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Encyclopedia > Alexios I Komnenos
Emperor Alexios I Komnenos

Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός, Alexios I Komnēnos; Latin: ALEXIVS I COMNENVS; 1048August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). The military, financial and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire known as Komnenian restoration began in his reign. Painting of Alexius I, from a Greek manuscript in the Vatican library This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Painting of Alexius I, from a Greek manuscript in the Vatican library This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Events The city of Oslo is founded by Harald Hardråde of Norway. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Byzantine redirects here. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Anna Dalassena was an important Byzantine noblewoman who rose to position of sort of Empress-Mother during the reign of her son Emperor Alexius I. She married Johannes Komnenos, a nephew of Emperor Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Isaac coin. ... The Komnenian restoration is the term used by Byzantinists to describe the military, financial and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian dynasty, from the accession of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081, to the death of Manuel I Komnenos in 1180. ...

Contents

Life

Alexios' father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanos IV Diogenes (1067–1071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks. Under Michael VII Doukas Parapinakes (1071–1078) and Nikephoros III Botaneiates (1078–1081) he was also employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace and in Epirus. Diptych of Romanus and Eudocia Macrembolitissa, crowned by Christ (Bibliothèque nationale de France) Romanos IV Diogenes or Romanus IV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV DiogenÄ“s) was Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Nicephorus Botaniates. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ...


Alexios' mother wielded great influence during his reign and he is described by his daughter, the historian Anna Comnena, as running next to the imperial chariot that she drove. In 1074 the rebel mercenaries in Asia Minor were successfully subdued and in 1078 he was appointed commander of the field army in the West by Nikephoros III. In this capacity Alexios defeated the rebellions of two successive governors of Dyrrhachium, Nicephorus Bryennios (whose son or grandson later married Alexios' daughter Anna), and Nicephorus Basilakes. Alexios was ordered to march against his brother-in-law Nikephoros Melissenos in Asia Minor, but refused to fight his kinsman. This did not, however, lead to a demotion, as Alexios was needed to counter the expected Norman invasion led by Robert Guiscard near Dyrrhachium. Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna KomnÄ“nÄ“) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ... Durrës (Photo by Marc Morell) Durrës (Albanian: Durrës or Durrësi) is the most ancient city of Albania and one of the most economically important as the biggest port city. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicephorus Basilakes was a Byzantine governor of Dyrrhacium who tried to overthrow the power of the Emperor Nicephoros III during the eleventh century and was defeated by Alexius Comnenos. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ...


While the Byzantine troops were assembling for the expedition, Alexios was approached by the Doukas faction at court, who convinced him to join a conspiracy against Nikephoros III. Alexios was duly proclaimed emperor by his troops and marched on Constantinople. Bribing the western mercenaries guarding the city, the rebels entered Constantinople in triumph, meeting little resistance on April 1, 1081. Nikephoros III was forced to abdicate and retire to a monastery, and Patriarch Kosmas I crowned Alexios I emperor on April 4. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Monastery of St. ...


By that time Alexios was the lover of the Empress Maria of Alania, the daughter of King Bagrat IV of Georgia who had been successively married to Michael VII Doukas and his successor Nikephoros III Botaneiates, and was renowned for her beauty. Alexios and Maria lived almost openly together at the Palace of Mangana. However, Alexios did not marry the empress. His mother consolidated the Doukas family connection by arranging the Emperor's marriage to Irene Doukaina, granddaughter of the Caesar John Doukas, the uncle of Michael VII. As a measure intended to keep the support of the Doukai, Alexios restored Constantine Doukas, the young son of Michael VII and Maria, as co-emperor and a little later betrothed him to his own first-born daughter Anna, who moved into the Mangana Palace with her husband and his mother. Empress Maria (ca 1050 – after 1103) was a daughter of the Georgian king Bagrat IV (1027–72) and spouse of the Byzantine emperor Michael VII Ducas and later also Nicephorus III Botaniates. ... Bagrat IV (1018-1072), of the Bagrationi dynasty, governed the Kingdom of Georgia in 1027-1072. ... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Nicephorus Botaniates. ... Irene Doukaina or Ducaena (Greek: Ειρήνη Δούκαινα, Eirēnē Doukaina) (c. ... Constantine Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας, Kōnstantinos Doukas), (c. ... Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna Komnēnē) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ...


However, this situation changed drastically when Alexios' first son John II Komnenos was born in 1087: Anna's engagement to Constantine was dissolved and she was moved to the main Palace to live with her mother and grandmother. Alexios became estranged from Maria, who was stripped of her imperial title and retired to a monastery, and Constantine Doukas was deprived of his status as co-emperor. Nevertheless he remained in good relations with the imperial family and succumbed to his weak constitution soon afterwards. “John Komnenus” redirects here. ...

This coin was struck by Alexios during his war against Robert Guiscard.
This coin was struck by Alexios during his war against Robert Guiscard.

Alexios' long reign of nearly 37 years was full of struggle. At the very outset he had to meet the formidable attack of the Normans (led by Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemund), who took Dyrrhachium and Corfu, and laid siege to Larissa in Thessaly (see Battle of Dyrrhachium). Alexios suffered several defeats before being able to strike back with success. He enhanced this by bribing the German king Henry IV with 360,000 gold pieces to attack the Normans in Italy, which forced the Normans to concentrate on their defenses at home in 1083–1084. He also secured the alliance of Henry, Count of Monte Sant'Angelo, who controlled the Peninsula del Gargano and dated his charters by Alexius' reign. Henry's allegiance was to be the last example of Greek political control on peninsular Italy. The Norman danger ended for the time being with Robert Guiscard's death in 1085, and the Byzantines recovered most of their losses. Alexius I Comnenus. ... Alexius I Comnenus. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... Larissa (Greek: Λάρισα, Lárisa) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Larissa Prefecture. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... The Battle of Dyrrhachium took place on October 18, 1081 between the Byzantine Empire, led by Alexius I, and the Normans under Robert Guiscard. ... Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084, until his forced abdication in 1105. ... Henry (died probably 21 December 1102[1]) was the Count of Monte SantAngelo, with his seat at Foggia, from November 1081. ...


Alexios had next to deal with disturbances in Thrace, where the heretical sects of the Bogomils and the Paulicians revolted and made common cause with the Pechenegs from beyond the Danube. Paulician soldiers in imperial service likewise deserted during Alexios' battles with the Normans. As soon as the Norman threat had passed, Alexios set out to punish the rebels and deserters, confiscating their lands. This led to a further revolt near Philippopolis (Plovdiv), and the commander of the field army in the west, Gregory Pakourianos, was defeated and killed in the ensuing battle. In 1087 the Pechenegs raided into Thrace and Alexios crossed into Moesia to retaliate but failed to take Dorostolon (Silistra). During his retreat, the emperor was surrounded and worn down by the Pechenegs, who forced him to sign a truce and pay protection money. In 1090 the Pechenegs invaded Thrace again, while the brother-in-law of the Sultan of Rum launched a fleet and attempted to arrange a joing siege of Constantinople with the Pechenegs. Alexios overcame this crisis by entering into an alliance with a horde of 40,000 Cumans, with whose help he crushed the Pechenegs at Levounion in Thrace on April 29, 1091. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. ... Bogomils was the name of an ancient Gnostic religious community which is thought to have originated in Bulgaria. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry, son of William I attempted a coup against his brothers but failed to seize the English throne. ...

The Byzantine Empire at the accession of Alexios I Komnenos, c. 1081
The Byzantine Empire at the accession of Alexios I Komnenos, c. 1081

This put an end to the Pecheneg threat, but in 1094 the Cumans began to raid the imperial territories in the Balkans. Led by a pretender claiming to be Constantine Diogenes, a long-dead son of the Emperor Romanos IV, the Cumans crossed the mountains and raided into eastern Thrace until their leader was eliminated at Adrianople. With the Balkans more or less pacified, Alexios could now turn his attention to Asia Minor, which had been almost completely overrun by the Seljuk Turks. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Diptych of Romanus and Eudocia Macrembolitissa, crowned by Christ (Bibliothèque nationale de France) Romanos IV Diogenes or Romanus IV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV DiogenÄ“s) was Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of...


As early as 1090, Alexios had taken reconciliatory measures towards the Papacy, with the intention of seeking western support against the Seljuks. In 1095 his ambassadors appeared before Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza. The help which he wanted from the West was simply mercenary forces and not the immense hosts which arrived, to his consternation and embarrassment, after the pope preached the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont later that same year. Not quite ready to supply this number of people as they traversed his territories, the emperor saw his Balkan possessions subjected to further pillage at the hands of his own allies. Alexios dealt with the first disorganized group of crusaders, led by the preacher Peter the Hermit, by sending them on to Asia Minor, where they were massacred by the Turks in 1096. The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... The Council of Piacenza was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which took place from March 1 to March 5, 1095, at Piacenza. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Peter the Hermit shows the crusaders the way to Jerusalem. ...


The second and much more formidable host of crusaders gradually made its way to Constantinople, led in sections by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse and other important members of the western nobility. Alexios used the opportunity of meeting the crusader leaders separately as they arrived and extracting from them oaths of homage and the promise to turn over conquered lands to the Byzantine Empire. Transferring each contingent into Asia, Alexios promised to supply them with provisions in return for their oaths of homage. The crusade was a notable success for Byzantium, as Alexios now recovered for the Byzantine Empire a number of important cities and islands. The crusader siege of Nicaea forced the city to surrender to the emperor in 1097, and the subsequent crusader victory at Dorylaion allowed the Byzantine forces to recover much of western Asia Minor. Here Byzantine rule was reestablished in Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, and Sardis in 1097–1099. This success is ascribed by his daughter Anna to his policy and diplomacy, but by the Latin historians of the crusade to his treachery and falseness. In 1099, a Byzantine fleet of 10 ships are sent to assist the Crusaders in capturing Laodicea and other coastal towns as far as Tripoli. The crusaders believed their oaths were made invalid when the Byzantine contingent (2,000 men) under Tatikios failed to help them during the siege of Antioch; Bohemund, who had set himself up as Prince of Antioch, briefly went to war with Alexios in the Balkans, but was blockaded by the Byzantine forces and agreed to become Alexios' vassal by the Treaty of Devol in 1108. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Iznik ceramic pitcher with flower decoration from ca. ... The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near Dorylaeum in Anatolia. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος Rhódhos; Italian Rodi; [[Ladino language| ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, situated in eastern Aegean Sea. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Alasehir, Turkey began as perhaps one of the first ancient cities with the name Philadelphia. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna KomnÄ“nÄ“) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ... Laodicea is a Hellenistic name that can apply to at least six cities named for a Seleucid queen of the 3rd century BCE. They include: Laodicea ad Mare modern Latakia, Syria Laodicea ad Lycum near modern Denizli, Turkey was the metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The Treaty of Devol was an agreement made in 1108 between Bohemund I of Antioch and Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, in the wake of the First Crusade. ...


During the last twenty years of his life Alexios lost much of his popularity. The years were marked by persecution of the followers of the Paulician and Bogomil heresies—one of his last acts was to publicly burn on the stake Basil, a Bogomil leader, with whom he had engaged in a theological dispute. In spite of the success of the crusade, Alexios also had to repel numerous attempts on his territory by the Seljuks in 1110–1117. Basil the Physician († 1118) was the Bogomil leader burned at the stake. ...


Alexios was for many years under the strong influence of an eminence grise, his mother Anna Dalassene, a wise and immensely able politician whom, in a uniquely irregular fashion, he had crowned as Augusta instead of the rightful claimant to the title, his wife Irene Doukaina. Dalassena was the effective administrator of the Empire during Alexius' long absences in military campaigns: she was constantly at odds with her daughter-in-law and had assumed total responsibility for the upbringing and education of her granddaughter Anna Komnene. Anna Dalassena was an important Byzantine noblewoman who rose to position of sort of Empress-Mother during the reign of her son Emperor Alexius I. She married Johannes Komnenos, a nephew of Emperor Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna Komnēnē) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ...


Alexios' last years were also troubled by anxieties over the succession. Although he had crowned his son John II Komnenos co-emperor at the age of five in 1092, John's mother Irene Doukaina wished to alter the succession in favor of her daughter Anna and Anna's husband, Nikephoros Bryennios. Bryennios had been made kaisar (Caesar) and received the newly-created title of panhypersebastos ("honored above all"), and remained loyal to both Alexios and John. Nevertheless, the intrigues of Irene and Anna disturbed even Alexios' dying hours. “John Komnenus” redirects here. ... Nicephorus Bryennius (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople). ... Painting of Emperor Basil II, exemplifying the Imperial Crown handed down by Angels. ...


Alexios I had stabilized the Byzantine Empire and overcome a dangerous crisis, inaugurating a century of imperial prosperity and success. He had also profoundly altered the nature of the Byzantine government. By seeking close alliances with powerful noble families, Alexios put an end to the tradition of imperial exclusivity and coopted most of the nobility into his extended family and, through it, his government. This measure, which was intended to diminish opposition, was paralleled by the introduction of new courtly dignities, like that of panhypersebastos given to Nikephoros Bryennios, or that of sebastokratōr given to the emperor's brother Isaac Komnenos. Although this policy met with initial success, it gradually undermined the relative effectiveness of imperial bureaucracy by placing family connections over merit. Alexios' policy of integration of the nobility bore the fruit of continuity: every Byzantine emperor who reigned after Alexios I Komnenos was related to him by either descent or marriage.


Family

By his marriage with Irene Doukaina, Alexios I had the following children: Irene Doukaina or Ducaena (Greek: Ειρήνη Δούκαινα, Eirēnē Doukaina) (c. ...

  • Anna Komnene, who married the Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios.
  • Maria Komnene, who married (1) Gregory Gabras and (2) Nikephoros Euphorbenos Katakalon.
  • John II Komnenos, who succeeded as emperor.
  • Andronikos Komnenos, sebastokratōr.
  • Isaac Komnenos, sebastokratōr.
  • Eudokia Komnene, who married Michael Iasites.
  • Theodora Komnene, who married (1) Constantine Kourtikes and (2) Constantine Angelos. By him she was the grandmother of Emperors Isaac II Angelos and Alexios III Angelos.
  • Manuel Komnenos.
  • Zoe Komnene.

Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna Komnēnē) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ... Nicephorus Bryennius (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople). ... “John Komnenus” redirects here. ... Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos) (after 16 January 1093 – after 1152) was the third son of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. ... Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204. ... Alexios III Angelos or Alexius III Angelus (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ Άγγελος) (c. ...

References

  • Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204, Longman, 1997, 2nd ed., pp. 136-70. ISBN 0-582-29468-1
  • Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades, Hambledon, 2003, pp. 33-71. ISBN 1-85285-298-4
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.
  • Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford Universwity Press, 1997, pp. 612-29. ISBN 0-8047-2630 -2
  • Norwich, John J. (1995). Byzantium: The Decline and Fall. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.. ISBN 0-679-41650-1. 

Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three volume book by the Oxford University Press. ...

External links

  • Alexius coinage
Alexios I Komnenos
Komnenid dynasty
Born: 1048 Died: 15 August 1118
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Nikephoros III
Byzantine Emperor
1081–1118
Succeeded by
John II Komnenos

 
 

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