FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Alfred Deakin
Hon Alfred William Deakin
Alfred Deakin

In office
24 September 1903 – 27 April 1904
Preceded by Edmund Barton
Succeeded by Chris Watson
In office
5 July 1905 – 13 November 1908
Preceded by Sir George Reid
Succeeded by Andrew Fisher
In office
29 June 1909 – 29 April 1910
Preceded by Andrew Fisher
Succeeded by Andrew Fisher

Born 3 August 1856
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Died 7 October 1919
Political party Protectionist, Fusion

Alfred William Deakin (3 August 18567 October 1919), Australian politician, was a leader of the movement for Australian federation and later second Prime Minister of Australia. converted version of Image:Alfreddeakin. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Federal elections for the inaugural Parliament of Australia were held in Australia on March 29 and March 30, 1901 following the establishment of the Federation of Australia. ... Federal elections were held in Australia on April 13, 1910. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Edmund Barton GCMG PC QC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ... John Christian Watson (9 April 1867 (exact date uncertain) - 18 November 1941), Australian politician and third Prime Minister of Australia, usually known as Chris Watson, was born in Valparaíso, Chile, probably on April 9, 1867. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... George Houstoun Reid (25 February 1845 – 12 September 1918), Australian politician and fourth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, son of a Church of Scotland minister, migrated to Victoria with his family as a child. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... Capital Melbourne Government Const. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Protectionist Party was a political party in Australia from the 1880s until 1909. ... The Commonwealth Liberal Party, usually called The Fusion, was a political movement active in Australia shortly after federation. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia federated on 1 January 1901, to form the Commonwealth of Australia, of which they became component states. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ...

Contents

Early life

Deakin was the only son of English immigrants William Deakin, accountant, and his wife Sarah Bill, daughter of a Shropshire farmer. Deakin was born in Fitzroy, Melbourne. He was educated at Melbourne Grammar School before graduating in law from the University of Melbourne. Nevertheless he made his name not as a lawyer but as a journalist, working for the Melbourne daily The Age and its autocratic owner, David Syme. He was active in the Australian Natives Association and was also a lifelong spiritualist. Fitzroy is an inner city suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... Melbourne Grammar School is an independent school in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, founded in 1858. ... The Old Quad Building, formerly Old Law The University of Melbourne, located in Melbourne, Victoria, is the second oldest university in Australia, and the oldest in Victoria. ... The Age is a broadsheet daily newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. ... David Syme (October 2, 1827 - February 14, 1908) was an Scottish-Australian newspaper proprietor of The Age and regarded as the father of protection in Australia who had immense influence in the Government of Victoria. ... An Australian Natives Association banquet held in 1901 to honour Prime Minister Edmund Barton, following his return from the United Kingdom. ... By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was the object of intense curiosity. ...


Victorian politics and the road to Federation

Deakin won the election to the Parliament of Victoria in 1879, as a protectionist and a supporter of the radical Premier, Graham Berry. Between 1883 and 1890 he held office in several ministries. He could probably have been Premier himself, but from 1890 onwards he devoted his attention to the movement for federation. Furthermore, he was nearly ruined in the property crash of 1891, and had to return to the bar to restore his finances. Sir Graham Berry Graham Berry (28 August 1822 - 25 January 1904), Australian colonial politician, was the 11th Premier of Victoria. ...


Deakin was a delegate to the Federal Conventions of 1891 and 1897-98, and federation became the greatest cause of his life. His early radicalism had become tempered by realism, and he accepted the rather conservative draft constitution which emerged from the conventions, even though it led to a break with some of his old colleagues.


In 1900 Deakin travelled to London to oversee the passage of the federation bill through the Imperial Parliament, and took part in the negotiations with Joseph Chamberlain, the Colonial Secretary, which nearly derailed the whole process. Deakin defined himself as an "independent Australian Briton," favouring a self-governing Australia but loyal to the British Empire. He certainly did not see federation as marking Australia's independence from Britain. On the contrary, Deakin was a supporter of closer empire unity, serving as president of the Victorian branch of the Imperial Federation League, a cause he believed to be a stepping stone to a more spiritual world unity. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Rt. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Imperial Federation was a mid-19th Century proposal to create a federated union in place of the existing British Empire. ...


Federal politics

In 1901 he was elected to the first federal Parliament as MP for Ballarat, and became Attorney-General in the ministry headed by Edmund Barton. No-one doubted, however, that Deakin was the real leader of the government. When Barton retired to become one of the founding justices of the High Court of Australia, Deakin succeeded him as Prime Minister on September 24, 1903. The Division of Ballarat is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ... Sir Edmund Barton GCMG PC QC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ...


But Deakin's path as Prime Minister was far from smooth. His Protectionist Party did not have a majority in either House, and he held office only by courtesy of the Labor Party, which insisted on legislation more radical than Deakin was willing to accept. In April 1904 he resigned. The Labor leader John Christian Watson and the Free Trade leader George Reid succeeded him, but neither could form a stable ministry. The Protectionist Party was a political party in Australia from the 1880s until 1909. ... The Australian Labor Party (ALP) is Australias oldest political party. ... Hon Chris Watson John Christian Watson (April 9, 1867 (exact date uncertain) - November 18, 1941), Australian Labor politician and third Prime Minister of Australia, usually known as Chris Watson, was born in Valparaiso, Chile, probably on April 9, 1867. ... The Free Trade Party was a political party in Australia from the 1880s until 1909. ... Rt Hon George Reid George Houstoun Reid (February 25, 1845 - September 12, 1918), Australian politician and fourth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, son of a Church of Scotland minister, migrated to Victoria with his family as a child. ...


Deakin resumed office in mid-1905, and retained it for three years. During this, the longest and most successful of his terms as Prime Minister, his government passed much of the foundational legislation of the Australian Commonwealth, including bills to create an Australian currency and an Australian Navy (although the actual establishment of the Navy was left to his Labor successor). In 1908 he was again forced from office by Labor. He then formed a coalition, the "Fusion", with his old conservative opponent Reid, and returned to power in 1909 at the head of Australia's first majority government. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ...


The Fusion was seen by many as a betrayal of Deakin's liberal principles, and in April 1910 his party was soundly defeated at the polls by Labor under Andrew Fisher. Deakin retired from Parliament in 1913 and withdrew from public life. He suffered a progressive mental collapse (probably due to early-onset Alzheimer's disease) and became an invalid, dying in 1919 aged only 63. Andrew Fisher at the naming of Canberra ceremony, 1913 Andrew Fisher (29 August 1862 - 22 October 1928), Australianpolitician and fifth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Crosshouse, a mining village near Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Journalism

Deakin continued to write prolifically throughout his career. He wrote anonymous political commentaries for the London Morning Post even while he was prime minister. His account of the federation movement appeared as The Federal Story in 1944 and is a vital primary source for this history. His account of his career in Victorian politics in the 1880s was published as The Crisis in Victorian Politics in 1957. His collected journalism was published as Federated Australia in 1968.


Legacy

Alfred Deakin was almost universally liked, admired and respected by his contemporaries, who called him "Affable Alfred." He made his only real enemies at the time of the Fusion, when not only Labor but some liberals such as William Lyne reviled him as a traitor. He had a long and happy marriage to Pattie Deakin (nee Elizabeth Browne), and had three daughters: Sir William Lyne Sir William John Lyne (6 April 1844 - 3 August 1913), Australian politician, was Premier of New South Wales and a member of the first federal ministry. ...

  • Ivy married Herbert Brooks
  • Stella married Sir David Rivett
  • Vera married Hon. T. W. White

His descendants are still active in Melbourne political and business circles (notably his great-grandson Tom Harley), and he is regarded as a founding father by the modern Liberal Party. The Division of Deakin is named after him. The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... The Division of Deakin is an Australian Electoral Division in Victoria. ...


See also

The First Deakin Ministry was the second Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 24th September 1903 to 27th April 1904. ... The Second Deakin Ministry was the fifth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 5th July 1905 to 12th December 1906. ... The Third Deakin Ministry was the sixth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 12th December 1906 to 13th November 1908. ... The Fourth Deakin Ministry was the eighth Australian Commonwealth ministry, and ran from 2nd June 1909 to 29th April 1910. ...

Reference

The Dictionary of Australian Biography, first published in 1949, is a reference work by Percival Serle containing information on notable people associated with Australian history. ...

Further reading

  • John A La Nauze, Alfred Deakin: A Biography, two volumes, Melbourne University Press 1965
  • Al Gabay, The Mystic Life of Alfred Deakin, Cambridge University Press

External links

  • Alfred Deakin - Australia's Prime Ministers / National Archives of Australia
  • Guide to the papers of Alfred Deakin held and selectively digitised by the National Library of Australia
  • Alfred Deakin Prime Ministerial Library
  • Deakin University
  • Alfred Deakin: What is Liberalism?
Preceded by
None
Attorney General of Australia
1901–1903
Succeeded by
James Drake
Preceded by
Edmund Barton
Prime Minister of Australia
1903–1904
Succeeded by
Chris Watson
Preceded by
George Reid
Leader of the Opposition
1904-1905
Succeeded by
Andrew Fisher
Preceded by
George Reid
Prime Minister of Australia
1905 –1908
Succeeded by
Andrew Fisher
Preceded by
Andrew Fisher
Leader of the Opposition
1908-1909
Succeeded by
Andrew Fisher
Preceded by
Andrew Fisher
Prime Minister of Australia
1909–1910
Succeeded by
Andrew Fisher
Prime Ministers of Australia
Barton | Deakin | Watson | Reid | Fisher | Cook | Hughes | Bruce | Scullin | Lyons | Page | Menzies | Fadden | Curtin | Forde | Chifley | Holt | McEwen | Gorton | McMahon | Whitlam | Fraser | Hawke | Keating | Howard

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alfred Deakin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (836 words)
Deakin was born in Melbourne, Victoria, the son of English immigrants.
Deakin was elected to the colonial Parliament of Victoria in 1879, as a liberal protectionist and a supporter of the radical Premier, Graham Berry.
Deakin was a delegate to the Federal Conventions of 1891 and 1897-98, and federation became the greatest cause of his life.
Deakin, Australian Capital Territory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (437 words)
Deakin (postcode: 2600) is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
Deakin is named after Alfred Deakin, second prime minister of Australia.
On census night 2001 Deakin 2716 people were present in Deakin, although the suburb had an estimated resident population of 2663.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m