John Dollard, Leonard Bloomfield, and others of the Institute of Human Relations. In 1941, he joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution. There, from 1941 to 1945, he played an important role in producing the monumental Handbook of South American Indians. Perhaps no other writer contributed as many pages to this work. As the editor, Julian Steward, acknowledges, “The extent of his (Metraux’s) contribution is by no means indicated by the large number of articles appearing under his name. With an unsurpassed knowledge of South American ethnology and ever generous of his time, his advice and help to the editor and contributors alike have been a major factor in the successful completion of the work.” (Vol. I, p.9). In addition, Alfred Metraux taught briefly at University of California, Berkeley (1938), the Excuela Nacional de Anthropologia, Mexico (1943), the Colegio de Mexico (1943), and the Facuidad Latino-Americanan de Ciencias Sociales, Santiago, Chile (1959-60). At the time of his death, he was Professor of South American Anthropology at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris. Guggenheim can be a reference to any of a number of members or interests of the Meyer Guggenheim family, including: Meyer Guggenheim, or his descendants: Guggenheim family; The Guggenheim Museums; foundations such as the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation (see also Guggenheim Fellowship), and the Harry...

Married Life

Alfred Metraux was married three times. Each of his wives was in a different way a scientific collaborator. His first wife, Eva Spiro Metraux, translated anthropological materials from English to French. His second wife, Rhoda Bubendey Metraux did research with him in Mexico, Argentina, and Haiti and is today a well known anthropologist. More recently, he married Fernande Schulmann who accompanied him to Chile, Peru, and Brazil and who planned to work with him in Paraguay. He was survived also by his brother Guy Metraux (1919-2000)of Paris, his sister Vera Conne (1920--)of Lausanne, and by two sons: - Eric Metraux (1927-92) from his first marriage, and Daniel Alfred Metraux (1948-), the son of Rhoda Metraux.


In the early spring of 1945, Alfred Metraux went to Europe as a member of the United States Bombing Survey and he saw the physical and moral desolation of Europe. Although he had by then become a citizen of the United States, this experience seems to have reaffirmed, in a way, his traditional ties with Europe. It also strengthened his belief in the necessity for European unity and for the need of a firm basis for international, inter-cultural, and inter-racial understanding. His early view of war devastated Europe was important in his decision in 1946 to take a post on the secretariat of the United Nations. Thus, from 1946 until 1962, he worked for his ideals of international and inter-cultural understanding within the framework of international organization with only occasional excursions into academic life and into anthropological field research. In 1946 and 1947, he was a member of the Department of Social Affairs of the United Nations, but in 1947 he was assigned to UNESCO, and finally, in 1950, he became a permanent member of UNESCO’s Department of Social Science. As an international civil servant, he served the world and his profession well. He took part in the Hylean Amazon project in 1947-1948, led the UNESCO Marbial Valley (Haiti) anthropological survey from 1948 to 1950 with personnel from the international Labor Office, and studied the internal migrations of the Aymara and Quechua Indians in Peru and Bolivia (1954). He edited the series of pamphlets on The Race Question and Modern Thought and The Race Question and Modern Science, published by UNESCO since 1950. He also organized the research that led to a series of volumes on race relations in Brazil, such as “As relacues raciais entre negros a brancos em Sao Paulo,” edited by Roger Bastide and Florestan Fernandes (Sao Paulo, 1955), Race and Class in Rural Brazil, edited by Charles Wagley (UNESCO, Paris, 1952), and others. At UNESCO, he was responsible for the participation of anthropologists in many important projects around the world, and he consistently emphasized the anthropological point of view in all of the many programs with which he was associated. Anthropology lost not only a productive scholar, but an effective translator of anthropological theory and knowledge into action.


Alfred Metraux valued field ethnography more than theory. He let the facts speak for themselves, and many of his facts modified anthropological theory. Yet, one felt that he was too restless and too eager to be on his way to produce detailed and lengthy field reports such as those of Curt Nimuendaju on the Brazilian Ge. He was a sensitive field worker with many years of experience, and his articles on the Argentine Chaco and his book on Haitian Vodun indicate that he gathered careful and objective data in the field. He liked to think of himself as a field ethnologist. Any evening with him led to stories of nights around a fire with Argentine gauchos, his last stay with the semi-pacified Kayapo of Brazil, his period of residence on Easter Island, a Haitian vodun ceremony, or a candomble ceremony in Bahia which he had attended with his friend Pierre Verger.


He published landmark studies of South American Indians including the Incas, Haitian voodoo and the ancient cultures of Easter Island. He participated in the framing of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and later as director of the Dept. of Social Sciences at [UNESCO], he presided over a series of studies which resulted in several publications demonstrating the absence of scientific foundation to theories of racial superiority. The 1951 UNESCO Statement on the Nature of Race and Race Differences enshrined these findings. A dedicated anthropologist and humanitarian, he brought the brilliance of South American Indian cultures to light, solved the mysteries of Easter Island, taught the world about Voodoo, and defined the United Nations' stand against racism. His books include Voodoo, The History of the Incas and Easter Island''. motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163,6 km² Population  - City (2005)  - Density (city proper) 3,791 Inhabitants 23,17 /km² Time zone Central Time zone, UTC- 6 Telephone Prefix 32 Postal code...


Alfred Metraux died in Paris on April 12, 1963. He was one the world's foremost authorities on the South American Indian. His work and interests, however, ranged widely into other fields and other geographical areas. He was an influential teacher, a tireless field researcher, a productive writer, an efficient administrator, and an imaginative planner of projects in applied social science. Above all, he was a man of great erudition. "He was truly a citizen of the world."


External links

  • http://www.alfredmetraux.com

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Metraux, Alfred --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust! (851 words)
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