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Encyclopedia > Alexius I Comnenus
Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus

Alexius I (1048August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (10811118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). Painting of Alexius I, from a Greek manuscript in the Vatican library This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Painting of Alexius I, from a Greek manuscript in the Vatican library This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Events The city of Oslo is founded by Harald Hardråde of Norway. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births December 21 - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Taira no Kiyomori, Japanese general Deaths January 21 - Pope... The Byzantine Empire (Native Greek names: ΡΩΜΑΝΙΑ Romania or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ Basileia Romaion) is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births December 21 - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury Taira no Kiyomori, Japanese general Deaths January 21 - Pope... Isaac I Comnenus (c. ...


His father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanus IV Diogenes (10671071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks. Under Michael VII Parapinaces (10711078) and Nicephorus III Botaniates (10781081) he was also employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace and in Epirus in 1071. Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ... Nicephorus III Botaniates, Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081, belonged to a family which claimed descent from the Roman Fabii; he rose to be commander of the troops in Asia. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in south-east Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, north-eastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Epirus - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ...


The success of the Comneni roused the jealousy of Botaniates and his ministers, and the Comneni were almost compelled to take up arms in self-defence. Botaniates was forced to abdicate and retire to a monastery, and Isaac declined the crown in favour of his younger brother Alexius, who then became emperor at the age of 33. Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus family was an important family in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ...


By that time Alexius was the lover of the Empress Maria of Alania, an Alan princess from the Caucasus who was successively married to Michael VII Ducas and his successor Botaniates, and was renowned for her beauty. Alexius and Maria lived almost openly together at the Palace of Mangana, and Alexius had Michael VII and Maria's young son, the prince Constantine Ducas, adopted and proclaimed heir to the throne. The affair conferred to Alexius a degree of dynastic legitimacy, but soon his mother Anna Dalassena consolidated the Ducas family connection by arranging the Emperor's wedding with Irene Ducaena or Doukaina, granddaughter of the caesar John Ducas, head of a powerful feudal family and the "kingmaker" behind Michael VII. The Alans or Alani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... The Caucasus , a region boardering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ...


Alexius' involvement with Maria continued and shortly after his daughter Anna Comnena was born, she was betrothed to Constantine Ducas and moved to live at the Mangana Palace with him and Maria. The situation however changed drastically when John II Comnenus was born: Anna's engagement to Constantine was dissolved, she was moved to the main Palace to live with her mother and grandmother, Constantine's status as heir was terminated and Alexius became estranged with Maria, now stripped of her imperial title. Shortly afterwards, the teenager Constantine died and Maria was confined to a convent. Anna Comnena ( December 1, 1083 - 1153) was a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and is the first known female historian. ... Mosaic of John II John II Comnenus (September 13, 1087 - April 8, 1143) was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. ...

Enlarge
This coin was struck by Alexius during his war against Robert Guiscard.

Alexius' long reign of nearly 37 years was full of struggle. At the very outset he had to meet the formidable attack of the Normans (Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund), who took Dyrrhachium and Corfu, and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly (see Battle of Dyrrhachium). The Norman danger ended for the time with Robert Guiscard's death in 1085, and the conquests were reversed. Alexius I Comnenus. ... Alexius I Comnenus. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were Scandinavian invaders (especially Danish Vikings) who began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th century. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... Durrës (Photo by Marc Morell) The palace of king Zog I in Durrës (Photo by Joonas Lyytinen) Durrës (Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo) is the most ancient city of Albania and one of the most economically important as the biggest port city. ... (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ... Larissa or Larisa (Greek: Λάρισα) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Larissa prefecture. ... Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by Alexius I, and the Normans under Robert Guiscard. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ...


He had next to repel the invasions of Pechenegs and Cumans in Thrace, with whom the Manichaean sect of the Bogomils made common cause; and thirdly, he had to cope with the fast-growing power of the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor. Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ...


Above all he had to meet the difficulties caused by the arrival of the knights of the First Crusade, which had been, to a great degree, initiated as the result of the representations of his own ambassadors, whom he had sent to Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza in 1095. The help which he wanted from the West was simply mercenary forces and not the immense hosts which arrived, to his consternation and embarrassment. The first group, under Peter the Hermit, he dealt with by sending them on to Asia Minor, where they were massacred by the Turks in 1096. A silver statue of an armoured knight, created as a trophy in 1850 For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... Urban II, né Otho of Lagery (or Otto or Odo) (1042 - July 29, 1099), pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099, was born into nobility in France at Lagery (near Châtillon-sur-Marne) and was church educated. ... The Council of Piacenza was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which took place from March 1 to March 5, 1095, at Piacenza. ... Events The county of Portugal is established for the second time. ... A mercenary is a soldier who fights, or engages in warfare primarily for money, usually with little regard for ideological, national or political considerations. ... Peter the Hermit preaching the First Crusade, as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book Peter the Hermit was a priest of Amiens, in France. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as...


The second and much more serious host of knights, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he also led into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Byzantine Empire a number of important cities and islands—Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (10971099). This is ascribed by his daughter Anna as a credit to his policy and diplomacy, but by the Latin historians of the crusade as a sign of his treachery and falseness. The crusaders believed their oaths were made invalid when Alexius did not help them during the siege of Antioch; Bohemund, who had set himself up as Prince of Antioch, briefly went to war with Alexius, but agreed to become Alexius' vassal under the Treaty of Devol in 1108. Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... Nicaea (now İznik) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Khios, or Chios as most Greek English speakers know the island, is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... Outside the city walls of the medieval city of Rhodes Rhodes, Greek Ροδος (Rodos), is the largest of the Dodecanese islands, and easternmost of the major islands of Greece in the Aegean Sea. ... Shows the Location of the Province İzmir Izmir from space, June 1996 Izmir (Turkish spelling İzmir, contraction of its original Greek name Smyrna, Σμυρνη), the second-largest port (after İstanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey is located on the Aegean Sea near... Ephesus was one one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster river flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... Alasehir, Turkey began as perhaps one of the first ancient cities with the name Philadelphia. ... Sardis, (also Sardes) the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Events Siege of Jerusalem during the First Crusade: July 8 - 15,000 starving Christian soldiers march around Jerusalem as its Muslim defenders mock them. ... Anna Comnena ( December 1, 1083 - 1153) was a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and is the first known female historian. ... The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The Treaty of Devol was an agreement made in 1108 between Bohemund I of Antioch and Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, in the wake of the First Crusade. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ...


During the last twenty years of his life he lost much of his popularity. The years were marked by persecution of the followers of the Paulician and Bogomil heresies—one of his last acts was to burn Basilius, a Bogomil leader, with whom he had engaged in a theological controversy; by renewed struggles with the Turks (11101117); and by anxieties as to the succession, which his wife Irene wished to alter in favour of her daughter Anna's husband, Nicephorus Bryennius, for whose benefit the special title panhypersebastos ("honored above all") was created. This intrigue disturbed even his dying hours. Events December 4 - First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon. ... Events May 3 - Merton Priory (Thomas Becket school) consecrated. ... Nicephorus Bryennius (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople). ... The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. ...


Alexius was for many years under the strong influence of an eminence grise, his mother Anna Dalassena, a wise and immensely able politician whom, in a uniquely irregular fashion, he had crowned as Empress Augusta instead of the rightful claimant to the title, his wife Irene. Dalassena was the effective administrator of the Empire during Alexius' long absences in war campaigns: she was constantly at odds with her daughter-in-law and had assumed total responsibility for the upbringing and education of her granddaughter Anna Comnena. Anna Comnena ( December 1, 1083 - 1153) was a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and is the first known female historian. ...


External links

  • Alexius coinage: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/byz/alexius_I/t.html


Preceded by:
Nicephorus III
Byzantine Emperor
Succeeded by:
John II Comnenus


This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Nicephorus III Botaniates, Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081, belonged to a family which claimed descent from the Roman Fabii; he rose to be commander of the troops in Asia. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Mosaic of John II John II Comnenus (September 13, 1087 - April 8, 1143) was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexius I Comnenus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (810 words)
Alexius and Maria lived almost openly together at the Palace of Mangana, and Alexius had Michael VII and Maria's young son, the prince Constantine Ducas, adopted and proclaimed heir to the throne.
Alexius' involvement with Maria continued and shortly after his daughter Anna Comnena was born, she was betrothed to Constantine Ducas and moved to live at the Mangana Palace with him and Maria.
The situation however changed drastically when John II Comnenus was born: Anna's engagement to Constantine was dissolved, she was moved to the main Palace to live with her mother and grandmother, Constantine's status as heir was terminated and Alexius became estranged with Maria, now stripped of her imperial title.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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