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Encyclopedia > Alexios IV Angelos
Emperor Alexios IV
Emperor Alexios IV

Alexios IV Angelos or Alexius IV Angelus (Greek: Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (c. 1182-February 8, 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from August 1203 to January 1204. He was the son of emperor Isaac II Angelos and his first wife Eirene (Herina). His paternal uncle was Emperor Alexios III Angelos. Manuscript painting of Alexius IV, from http://aeiou11. ... Manuscript painting of Alexius IV, from http://aeiou11. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 - January, 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204. ... Alexios III Angelos or Alexius III Angelus (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ Άγγελος) (c. ...

Contents

Prince in exile

The young Alexios was imprisoned in 1195 when Alexios III overthrew Isaac II in a coup. In 1201, two Pisan merchants were employed to smuggle Alexios out of Constantinople to the Holy Roman Empire, where he took refuge with his brother-in-law Philip of Swabia[1], King of Germany. Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... // Events The town of Riga was chartered as a city. ... Country Italy Region Toscana Province Pisa (PI) Mayor Paolo Fontanelli (since May 25, 2003) Elevation 4 m Area 185 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2005) 90,482  - Density 462/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Pisani Dialing code 050 Postal code 56100 Frazioni Marina di Pisa... Map of Constantinople. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Philip of Swabia depicted in a medieval manuscript (about 1200) Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently... The following list of German monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ...


While there he met with Marquis Boniface of Montferrat, Philip's cousin, who had been chosen to lead the Fourth Crusade, but had temporarily left the Crusade during the siege of Zara to visit Philip. Boniface and Alexios discussed diverting the Crusade to Constantinople so that Alexios could be restored to his father's throne; in return, Alexios would give them Byzantine soldiers to help fight the Crusade, as well as money to pay off the Crusaders' debt to the Republic of Venice. Additionally, he promised to bring the Greek Orthodox Church under the authority of the pope. Alexios accompanied Boniface back to the Crusader fleet, which had moved on to Corcyra, and the Venetians were in favour of the plan when they learned of it. In 1202 the fleet arrived at Constantinople. Alexios was paraded outside the walls, but the citizens were apathetic, as Alexios III, though a usurper and illegitimate in the eyes of the westerners, was an acceptable emperor for the Byzantine citizens. Boniface of Montferrat (c. ... The Fourth Crusade (1201–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt, instead, in 1204, invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Siege of Zara (November 10-November 23, 1203) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade. ... Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000 CE. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a religious organization which claims to be the continuation of the original Christian body, founded by Jesus and his Twelve Apostles. ... (This article is about the Greek island known in English as Corfu. ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ...


Emperor

On July 18, 1203 the Crusaders launched an assault on the city, and Alexios III immediately fled into Thrace. The next morning the Crusaders were surprised to find that the citizens had released Isaac II from prison and proclaimed him emperor, despite the fact that he had been blinded to make him ineligible to rule. The Crusaders could not accept this, and forced Isaac II to proclaim his son Alexios IV co-emperor on August 1. July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Greek: Θράκη, Thrákē; Latin: Thracia or Threcia, Turkish: Trakya, Macedonian: Тракија) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ...


Despite Alexios' grand promises, Isaac, the more experienced and practical of the two, knew that the Crusaders' debt could never be repaid from the imperial treasury. Alexios, however, had apparently not grasped how far the empire's financial resources had fallen during the previous fifty years. Alexios did manage to raise half the sum promised, by appropriating treasures from the church and by confiscating the property of his enemies. He then attempted to defeat his uncle Alexios III, who remained in control of Thrace. The sack of some Thracian towns helped Alexios' situation a little, but meanwhile hostility between the restive Crusaders and the inhabitants of Constantinople was growing.


In December 1203 violence exploded between the Constantinopolitans and the Crusaders. Enraged mobs seized and brutally murdered any foreigner they could lay hands upon, and the Crusaders felt that Alexios had not fulfilled his promises to them. Alexios refused their demands, and is quoted as saying, "I will not do any more than I have done." While relations with the Crusaders were deteriorating, Alexios had become deeply unpopular with the Greek citizenry, and with his own father. Blinded and nearly powerless, Isaac II resented having to share the throne with his son; he spread rumors of Alexios' supposed sexual perversity, alleging he kept company with "depraved men". The chronicler Niketas Choniates dismissed Alexios as "childish" and criticized his familiarity with the Crusaders and his lavish lifestyle. Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ... Nicetas Choniates (c. ...


Deposition and death

At the end of January 1204, the populace of Constantinople rebelled and tried to proclaim a rival emperor in Hagia Sophia. Alexios IV attempted to reach a reconciliation with the Crusaders, entrusting the anti-western courtier Alexios Doukas Mourtzouphlos with a mission to gain Crusader support. However, Alexios Doukas imprisoned both Alexios IV and his father on the night of January 27-28 1204. Isaac II died soon afterwards, possibly of old age or from poison, and Alexios IV was strangled on February 8. Alexios Doukas was proclaimed emperor as Alexios V. // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Hagia Sophia Hagia Sophia, i. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Philip was married to Eirene Angelina, a sister of Alexios IV.

References

  • Angold, Michael, The Fourth Crusade (London and New York, 2004).
  • Brand, C.M., 'A Byzantine Plan for the Fourth Crusade', Speculum, 43 (1968), pp. 462-75.
  • Harris, Jonathan, Byzantium and the Crusades (London and New York, 2003).
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.
  • Phillips, Jonathan, The Fourth Crusade And The Sack Of Constantinople (London and New York, 2004).
Preceded by:
Alexios III
Byzantine Emperor
1203–1204
with Isaac II
Succeeded by:
Alexios V

 
 

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