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Encyclopedia > Alfonso I d'Este
Alfonso d'Este after Titian (attributed to Bastianino: Alfonso relaxes by a cannon's mouth, with his hand on the hilt of his sword
Alfonso d'Este after Titian (attributed to Bastianino: Alfonso relaxes by a cannon's mouth, with his hand on the hilt of his sword
Tomb of Alfonso d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia, Ferrara.
Tomb of Alfonso d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia, Ferrara.

Alfonso d'Este (21 July 147631 October 1534) was Duke of Ferrara during the time of the War of the League of Cambrai. Image File history File links Alfonso dEste Source: nl:Afbeelding:AlfonsoIdEste. ... Image File history File links Alfonso dEste Source: nl:Afbeelding:AlfonsoIdEste. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 1200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lucrezia Borgia Alfonso I dEste Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 1200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lucrezia Borgia Alfonso I dEste Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... This article is about the historical person. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Dukes of Modena. ... The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names,[1] was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. ...

Contents

Biography

He was the son of Ercole I d'Este and Leonora of Naples.
In the first year of his rule he uncovered a plot by his brother Ferrante and half-brother Giulio, directed against him and his other brother Ippolito. In September 1506 a trial for Lese-Majesty and high treason was held and, as expected, the death sentence was passed, but just as Ferrante and Giulio were about to mount the gallows they were informed that the duke had commuted their sentence to life imprisonment. They were led away to two cells in the Torre dei Leoni. Ferrante died in his cell after 34 years of imprisonment, while Giulio held on until he was pardoned in 1559, after 53 years of imprisonment. After his release, Giulio was ridiculed in the streets of Ferrara for his outdated clothes. Ercole dEste I (1431 – 1505) was Duke of Ferrara from 1471 until 1505. ... Leonora of Naples or Eleonora of Aragon (June 22, 1450 - October 11, 1493) was the first Duchess of Ferrara. ... Ippolito (I) dEste (March 20, 1479 - September 3, 1520) was a Roman Catholic cardinal. ... Lese majesty, leze majesty, or lèse majesté (from the Latin Laesa maiestatis, injury to the Majesty) is the crime of violating majesty, an offense against the dignity of a reigning sovereign or against a state. ...


In the Italian Wars Alfonso preserved his precarious position among the contending powers by flexibility and vigilance and the unrivalled fortifications of Ferrara; he entered the League of Cambrai against Venice and remained an ally of Louis XII of France even after Pope Julius II had made peace with Venice; when the Bolognesi rebelled against Julius and toppled Michelangelo's bronze statue of the Pope from above the gate, Alfonso received the shards and recast them as a cannon named La Giulia, which he set on the ramparts of the castello: in 1510 Julius excommunicated him and declared his fiefs forfeit, thereby adding Ferrara to the Papal States; Alfonso then fought successfully against the Venetian and Papal armies, gaining the Battle of Polesella, capturing Bologna, and playing a major part in the French victory at the Battle of Ravenna (1512). These successes were based on Ferrara's artillery, produced in his own foundry which was the best of its time. In both of his portraits by Titian, (Compare illutration above) he poses with his arm across the mouth of one of his cannon. Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... The League of Cambrai was a league against Venice formed on December 10, 1508 under the leadership of Pope Julius II. It included, besides the Pope, Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand of Aragon. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Louis XII (b. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... Combatants France, Ferrara Spain, Papal States Commanders Gaston de Foix† Ramon de Cardona Strength 26,000 12,000 Casualties 3,000 dead or wounded 9,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Ravenna, fought on April 11, 1512, by forces of the Holy League and France, was a major battle... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ...


In 15261527 Alfonso participated in the expedition of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain, against Pope Clement VII, and in 1530 the pope again recognized him as possessor of the forfeited duchies of Modena and Reggio. January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Reggio is the name of two Italian towns: Reggio Calabria, in the South, also called Reggio di Calabria or, in ancient times, Pallantion, Rhegion, Febea, Regium, Rhegium Julium, Risa, Rivah; Reggio Emilia, in the North, sometimes called Reggio nell Emilia or, in ancient times, Reggio di Lombardia or Reggio di...


Alfonso first wife was Anna Sforza, the sister of Gian Galeazzo Sforza. His second wife was Lucrezia Borgia. Gian Galeazzo Sforza (June 20, 1469 - October 21, 1494), the third duke of Milan of the Sforza family, was only 7 years old when he became the duke in 1476, after the assassination of his father, Galeazzo Maria Sforza. ... This article is about the historical person. ...


Like his brother Ippolito I, Cardinal d'Este, he was one of the great patrons of art of his time: for him the elderly Giovanni Bellini painted The Feast of the Gods in 1514, Bellini's last completed painting. He turned to Bellini's pupil, Titian, for a sequence of paintings. In 1529 Alfonso created the most magnificent gallery of his time, his studiolo or camerino d'alabastro ('small alabaster room'), now usually known as his "Camerino", in order to better display his works of art against white marble-veneered walls under a gilded ceiling ([1]). The pallor of the marble led to the name of this room as the chamber of alabaster. There are documents from Mario Equicola on 9 October 1511, noting plans for painting of a room in Ferrara, in which six fables (fabule) or histories (istorie) shall be placed. I have already found them and have presented them in writing." A letter from Alfonso, dated 14 November 1514, authorized payment to Giovanni Bellini, the first painting completed for the chamber. Ippolito (I) dEste (March 20, 1479 - September 3, 1520) was a Roman Catholic cardinal. ... Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror, Bellinis first female nude, painted when he was about 85 years old. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ...

Aeneas and Achates on the Libyan shore, painted by Dosso Dossi for Alfonso's camerino d'alabastro (National Gallery of Art, Washington).

Titian is known to have painted two portraits of Alfonso: the first was widely acclaimed, singled out by Michelangelo and coerced as a diplomatic gift by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; Alfonso induced Titian to paint a free replica, which the artist of the painting illustrated above has adapted for his model.[1] Over the next two decades, Titian added three more paintings: [The Worship of Venus] (Museo del Prado, Madrid), [The Bacchanal of the Andrians] (Prado, Madrid), and Bacchus and Ariadne (National Gallery, London). Dosso Dossi produced another large bacchanal, and he also contributed ceiling decorations and a painted frieze for the cornice, depicting scenes from the Aeneid, which gained immediacy by showing the heroes in contemporary dress (illustration, left). All the bacchanals in the Alabaster Chamber dealt with love, and some refer to marriage. After the Este family lost control of Ferrara in 1598, the Alabaster Chamber's paintings and sculpture were dispersed. Circe and her Lovers in a Landscape, 1514 - 1516. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... Bacchus and Ariadne (1520-3) is an oil painting by Titian. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... Circe and her Lovers in a Landscape, 1514 - 1516. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...


Alfonso inherited from Cardinal d'Este the poet Ariosto. Following in the lead of his father Ercole, who had made Ferrara into one of the musical centers of Europe, Alfonso brought some of the most famous musicians of the time to his court to work as composers, instrumentalists and singers. Musicians from northern Europe who worked at Ferrara during his reign included Antoine Brumel and Adrian Willaert, the latter of whom was to become the founder of the Venetian School, something which could not have happened without Alfonso's patronage. Ludovico Ariosto (September 8, 1474 _ July 6, 1533) was a Ferrarese poet, author of the epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), Orlando Enraged. He was born at Reggio, in Hungary in 1518, and wished Aniosto to accompany him. ... Antoine Brumel (around 1460 – 1512 or 1513) was a French composer. ... Adrian Willaert (c. ... San Marco in the evening. ...


When Alfonso’s grandson Alfonso II d'Este, Robert Browning's duke of "My Last Duchess" [2], produced no male heir the main d'Este line died out. A grandson of Alfonso I and cousin of Alfonso II, Cesare d'Este had born out of wedlock. He was recognized by the Emperor but not by the Pope, who took by force the Duchy of Ferrara. The House of Este continued in Modena and Reggio nevertheless. Alfonso II dEste. ... Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ... My Last Duchess is a poem by Robert Browning, frequently anthologized as an outstanding example of the dramatic monologue. ... Cesare dEste in 1552 Cesare dEste (1561 - December 11, 1628) was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1597 until his death. ...


Ancestors

Alfonso's ancestors in three generations
Alfonso I d'Este Father:
Ercole d'Este I
Paternal Grandfather:
Niccolò III d'Este
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Alberto d'Este
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Isotta Albaresani
Paternal Grandmother:
Ricciarda da Saluzzo
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Thomas III of Saluzzo
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Marguerite of Roussy
Mother:
Leonora of Naples
Maternal Grandfather:
Ferdinand I of Naples
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Alfonso V of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Maternal Grandmother:
Isabella of Taranto
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Tristan de Clermont
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Catherine of Taranto

Ercole I dEste, possibly by Dosso Dossi (Galleria Estense, Modena) Ercole I dEste (October 26, 1431 – June 15, 1505) was Duke of Ferrara from 1471 until 1505. ... Niccolò III dEste. ... Thomas III of Saluzzo (Italian: Tommaso III di Saluzzo; 1356 - 1416) was margrave of Saluzzo from 1396 until his death. ... Leonora of Naples or Eleonora of Aragon (June 22, 1450 - October 11, 1493) was the first Duchess of Ferrara. ... Ferdinand I (1423 - January 25, 1494), also called Don Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. ... Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tristano Chiaromonte, a French-born knight who married Catherine, youngest daughter of Mary of Enghien and Raimondo del Balzo Orsini, prince of Taranto. ... Caterina del Balzo Orsini was a daughter of Mary of Enghien and Raimondo del Balzo Orsini di Nola. ...

See also

For Tolkiens fictional character, see Estë To know more about the city, see Este The House of Este is a European princely dynasty. ... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as...

References

  1. ^ Bryson Burroughs, "The Portrait of Alfonso d'Este by Titian" The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 22.4 (April 1927), pp. 97-101.
  • Taylor, Frederick Lewis (1973). The Art of War in Italy, 1494-1529. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-5025-6.

External links

Preceded by
Ercole I
Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio
1505–1534
forfeit 1510–1530
Succeeded by
Ercole II
Ercole I dEste, possibly by Dosso Dossi (Galleria Estense, Modena) Ercole I dEste (October 26, 1431 – June 15, 1505) was Duke of Ferrara from 1471 until 1505. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Dukes of Modena. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Dukes of Ferrara and of Modena. ... Ercole II dEste (April 5, 1508 - October 3, 1559) was Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio from 1534 to 1559. ...

 
 

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