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Encyclopedia > Alfred Jodl
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Alfred Jodl
May 10, 1890October 16, 1946

Alfred Jodl
Place of birth Würzburg, Germany
Place of death Nuremberg, Germany
Allegiance Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Service/branch Wehrmacht
Rank Colonel General
Battles/wars World War I, World War II

Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Alfred_Jodl_USA-E-Ardennes-2. ... Würzburg Residenz. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg, Polish: Norymberga) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882 - October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia...

Contents

Early career

Jodl was born Alfred Josef Ferdinand Baumgärtler in 1890 in Würzburg, Germany, the son of Officer Alfred Jodl and Therese Baumgärtler, becoming "Alfred Jodl" upon his parents' marriage in 1899. Educated at Cadet School in Munich, Jodl graduated in 1910 and joined the army as an artillery officer. During World War I served as a battery officer on the Western Front 1914-1916, twice being wounded. In 1917 Jodl served briefly on the Eastern Front before returning to the west as a staff officer. After the war Jodl remained in the armed forces and joined the Versailles-limited Reichswehr. Würzburg Residenz. ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [2]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Remains of a battery of English cannon from Youghal, County Cork. ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Eastern Front refers to a theatre of war during the first World War in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ...


Jodl had married Irma Gräfin von Bullion in September 1913. The marriage was unhappy, Irma becoming more and more interested in Jodl's career than in the man himself.[citation needed] The couple had no children. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Later career

Jodl became acquainted with Adolf Hitler in 1923. As a vocal Nazi sympathizer, he was rapidly promoted and by 1935 headed the Abteilung Landesverteidigung im Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) (Chief of the National Defense Section in the High Command of the Army). In the build-up to the Second World War, Jodl was nominally assigned as a Artilleriekommandeur of the 44th Division from October 1938 to August 1939 during the Anschluss, but from then until the end of the war in May 1945 he was Chef des Wehrmachtsführungsstabes (Chief of Operation Staff OKW).[1] Jodl was therefore a key figure in German military operations from 1939, supplying advice and technical information directly to Hitler. He was injured during the July Plot. Hitler redirects here. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oberkommando der Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ... The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat which involved an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ...

Colonel General Jodl signs the instruments of unconditional surrender in Reims on May 7, 1945

Jodl's wife Irma died on April 18, 1944. During their last years together Alfred and Irma had been very distant and cold to each other. While Wilhelm Keitel called his wife almost every day, Alfred Jodl didn't seem to seek contact with Irma. On April 7, 1945 he married former secretary and mistress Luise Katharina von Benda (born 1905). She had been a close friend of his first wife. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882 - October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


At the end of World War II in Europe Colonel General Jodl signed the instruments of unconditional surrender on May 7, 1945 in Reims as the representative for Karl Dönitz. Jodl was then arrested and transferred to Flensburg POW camp and later put before the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials. Jodl was accused of conspiracy to commit crimes against peace; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression; war-crimes; and crimes against humanity. The principal charges against him related to his signature of the Commando Order and the Commissar Order; both of which ordered that certain prisoners were to be summarily executed. Additional charges at his trial included unlawful deportation and abetting execution. Presented as evidence was his signature on an order that transferred Danish citizens, including Jews and other civilians, to concentration camps. Although he denied his role in the crime, the court sustained his complicity based on the given evidence. During the Battle for Berlin, the Red Flag was raised over the Reichstag, May 1945. ... Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, who was in command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and was President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Flensburg (Danish: Flensborg, Low Saxon: Flensborg, North Frisian: Flansborj) is an independent town in the North of the German state Schleswig-Holstein. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ... The Commando Order was a top secret order issued by Adolf Hitler on October 18, 1942 stating that all commandos captured in Europe and Africa (but excluding sailors), should be immediately executed even if they attempted to surrender. ... The Commissar Order (German: Kommissarbefehl) was a written order given by Adolf Hitler on 6 June 1941, prior to Operation Barbarossa. ...


His wife Luise Jodl managed to attach herself to her husband's defence team. Subsequently interviewed by Gitta Sereny, researching her biography of Albert Speer, Luise Jodl revealed that in many instances the Allied prosecution made charges against Jodl based on documents that they refused to share with the defense. Jodl nevertheless managed to prove that some of the charges made against him were completely untrue, such as the charge that he had helped Hitler gain control of Germany in 1933. He was in one instance aided by a GI clerk who chose to give Luise a document showing that the execution of a group of British commandos in Norway had been legitimate. The GI warned Luise that if she didn’t copy it immediately she would never see it again; "…it was being 'filed'."[2] Jodl pleaded 'not guilty' "before God, before history and my people". Found guilty on all four charges, he was hanged, although he had asked the court to be executed by firing squad. Gitta Sereny (born March 13, 1921) is a Hungarian-born British biographer, historian and journalist whose writing focuses mainly on the Holocaust and abused children. ... Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer ( ; March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981), was an architect, author and high-ranking Nazi German government official, sometimes called the first architect of the Third Reich. His two bestselling autobiographical works, detailing his often close personal relationship with German dictator... GI or G.I. is a term describing a US soldier or an item of their equipment. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... The Executions of the forth of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ...


On February 28th, 1953 court in München found that Jodl was not guilty of those war crimes for which he was convicted by the IMT, crimes against humanity, and subsequently the charges against him were abandoned. His property, that had been appropriated from him when he was made an Allied PoW was returned posthumously, his widow Luise Jodl receiving it as his beneficiary and closest surviving kin.[1]. February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Jodl's last words were reportedly "My greetings to you, my Germany." Jodl's remains were cremated at Munich, and his ashes were raked out and scattered into the Conwentzbach, a small river flowing into the larger Isar River (effectively an attempt to prevent the establishment of a permanent burial site to those nationalist groups who might seek to congregate there—an example of this being Mussolini's place of rest in Predappio, Italy). Jodl nonetheless possesses a cenotaph in the family plot in the Fraueninsel Cemetery, in Chiemsee Germany. Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [2]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... The Isar is the third largest river in Bavaria, Germany. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Predappio is a town and comune in the province of Forlì-Cesena, in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy, with a population of 6,362. ... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... The Chiemsee is a freshwater lake in Bavaria, Germany, between the towns of Rosenheim and Salzburg. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Nuremberg Judgment: Jodl
  2. ^ Gitta Sereny, Albert Speer His Battle with Truth, p.578. ISBN 0394529154

External links

  • Alfred Jodl at Find-A-Grave
  • The trial of Alfred Jodl - TRIAL WATCH
  • Munchen, 28th of February 1953: Alfred Jodl - Not guilty!

  Results from FactBites:
 
BIGpedia - Alfred Jodl - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (354 words)
Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 - October 16, 1946) was a Wehrmacht officer.
In the build-up to war he was assigned as a Artillerie Kommandeur of the 44th Division from October 1938 to August 1939 during the Anschluss, but from then until the end of the war he was Chef des Wehrmachtsführungstabes in OKW (Chief of Operation Staff of the High Command of the Armed Forces).
Generaloberst Jodl signed the unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945 in Reims as the representative for Karl Dönitz.
Judgment at Nuremberg: Alfred Jodl (1315 words)
Jodl defends himself on the ground he was a soldier sworn to obedience, and not a politician; and that his staff and planning work left him no time for other matters.
Jodl discussed the Norway invasion with Hitler, Hitler and Raeder on 12th December, 1939; his diary is replete with late entries on his activities in preparing this attack.
Jodl explains his comment that Hitler was still looking for an "excuse " to move meant that he was waiting for reliable intelligence on the British plans, and defends the invasion as a necessary move to forestall them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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