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Encyclopedia > Alexios III Angelos

Alexios III Angelos or Alexius III Angelus (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (c. 11531211) was Byzantine emperor from 1195 to 1203. Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Events April 16 - Philip II of France enters Rouen, leading to the eventual unification of Normandy and France. ...

Contents

Early life

Alexios III Angelos was the second son of Andronikos Angelos and Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa. Andronikos was himself a son of Theodora Komnene, the youngest daughter of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Eirene Doukaina. Thus Alexios Angelos was a member of the extended imperial family. Together with his father and brothers, Alexios had conspired against Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos (c. 1183), and thus he spent several years in exile in Muslim courts, including that of Saladin. Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I... Irene Ducaena (1066 – February 19, 1133) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, and the mother of the emperor John II Comnenus and the historian Anna Comnena. ... Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) Andronikos I Komnenos or Andronicus I Comnenus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός, Andronikos I Komnēnos) (c. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ...


His younger brother Isaac Angelos, was threatened with execution under orders of their first cousin once removed Andronikos I Komnenos on September 11, 1185. Isaac made a desperate attack on the imperial agents and killed their leader Stephanos Hagiochristoporites. He then took refuge in the church of Hagia Sophia and from there appealed to the populace. His actions provoked a riot, which resulted in the deposition of Andronikos I, and the proclamation of Isaac II Angelos as emperor. Alexios was now closer to the imperial throne than ever before. Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Stephanus Hagiochristophorites (d. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ...


Reign

By 1190 Alexios Angelos had returned to the court of his younger brother, from whom he received the elevated title of sebastokratōr. In 1195, while Isaac II was away hunting in Thrace, Alexios was acclaimed as emperor by the troops with the conniving of Alexios' wife Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera. Alexios captured Isaac at Stagira in Macedonia, put out his eyes, and thenceforth kept him a close prisoner, though he had been redeemed by him from captivity at Antioch and loaded with honours. Painting of Emperor Basil II, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina or better Kamatera (Greek: Ευφροσύνη Δούκαινα Καματερίνα ή Καματηρά, EuphrosynÄ“ Doukaina KamatÄ“ra) (c. ... Statue of Aristoteles Stagira is a Greek village lying on a picturesque plateau on the Chalcidice peninsula, and standing at the foot of the Argirolofos hill. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ...


To compensate for this crime and to solidify his position as emperor, Alexios had to scatter money so lavishly as to empty his treasury, and to allow such licence to the officers of the army as to leave the Empire practically defenceless. He consummated the financial ruin of the state. In 1195, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI forced Alexius III to pay him a tribute of 5,000 pounds of gold. The able and forceful empress Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina tried in vain to sustain his credit and his court; Vatatzes, the favourite instrument of her attempts at reform, was assassinated by the emperor's orders. Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


In the east the Empire was overrun by the Seljuk Turks; from the north Bulgarians and Vlachs descended unchecked to ravage the plains of Macedonia and Thrace, and Kaloyan of Bulgaria annexed several important cities, while Alexios squandered the public treasure on his palaces and gardens and attempted to deal with the crisis through diplomatic means. The emperor's attempts to bolster the empire's defenses by special concessions to Byzantine and Bulgarian notables in the frontier zone backfired, as the latter built up regional autonomy. Byzantine authority survived, but in a much weakened state. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ...


Fourth Crusade

Soon Alexios was threatened by a new and yet more formidable danger. In 1202 the Western princes assembled at Venice launched the Fourth Crusade. Alexios Angelos, the son of the deposed Isaac II, had recently escaped from Constantinople and now appealed to the crusaders, promising to end the schism of East and West, to pay for their transport, and to provide military support to the crusaders if they helped him to depose his uncle and sit on his father's throne. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... Emperor Alexios IV Alexios IV Angelos or Alexius IV Angelus (Greek: Αλέξιος Δ Άγγελος) (c. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


The crusaders, whose objective had been Egypt, were persuaded to set their course for Constantinople before which they appeared in June 1203, proclaiming Alexios as emperor and inviting the populace of the capital to depose his uncle. Alexios III took no efficient measures to resist, and his attempts to bribe the crusaders failed. His son-in-law, Theodore Laskaris, who was the only one to attempt anything significant, was defeated at Scutari, and the siege of Constantinople began. Unfortunately for Constantinople, Alexios III's misgovernment had left the Byzantine Navy with only 20 worm-eaten hulks by the time the Crusaders arrived. The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Üsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ...


On July 17/18 the crusaders, led by the aged Doge Enrico Dandolo, scaled the walls and took the city by storm. During the fighting and carnage that followed Alexios III hid in the palace, and finally, with one of his daughters, Eirene, and such treasures (10,000 pounds of gold) as he could collect, got into a boat and escaped to Develton in Thrace, leaving his wife and his other daughters behind. Isaac II, drawn from his prison and robed once more in the imperial purple, received his son in state. is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Dandolo Preaching the Crusade, by Gustav Dore Tomb of Enrico Dandolo Enrico Dandolo (1107?-1205) was the Doge (1192-1205) of Venice during the Fourth Crusade. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


Life in exile

Alexios attempted to organize a resistance to the new regime from Adrianople and then Mosynopolis, where he was joined by the later usurper Alexios V Doukas Mourtzouphlos in April 1204, after the definitive fall of Constantinople to the crusaders and the establishment of the Latin Empire. Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Alexius V Ducas Murtzouphlos (d. ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ...


At first Alexios III received Alexios V well, even allowing him to marry his daughter Eudokia. Later Alexios V was blinded and deserted by his father-in-law, who fled from the crusaders into Thessaly. Here Alexios III eventually surrendered, with Euphrosyne, to Marquis Boniface of Montferrat, who was establishing himself as ruler of the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Eudokia Angelina or Eudocia Angelina (Greek: Ευδοκία Αγγελίνα, Serbian: Evdokija), was a daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Boniface of Montferrat (c. ... The Kingdom of Thessalonica was a short-lived Crusader State founded after the Fourth Crusade over the conquered Greek lands. ...


Trying to escape Boniface's "protection", Alexios III attempted to seek shelter with Michael I Doukas, the ruler of Epirus, in 1205. Captured by Boniface, Alexios III and his retinue were sent to Montferrat, before being brought back to Thessalonica c. 1209. At that point the deposed emperor was ransomed by Michael I of Epirus, who sent him to Asia Minor, where Alexios' son-in-law Theodore I Laskaris of the Empire of Nicaea was holding his own against the Latins. Michael I Angelus Comnenus Ducas was the founder and first ruler of the Despotate of Epirus from 1205 until his death in 1215. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... For other uses, see Montferrat (disambiguation). ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ...


Here Alexios III conspired against his son-in-law after the latter refused to recognize Alexios' authority, and received the support of Kay Khusrau I, the sultan of Rüm. In the battle of Antioch on the Maeander River in 1211, the sultan was defeated and killed, and Alexios III was captured by Theodore Lascaris. Alexios III was relegated to a monastery at Nicaea, where he died later in 1211. Kay Khusrau I, one of the sons of Izz ad-Din Kılıj Arslan II, was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Antioch is a city in the Turkish Lake District, which is at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Central Anatolian regions. ... The Maeander River is the classical Latin name for the Büyük Menderes River in southwestern Turkey. ... // Events The oldest extant double entry bookkeeping record dates from 1211 Canons regular of the Order of the Holy Cross founded September 14 1211 Troops led by Estonian resistance fighter Lembitu of Lehola destroy a garrison of missionaries in the historical Estonian region of Sakala and raid the Russian town... Monastery of St. ... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne Ä°znik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian...


Family

By his marriage to Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina Alexius had three daughters:

The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Anna Angelina was a daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos and of Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera. ... For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145). ... The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. ... Eudokia Angelina or Eudocia Angelina (Greek: Ευδοκία Αγγελίνα, Serbian: Evdokija), was a daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina. ... Stefan Prvovenčani (lit. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Alexius V Ducas Murtzouphlos (d. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204: A Political History, second edition (London and New York, 1997)
  • C.M. Brand, Byzantium Confronts the West (Cambridge, MA, 1968)
  • Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (London and New York, 2003).
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (Oxford , 1991), 3 vols.
  • K. Varzos, Ē genealogia tōn Komnēnōn (Thessalonica, 1984)
Alexios III Angelos
Angelid dynasty
Born: 1153 Died: 1211
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Isaac II Angelos
Byzantine Emperor
1195–1203
Succeeded by
Isaac II Angelos and Alexios IV Angelos

 
 

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