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Encyclopedia > Alexis Petrovich
Alexei Petrovich interrogated by his father
Alexei Petrovich interrogated by his father

Alexei Petrovich (Алексей Петрович in Russian) (16901718), a Russian tsarevich, was the son of Tsar Peter I and his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina. Peter the Great Interrogating the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich at Peterhof. ... Peter the Great Interrogating the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich at Peterhof. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... // Events July 21 - Treaty of Passarowitz signed November 22 - Off the coast of Virginia, English pirate Edward Teach (best known as Blackbeard) is killed in battle when a British boarding party cornered and then shot and stabbed him more than 25 times. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Пётр I Алексеевич in Russian, or Pyotr I Alexeyevich) (10 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725] O.S.) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Evdokiya Feodorovna Lopukhina (Julian calendar, July 30, 1669 - August 27, 1731)/(Gregorian calendar, August 9, 1669 – September 7, 1731) was the first Empress consort of Peter I of Russia. ...

Contents


Childhood

The young Alexei was brought up by his mother, who fostered an atmosphere of disdain towards Peter the Great, Alexei's father. Alexei's relations with his father suffered from the hatred between his father and his mother, as it was very difficult for him to feel affection for his mother's worst persecutor. From the ages of 6 to 9, Alexei was educated by his tutor Vyazemsky, but after the removal of his mother by Peter the Great to the Suzdal Intercession Convent, Alexei was confined to the care of educated foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French. Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... St. ...


Military Career

In 1703, Alexei was ordered to follow the army to the field as a private in a bombardier regiment. In 1704, he was present at the capture of Narva. At this period, the preceptors of the tsarevich had the highest opinion of his ability. Alexei had strong leanings towards archaeology and ecclesiology. However, Peter had wished his son and heir to dedicate himself to the service of new Russia, and demanded from him unceasing labour in order to maintain Russia's new wealth and power. Painful relations between father and son, quite apart from the prior personal antipathies, were therefore inevitable. It was an additional misfortune for Alexei that his father should have been too busy to attend to him just as he was growing up from boyhood to manhood. He was left in the hands of reactionary boyars and priests, who encouraged him to hate his father and wish for the death of the tsar-antichrist. Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... For Bombardier Group, Canada see: Bombardier United Kingdom Bombardier and lance-bombardier are British Army ranks used in the Royal Artillery instead of (respectively) corporal and lance-corporal. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Importance and applicability Most of human history is not described by any written records. ... reading it, what more do you want? Ecclesiology, a term taken from the Greek word ecclesia, is that branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrine pertaining to the Church: its role in salvation, and its origin, its discipline, and its leadership. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet typically applied to conservatism. ... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist is a person or other entity that is the embodiment of evil and utterly opposed to truth. ...


In 1708 Peter sent Alexei to Smolensk to collect provender and recruits, and after that to Moscow to fortify it against Charles XII of Sweden. At the end of 1709, Alexei went to Dresden for one year. There, he finished lessons in French, German, mathematics and fortification. After his education, Alexei married princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, greatly against his will. The wedding was celebrated at Torgau on October 14, 1711, in the house of the queen of Poland. Three weeks later, the bridegroom was hurried away by his father to Torun to superintend the provisioning of the Russian troops in Poland. For the next twelve months Alexei was kept constantly on the move. His wife joined him at Torun in December, but in April 1712 a peremptory ukase ordered him off to the army in Pomerania, and in the autumn of the same year he was forced to accompany his father on a tour of inspection through Finland. // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: Смоленск;, Belarusian: Смаленск) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dniepr river at 54. ... Recruit (from the French recrue, from the verb recroître to grow again, i. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Charles XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitue), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Brühls Terrace Brühlsche Terrasse and the Frauenkirche   Dresden[?] IPA: is the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ... Charlotte Christine (29 August 1694 – 2 November 1715, Saint Petersburg), daughter of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was the wife of Grand Duke Alexei Petrovich of Russia. ... Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ... Toruń (pronounce: [:tɔruɲ], Kashubian: Torń, German Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern and Pommerellen, Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers...


Self-Exile

Immediately on his return from Finland, Alexei was despatched by his father to Staraya Russa and Lake Ladoga to see to the building of new ships. This was the last commission entrusted to him, since Peter had not been satisfied with his son's performance and his lack of enthusiasm. Nevertheless, Peter made one last effort to "reclaim" his son. On October 22, 1715, princess Charlotte died, after giving birth to a son, the grand-duke Peter, future tsar Peter II. On the day of the funeral, Peter sent Alexei a stern letter, urging him to take interest in the affairs of the state. Peter threatened to cut him off if he did not acquiesce in his father's plans. Alexei wrote a pitiful reply to his father, offering to renounce the succession in favour of his baby half-brother Peter, who had been born the day after the princess Charlotte's funeral. Furthermore, in January of 1716, Alexei asked his father for permission to become a monk. Staraya Russa (Старая Русса) is an old town located 99 km south of Novgorod the Great. ... Map of Scandinavia Lake Ladoga (Russian: Ладожское озеро, Finnish: Laatokka) is the largest lake in Europe, located in Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia (since WWII), near the border to Finland. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... // Events September 1 - King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years, leaving the throne of his exhausted and indebted country to his great-grandson Louis XV. Regent for the new, five years old monarch is Philippe dOrléans, nephew of Louis XIV. September - First of... Peter II (Пётр II Алексеевич in Russian) (October 23, 1715–January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... // Events Natchez, one of the oldest towns on the Mississippi, founded. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ...


Still, Peter did not despair. On the August 26, 1716 he wrote to Alexei from abroad, urging him, if he desired to remain tsarevich, to join him and the army without delay. Rather than face this ordeal, Alexei fled to Vienna and placed himself under the protection of his brother-in-law, the emperor Charles VI, who sent him for safety first to the Tirolean fortress of Ahrenberg, and finally to the castle of San Elmo at Naples. He was accompanied throughout his journey by his mistress, the Finnish girl Afrosina. That the emperor sincerely sympathized with Alexei, and suspected Peter of harbouring murderous designs against his son, is plain from his confidential letter to George I of the United Kingdom, whom he consulted on this delicate affair. Peter felt insulted. The flight of the tsarevich to a foreign potentate was a reproach and a scandal. He had to be recovered and brought back to Russia at all costs. This difficult task was accomplished by Count Peter Tolstoi, the most subtle and unscrupulous of Peter's servants. August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... Tyrol (Tirol in German) is a federal state or Bundesland, located in the west of Austria. ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... George I King of Great Britain and Ireland George I (George Ludwig von Guelph-dEste) (28 May 1660–11 June 1727) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ... Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy (1645 - 1729) was a Russian statesman prominent during and after the reign of Peter the Great. ...


The Return

Alexei would only consent to return on his father solemnly swearing, that if he came back he should not be punished in the least, but cherished as a son and allowed to live quietly on his estates and marry Afrosina. On the 31st of January 1718 the tsarevich reached Moscow. Peter had already determined to institute a most searching inquisition in order to get at the bottom of the mystery of the flight. On the 18th of February a "confession" was extorted from Alexei which implicated most of his friends, and he then publicly renounced the succession to the throne in favour of the baby grand-duke Peter Petrovich. A horrible reign of terror ensued, in the course of which the ex-tsaritsa Eudoxia was dragged from her monastery and publicly tried for alleged adultery, while all who had in any way befriended Alexei were impaled, broken on the wheel and otherwise lingeringly done to death. All this was done to terrorize the reactionaries and isolate the tsarevich. January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events July 21 - Treaty of Passarowitz signed November 22 - Off the coast of Virginia, English pirate Edward Teach (best known as Blackbeard) is killed in battle when a British boarding party cornered and then shot and stabbed him more than 25 times. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than their lawful spouse. ... Woodblock print of Vlad III Dracula attending a mass impalement. ...


In April 1718 fresh confessions were extorted from Alexei. Yet even now there were no actual facts to go upon. The worst that could be brought against him was that he had wished his father's death. In the eyes of Peter, his son was now a self-convicted and most dangerous traitor, whose life was forfeit. But there was no getting over the fact that his father had sworn to pardon him and let him live in peace if he returned to Russia. The whole matter was solemnly submitted to a grand council of prelates, senators, ministers and other dignitaries on the 13th of June 1718. The clergy left the matter to the tsar's own decision. The temporal dignitaries declared the evidence to be insufficient and suggested that Alexei should be examined by torture. A prelate is a member of the clergy who either has ordinary jurisdiction over a group of people or ranks in precedence with ordinaries. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ...


Accordingly, on the 19th of June, the weak and ailing tsarevich received twenty-five strokes with the knout, and on the 24th - fifteen more. It was hardly possible that he could survive such treatment. On June 26, Alexei died in the Petropavlovskaya fortress in Saint Petersburg, two days after the senate had condemned him to death for conspiring rebellion against his father, and for hoping for the cooperation of the common people and the armed intervention of his brother-in-law, the emperor. Some historians believe that Alexei actually died of strangulation by one of Peter's servants. June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... A knout (rhymes with boot) is a heavy scourge-like whip, usually made of a bunch of rawhide thongs attached to a long handle, sometimes with metal wire or hooks incorporated. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Further Reading

  • Matthew S. Anderson, Peter the Great (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978).
  • Robert Nisbet Bain, The First Romanovs 1613 – 1725 (London, 1905; reprint, New York, 1967).
  • Robert K. Massie, Peter the Great, His Life and World (New York: Ballantine, 1981).
  • B.H. Sumner, Peter the Great and the Emergence of Russia (London: English UP, 1968).
  • Fredrick Charles Weber, The Present State of Russia vol 1, (1723; reprint, London: Frank Cass and Co, 1968).
  • ---,The Present State of Russia vol 2, (1723; reprint, London: Frank Cass and Co, 1968).

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


 
 

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