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Encyclopedia > Alf Landon
Alf Landon

Alfred Mossman "Alf" Landon (September 9, 1887October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. Image File history File links Alflandon. ... Image File history File links Alflandon. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... FDR redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Contents

Early Life

Born in West Middlesex, Pennsylvania, in 1887, Landon grew up in Ohio. He moved with his family to Kansas at age 17. He graduated from the University of Kansas in 1908. He first pursued a career in banking, but in 1912 he became an independent petroleum producer. During World War I, he served in the Army as a first lieutenant in chemical warfare. He became a millionaire in the oil industry by 1929. West Middlesex is a borough in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, along the Shenango River. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


Political career

Landon's interest in politics began early. He supported Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive Party in 1912, and, in 1922, was private secretary to the governor of Kansas. He later became known as the leader of the liberal Republicans in the state. He was elected chairman of the Republican state central committee in 1928 and directed the Republican successful presidential and gubernatorial campaigns in Kansas in that year. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ...


Landon was elected Governor of Kansas in 1932. He was re-elected governor in 1934--the only Republican governor in the nation to be re-elected that year. He served as governor from 1933 until 1937. As Governor, Landon gained a reputation for reducing taxes and balancing the budget. Landon is often described as a fiscal conservative who nevertheless believed that government must also address social issues. He supported parts of the New Deal but opposed labor unions. This is a list of Governors of Kansas. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ...


1936 Election

In 1936, Landon sought the Republican presidential nominee opposing the re-election of FDR. At the Republican National Convention in 1936, Landon's campaign manager John Hamilton mobilized the younger elements of the party against the faction led by Herbert Hoover. Landon won the nomination on the first ballot; the convention selected Chicago newspaper publisher Frank Knox as his running mate. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Republican National Convention, held every four years, is the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ...

Alf Landon on the cover of Time magazine on May 18, 1936.

Landon proved to be an ineffective campaigner who rarely traveled to make appearances. Most of the attacks on FDR and social security during the 1936 election were developed by Republican campaigners rather than Landon himself. In the two months after his nomination he made no campaign appearances. As columnist Westbrook Pegler lampooned, "Considerable mystery surrounds the disappearance of Alfred M. Landon of Topeka, Kans.... The Missing Persons Bureau has sent out an alarm bulletin bearing Mr. Landon's photograph and other particulars, and anyone having information of his whereabouts is asked to communicate direct with the Republican National Committee." [Time, Aug. 31, 1936] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Social security primarily refers to a field of social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ... Westbrook Pegler (2 August 1894 - 24 June 1969) was a United States journalist and writer. ...


Landon respected and admired Roosevelt and accepted much of the New Deal but objected that it was hostile to business and involved too much waste and inefficiency. Late in the campaign, Landon accused Roosevelt of corruption--that is, of acquiring so much power that he was subverting the Constitution. Landon said:

The President spoke truly when he boasted... 'We have built up new instruments of public power.' He spoke truly when he said these instruments could provide 'shackles for the liberties of the people . . . and . . . enslavement for the public.' These powers were granted with the understanding that they were only temporary. But after the powers had been obtained, and after the emergency was clearly over, we were told that another emergency would be created if the power was given up. In other words, the concentration of power in the hands of the President was not a question of temporary emergency. It was a question of permanent national policy. In my opinion the emergency of 1933 was a mere excuse.... National economic planning—the term used by this Administration to describe its policy—violates the basic ideals of the American system. . . . The price of economic planning is the loss of economic freedom. And economic freedom and personal liberty go hand in hand. [Time Oct. 26, 1936]

The 1936 Presidential election was extraordinarily lopsided. Although Landon gained nearly 17 million votes and obtained the endorsement of track star Jesse Owens, he lost the popular vote by more than 10 million votes. He carried only Maine and Vermont for a total of 8 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 523. FDR's win was the most crushing electoral victory since 1820. The overwhelming Roosevelt victory prompted Democratic party boss James Farley to joke, "As Maine goes, so goes Vermont." Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James Cleveland Jesse Owens (September 12, 1913 – March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete. ... Official language(s) None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked 45th  - Total 9,620 sq mi (24,923 km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... House Resolution 368, 97th Congress, 2nd Session, March 2 1982 Robert Caro, The Path to Power James (Jim) Aloysius Farley (May 30, 1888–June 9, 1976) was an American politician who served as head of the Democratic National Committee and Postmaster General. ... As Maine goes, so goes the nation is a phrase that at one time was in wide currency in United States politics. ...


Later life

Following his defeat, Landon finished out his term as governor of Kansas and returned to the oil industry. Landon did not seek elective office again. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The Republicans' defeats in 1932 and 1936 plunged their party into a period of bitter intraparty strife. Landon played an important role in ending this internal bickering in 1938, in helping to prepare a new group of leaders for the presidential campaign of 1940, and in trying to bring about a compromise between the isolationist and internationalist viewpoints in foreign policy. Landon failed to enter Franklin Roosevelt's Cabinet because he made his acceptance contingent upon the President's renunciation of a third term. [Mayer 1966]


After war broke out in Europe in 1939 Landon fought against isolationists such as America First who supported the Neutrality Act; he feared it would mislead Nazi Germany into thinking the United States was unwilling to fight. In 1940 he argued against lend-lease, urging instead that Britain be given $5 billion outright. After the war, he backed the Marshall Plan, while opposing high domestic spending. After the communist takeover of China, he was one of the first to advocate recognition of Mao Zedong's communist government, and its admission to the United Nations, when this was still a very unpopular position among the leadership and followers of both major parties. The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ... Several United States laws have been called Neutrality Acts: The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited American citizens from selling arms to belligerents in international war. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


In 1961, he urged the U.S. to join the European Common Market. In November 1962, when he was asked to describe his political philosophy, Landon said: I would say practical progressive, which means that the Republican party or any political party has got to recognize the problems of a growing and complex industrial civilization. And I don't think the Republican party is really wide awake to that. Later in the 1960s, Landon backed President Lyndon Johnson on Medicare and other Great Society programs. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... The Great Society was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969). ...


On December 13, 1966, Landon gave the first "Landon Lecture" at Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas. Landon's lecture, titled "New Challenges in International Relations" was the first in a series of public issues lectures that continues to this day and has featured numerous world leaders and political figures, including seven U.S. presidents (Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush). December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Kansas State University, commonly shortened to K-State, is an institution of higher learning located in Manhattan, Kansas, in the United States. ... Riley County Courthouse, Manhattan Manhattan is a town located in northeastern Kansas at the junction of the Kansas River and Big Blue River. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... this guy is awsome i played him in a school play he also has some pretty funky history Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Landon died October 12, 1987, in Topeka, Kansas, 34 days after his 100th birthday. When he died, he was the earliest born U.S. governor of any state still living, a title he assumed in 1984 on the death of George Alexander Parks, another centenarian. When Landon died, the title went to Albert B. Chandler of Kentucky. Alf Landon is buried at Mount Hope Cemetery, Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... George Alexander Parks (May 29, 1883–May 11, 1984) was an American Republican politician who was the Governor of Alaska Territory from 1925 to 1933. ... A centenarian is a person who has attained the age of 100 years or more. ... Albert Chandler Albert Benjamin Chandler, Sr. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the state capital of Kansas. ... Shawnee County (standard abbreviation: SN) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


His daughter, Nancy Landon Kassebaum, was a United States Senator from Kansas. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1978, she was re-elected in 1984 and 1990. Her second husband is her former senatorial colleague Howard Henry Baker, Jr., of Tennessee. Nancy Landon Kassebaum Baker (born July 29, 1932) represented the state of Kansas in the United States Senate from 1978 to 1997. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Sen. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ...


References

  • McCoy, Donald R. Landon of Kansas (1966) standard scholarly biography
  • Mayer, George H. "Alf M. Landon, as Leader of the Republican Opposition, 1937-1940." Kansas Historical Quarterly 1966 32(3): 325-333. Issn: 0022-8621
  • Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site

External links

  • coverage in Time Magazine
  • Alf Landon's Obituary (New York Times)
  • Alfred M. Landon Lecture Series on Public Issues (Kansas State University)
  • Alf Landon and Social Security Reform by Nicholaus Mills, Dissent, Spring 2005.
Preceded by
Harry H. Woodring
Governor of Kansas
1933–1937
Succeeded by
Walter A. Huxman
Preceded by
Herbert Hoover
Republican Party Presidential candidate
1936 (lost)
Succeeded by
Wendell Willkie
Preceded by
George Alexander Parks
Earliest serving US governor
1984–1987
Succeeded by
Albert B. Chandler

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alf Landon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (808 words)
Alfred Mossman "Alf" Landon (September 9, 1887 October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Landon was elected Governor of Kansas in 1932.
Landon respected and admired FDR and accepted much of the New Deal but objected that it was hostile to business and involved too much waste.
Alf M. Landon, as Leader of the Republican Opposition, 1937-1940, by George H. Mayer, Autumn 1966 (3440 words)
Landon demonstrated the constructive possibilities in the office but his example was wasted on both his contemporaries and his successors.
Landon objected to any kind of convention before the midterm election; but instead of opposing it openly he proposed conditions that would make it unacceptable to others; [16] He advocated a plan for the admission of delegates that would prevent the Hoover faction from dominating the convention.
Landon was disturbed by the outcome because it tempted Republican orators to speak more charitably of foreign leaders than of their own government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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