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Encyclopedia > Alexis I of Russia

Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich (Russian: Алексей Михайлович) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Tsar Alexei I.
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Tsar Alexei I.

Contents

Image File history File links Tsar_Alexey_1. ... Image File history File links Tsar_Alexey_1. ...

Early life and reign

Born in Moscow, the son of Tsar Mikhail I and Eudoxia Streshneva, Alexei acceded to the throne at the age of sixteen after his father's death on 13 July 1645. He was committed to the care of the boyar Boris Morozov, a shrewd and sensible guardian sufficiently enlightened to recognize the needs of his country, and by no means inaccessible to Western ideas.He had a huge hairy nut sack. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery by Grigory Ugryumov Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (In Russian Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов) (July 12, 1596 – July 13, 1645) was the first Russian tsar of the house of Romanov, being the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov, afterwards the Patriarch Filaret, and Xenia (of disputed family), afterwards the great nun Martha. ... Mikhail Feodorovich Choosing His Bride, by Ilya Repin. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... Boris Ivanovich Morozov (Борис Иванович Морозов in Russian) (1590 - 1661), Russian statesman and boyar, head of the government in mid 17th century. ...


Morozov's foreign policy was pacificatory. He secured a truce with Poland and carefully avoided complications with the Ottoman Empire. His domestic policy was scrupulously fair and aimed at relieving the public burdens by limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing a great many useless and expensive court offices. On January 17, 1648 he procured the marriage of the tsar with Maria Miloslavskaya, himself marrying her sister, Anna, ten days later, both daughters of Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky (15941668). Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1683) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Maria Miloslavskaya Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya (Russian: , 1625-1669) was the first wife of tzar Alexis I of Russia and mother of the tzars Feodor III of Russia and Ivan V of Russia, as well as regent princess Sophia Alekseyevna. ... Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky (Russian: Илья Данилович Милославский) (1594 - 1668) was a Russian boyar and diplomat. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... // Events January - The Triple Alliance of 1668 is formed. ...


Morozov was very unpopular however, regarded as a typical self-seeking 17th-century boyar, and was generally detested and blamed for sorcery and witchcraft. In May 1648 the people of Moscow rose against them in the so-called Salt Riot, and the young Tsar was compelled to dismiss them and exile Boris to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Suffering from the forced separation, Alexei sent many tender letters to his mentor, and urged the guards to treat him as civilly as possible. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Salt Riot in Kolomenskoe, by N. Nekrasov The Salt Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1648 (Соляной бунт, Московское восстание 1648 in Russian), was a riot in Moscow in 1648, triggered by the governments substitution of different taxes with a universal direct salt tax for the purpose of replenishing the state... Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, properly translated in English as The Assumption monastery of St Cyril, has always rivalled the Solovetsky Monastery as the strongest fortress and the richest landowner of the Russian North. ...


His associates and policies

The successful issue of the Moscow riots was the occasion of disquieting disturbances all over the tsardom culminating in dangerous rebellions at Pskov and Great Novgorod, with which the government was so unable to cope that they surrendered, practically granting the malcontents their own terms. One man only had displayed equal tact and courage at Great Novgorod, the metropolitan Nikon, who in consequence became in 1651 the czar's chief minister. Categories: Russia geography stubs | Cities in Russia ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Nikon (Ни́кон), born Nikita Minin (1605-1681), was patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ...


In 1653 the weakness and disorder of Poland, which had just emerged from the Khmelnytsky Uprising, encouraged Alexei to attempt to recover from her rival the old Rus’ lands. On October 1 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it out, and in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon (now patriarch). The campaign of 1654 was an uninterrupted triumph, and scores of towns, including the important fortress of Smolensk, fell into the hands of the Russians. It was also during this war that Ukrainian Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky appealed to Tsar Alexei for protection from the Poles, and got it in the form of the Treaty of Pereyaslav which brought about Russian dominance of the Cossack Hetmanate in Left-Bank Ukraine. Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. ... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of...


In January 1655 the rout of Akhmatov arrested their progress; but in the summer of the same year, the sudden invasion by Charles X of Sweden for the moment swept the Polish state out of existence; the Russians, unopposed, quickly appropriated nearly everything which was not already occupied by the Swedes, and when at last the Poles offered to negotiate, the whole grand-duchy of Lithuania was the least of the demands of Alexei. Fortunately for Poland, the Tsar and the king of Sweden now quarrelled over the apportionment of the spoils, and at the end of May 1656 Alexei, stimulated by the emperor and the other enemies of Sweden, declared war against her. Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1656-1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden against the background of the simultaneous Northern Wars and the War for Ukraine. ...


Great things were expected of the Swedish war, but nothing came of it. Dorpat was taken, but countless multitudes were lost in vain before Riga. In the meantime Poland had so far recovered herself as to become a much more dangerous foe than Sweden, and, as it was impossible to wage war with both simultaneously, the Tsar resolved to rid himself of the Swedes first. This he did by the Peace of Kardis (July 2, 1661), whereby Russia retroceded all her conquests. The Polish war dragged on for six years longer and was then concluded by a truce, nominally for thirteen years, which proved the most durable of treaties. Image of Tartu street Tartu (German, Polish Dorpat, Russian Юpьeв Yuryev) is the second largest city of Estonia, with its population of 101,246 (the Population Census data is from 2000) in an area of 38. ... Map of Latvia Coordinates: Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Area    - City 307. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1656-1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden against the background of the simultaneous Northern Wars and the War for Ukraine. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Events January 6 - The fifth monarchy men unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London. ...


By the Treaty of Andrusovo (February 11, 1667) Vitebsk, Polotsk and Polish Livonia were restored to Poland, but the infinitely more important Smolensk and Kiev remained in the hands of Russia together with the whole eastern bank of the Dnieper River. This truce was the achievement of Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, the first Russian chancellor and diplomat in the modern sense, who after the disgrace of Nikon became the Tsar's first minister till 1670, when he was superseded by the equally able Artamon Matveyev, whose beneficent influence prevailed to the end of Alexei's reign. Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667 (Polish Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian Андрусовское перемирие, Ukrainian Андрусівське переми&#1088... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Towns in Belarus ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... This article is about the river. ... Afanasy Lavrentievich Ordin-Naschokin ( 1605 - 1680) was one of the greatest Russian statesmen of the 17th century. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Artamon Sergeyevich Matveyev (Артамон Сергеевич Матвеев in Russian) (1625 - 1682) was a Russian statesman, diplomat and Ukraine and took part in some of Russias wars with Poland. ...


Assessment

It is the crowning merit of the Tsar Alexei that he discovered so many great men (like Fyodor Rtishchev, Ordin, Matveyev, the best of Peter's precursors) and suitably employed them. He was not a man of superior strength of character, or he would never have submitted to the dictation of Nikon. But, on the other hand, he was naturally, if timorously, progressive, or he would never have encouraged the great reforming boyar Matveyev. His last years, notwithstanding the terrible rebellion of Stenka Razin, were deservedly tranquil. Feodor Alekseyevich Rtishchev (1625-1673), an intimate friend of Tsar Alexis who was renowned for his piety and alms-deeds. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (Степан (Стенька) Тимофеевич Разин in Russian) (1630 - 6. ...


Alexei's letters have earned him a place in the history of Russian literature, as assessed by D.S. Mirsky: Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ...

A few private letters and an instruction to his falconers is all we have of him. But it is sufficient for Sergey Platonov to proclaim him the most attractive of Russian monarchs. He acquired the moniker Tishayshy, which means "most quiet" or "most peaceful". Certain aspects of Russian Orthodoxy, not its most purely spiritual, but its aesthetic and worldly aspects, found in him their most complete expression. The essence of Alexei's personality is a certain spiritual Epicureanism, manifested in an optimistic Christian faith, in a profound, but unfanatical, attachment to the traditions and ritual of the Church, in a desire to see everyone round him happy and at peace, and in a highly developed capacity to extract a quiet and mellow enjoyment from all things.[1] Falconer can refer to the following: A falconer is someone skilled in the art of Falconry. ... Sergey Fyodorovich Platonov (Russian: ) (1860–1933) was a Russian historian who led the official St Petersburg school of imperial historiography before and after the Russian Revolution. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ...

His family and children

Tsar Alexei chooses his bride by Grigory Sedov (the result of the Tsardom-wide contest organized by Boris Morozov was his relative Maria Miloslavskaya)
Tsar Alexei chooses his bride by Grigory Sedov (the result of the Tsardom-wide contest organized by Boris Morozov was his relative Maria Miloslavskaya)

Alexei's first marriage to Miloslavskaya was a success, and she bore him thirteen children in twenty-one years of marriage: five sons and eight daughters, and died in her fourteenth childbirth. Four sons survived her, (Alexei, Fyodor, Semyon, and Ivan) but within six months two of these had died, including Alexei, the sixteen-year-old heir to the throne. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1820x1404, 468 KB) Григорий СЕДОВ (1836-1886). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1820x1404, 468 KB) Григорий СЕДОВ (1836-1886). ... Boris Ivanovich Morozov (Борис Иванович Морозов in Russian) (1590 - 1661), Russian statesman and boyar, head of the government in mid 17th century. ... Maria Miloslavskaya Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya (Russian: , 1625-1669) was the first wife of tzar Alexis I of Russia and mother of the tzars Feodor III of Russia and Ivan V of Russia, as well as regent princess Sophia Alekseyevna. ...


Their children were:

  • Grand Duke Dmitri Alexeevich (1648-1649)
  • Grand Duchess Yevdokia Alexeevna (1650-1712)
  • Grand Duchess Marfa Alexeevna (1652-1707)
  • Grand Duke Alexei Alexeevich (1654-1670)
  • Grand Duchess Anna Alexeevna (1655-1659)
  • Tsarevna Sofia Alexeevna (1657-1704)
  • Grand Duchess Ekaterina Alexeevna (1658-1718)
  • Grand Duchess Maria Alexeevna (1660-1723)
  • Fyodor III (1661-1682)
  • Grand Duchess Feodosia Alexeevna (1662-1713)
  • Ivan V (1666-1696)
  • Grand Duchess Yevdokia Alexeevna (1669-1669)

Alexei remarried on February 1, 1671, Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina (September 1, 1651 - February 4, 1694), of obscure and petty nobility. She was brought up in the house of Artamon Matveyev and was a ward of his wife, the Scottish-descended Mary Hamilton. Sophia Alekseyevna (Софья Алексеевна in Russian) (September 17(27), 1657 — July 3(14), 1704), regent of Russia in 1682-1689, daughter of tsar Aleksey I of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya. ... Feodor (Theodore) III of Russia (In Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (June 9, 1661 - May 7, 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia, during whose short reign (1676-82) the Polish cultural influence in the Kremlin was paramount. ... Ivan V Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, September 6, 1666 [O.S. August 27] — February 8, 1696 [O.S. January 29]) was a joint tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina (September 1, 1651 - February 4, 1694) was a Russian tsarina. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Artamon Sergeyevich Matveyev (Артамон Сергеевич Матвеев in Russian) (1625 - 1682) was a Russian statesman, diplomat and Ukraine and took part in some of Russias wars with Poland. ...


Their children were:

  • Peter I (1672-1725)
  • Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeevna (1673-1716)
  • Grand Duchess Fyodora Alexeevna (1674-1677)

Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ...

Notes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alexis I of Russia
  1. ^ D.S.Mirsky, A History of Russian Literature. Northwestern University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8101-1679-0. Page 27.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • This article incorporates text from D.S. Mirsky's "A History of Russian Literature" (1926-27), a publication now in the public domain.
  • Grigory Kotoshikhin's On Russia during the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich (1665) is a key source on domestic life of the tsar and his court.
  • Yury Krizhanich's treatises from 1660s are also very informative.
Preceded by:
Michael I
Tsar of Russia
1645–1676
Succeeded by:
Feodor III

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Alexis, czar of Russia (Russian, Soviet, And CIS History, Biography) - Encyclopedia (313 words)
The reforms of Patriarch Nikon resulted in a dangerous schism in the Russian Church, and Nikon's deposition (1666) was a prelude to the abolition of the Moscow patriarchate in 1721.
In 1654 the Cossacks of Ukraine, led in revolt against Poland by Bohdan Chmielnicki, voted for the union of Ukraine with Russia.
Alexis was succeeded by his son Feodor III.
Alexis I of Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (979 words)
The successful issue of the Moscow riots was the occasion of disquieting disturbances all over the czardom culminating in dangerous rebellions at Pskov and Great Novgorod, with which the government was so unable to cope that they surrendered, practically granting the malcontents their own terms.
This truce was the achievement of Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, the first Russian chancellor and diplomat in the modern sense, who after the disgrace of Nikon became the Tsar's first minister till 1670, when he was superseded by the equally able Artamon Matveyev, whose beneficent influence prevailed to the end of Alexei's reign.
Grigory Kotoshikhin's On Russia during the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich (1665) is a key source on domestic life of the tsar and his court.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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