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Encyclopedia > Alexandria
Alexandria
إسكندرية
Alexandria Beach
Nickname: Pearl of the Mediterranean
Alexandria on the map of Egypt
Alexandria on the map of Egypt
Coordinates: 31°11′53″N 29°55′09″E / 31.198, 29.9192
Country Egypt
Founded 334 BC
Government
 - Governor Adel Labib
Area
 - Total 2,679 km² (1,034.4 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 - Total 4,110,015
  CAPMS 2006 Census
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Twin Cities
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 - Constanţa Flag of Romania Romania
 - Durban Flag of South Africa South Africa
 - Saint Petersburg Flag of Russia Russia
 - Shanghai Flag of the People's Republic of China China
 - Athens Flag of Greece Greece

Alexandria (Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), with a population of 4.1 million, is the second-largest city in Egypt, and is the largest seaport that serves about 80% of all of Egypt's imports and exports. Alexandria is also a very important tourist resort. Alexandria is the name of many cities and towns in different countries. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Adel Labib is the present governor of Alexandria, and the former governor of Qena Governorate and Beheira Governorate. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... // This is a list of twin towns or sister cities — that is, pairs of towns or cities in different countries which have town twinning arrangements. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Egyptian Arabic (MarÄ« مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Alexandria extends about 32 km (20 miles) along the coast of the Mediterranean sea in north-central Egypt. It is home to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (the new Library of Alexandria), and is an important industrial centre because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria was also an important trading post between Europe and Asia, because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea Mediterranean redirects here. ... Bibliotheca Alexandrina The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline Pipeline transport is a transportation of goods through a tube. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ...


In ancient times, Alexandria was one of the most famous cities in the world. It was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Greek Macedonian king Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD when a new capital was founded at Fustat, later absorbed into Cairo. The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... This article is about the people of ancient Greece; for the unrelated modern Slavic ethnic group see Macedonians (ethnic group). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The current capital of Egypt is Cairo. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... A drawing of Fustat, from Rappoports History of Egypt Fustat (Arabic: ‎), also spelled Fostat, Al Fustat, Misr al-Fustat and Fustat-Misr, was the first capital of Egypt under Arab rule. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


Alexandria was known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World), the Library of Alexandria (the largest library in the ancient world) and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa (one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages). Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbour of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhakotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty. Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... The Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa are one of the wonders of the world. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ... Rhakotis is the original name of the city of Alexandria before it was renamed by Alexander the Great. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Alexandria
Raqd.t (Alexandria)
in hieroglyphs




Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 332 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Alexándreia). Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile Valley. An Egyptian townlet, Rhakotis, already existed on the shore and was a resort filled with fishermen and pirates. A few months after the foundation, Alexander left Egypt for the East and never returned to his city. After Alexander departed, his viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the expansion. In a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria. The History of Alexandria is one that dates back to its founding, by Alexander the Great. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Dinocrates (also Deinocrates; fl. ... Naucratis (nŏk´retĬs), was an ancient city of Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile, 45 mi (72 km) SE of Alexandria. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... ... Rhakotis is the original name of the city of Alexandria before it was renamed by Alexander the Great. ... There have been three kings of Sparta by the name Cleomenes Cleomenes I (c. ... Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ...


Though Cleomenes was mainly in charge of seeing to Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion and the main-land quarters seem to have been mainly Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. It became the main Greek city of Egypt, with an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds.[1] The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Alexandria, sphinx made of pink granite, Ptolemaic.
Alexandria, sphinx made of pink granite, Ptolemaic.

Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism but was also home to the largest Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic centre of learning (Library of Alexandria) but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian.[2] From this division arose much of the later turbulence, which began to manifest itself under Ptolemy Philopater who reigned from 221–204 BC. The reign of Ptolemy VIII Physcon from 144–116 BC was marked by purges and civil warfare. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (896x672, 94 KB) Original upload-information: Sphinx & flats in Alexandria, Egypt, gfdl Beschreibung: Alexandria, Sphinx aus Rosengranit, ptolemäisch Quelle: [1] Fotograf oder Zeichner: Chmouel Boudjnah Lizenzstatus: [2] GNU/FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (896x672, 94 KB) Original upload-information: Sphinx & flats in Alexandria, Egypt, gfdl Beschreibung: Alexandria, Sphinx aus Rosengranit, ptolemäisch Quelle: [1] Fotograf oder Zeichner: Chmouel Boudjnah Lizenzstatus: [2] GNU/FDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Pink granite is some of the oldest surface rock on Earth that is found in the Canadian Shield. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ... Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Greek: Πτολεμαίος Ευεργέτης) (ca. ...


The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but only after it had been under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. In 115 AD Alexandria was destroyed during the Jewish-Greek civil wars which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. In 215 AD the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July 365, Alexandria was devastated by a tsunami (365 Crete earthquake),[3] an event two hundred years later still annually commemorated as "day of horror".[4] In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by newly Christian Romans had reached new levels of intensity. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century. On the mainland, life seemed to have centered in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and were left intact. Ptolemy X Alexander I was king of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till 88 BC. He was the son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III of Egypt. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean Sea The 365 AD Crete earthquake was an undersea earthquake that occurred at about sunrise on 21 July 365 AD in the Eastern Mediterranean,[1][2][3] with an assumed epicentre near Crete. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Theophilus and the Serapeum Theophilus of Alexandria, (died 412) was the Nicene patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt (385 - 412). ... PHAROS IPA: [feə.rʌs] (Platform for Search of Audiovisual Resources Across Online Spaces) is the name given to a planned (and currently being developed) European Internet multimedia search engine led by the Italian system integrator Engineering Ingegneria Informatica SpA. // The PHAROS platform, co-financed by the European Commission and...

The ancient Roman Amphitheatre in Alexandria
The ancient Roman Amphitheatre in Alexandria

In 616, Alexandria was taken by Khosrau II, King of Persia. Although the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recovered it in 629, in 641 the Arabs, under the general Amr ibn al-As during the Muslim conquest of Egypt, captured it decisively after a siege that lasted fourteen months. Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. French troops stormed the city on July 2, 1798 and it remained in their hands until the arrival of the British expedition in 1801. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria on March 21, 1801, following which they besieged the city which fell to them on 2 September 1801. Mohammed Ali, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt, began rebuilding the city around 1810, and by 1850, Alexandria had returned to something akin to its former glory. In July 1882 the city came under bombardment from British naval forces and was occupied. In July 1954, the city was a target of an Israeli bombing campaign that later became known as the Lavon Affair. Only a few months later, Alexandria's Manshia Square was the site of the famous, failed assassination attempt on the life of Gamal Abdel Nasser. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 644 KB) Summary The Ancient Roman Theatre in Alexandria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 644 KB) Summary The Ancient Roman Theatre in Alexandria. ... Khosrau II (sometimes called Parvez, the ever Victorious), King of Persia, son of Hormizd IV of Persia (579–590), grandson of Khosrau I of Persia (531–579). ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Egyptian city of Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleons expedition of 1798. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Lavon Affair refers to the scandal over a failed Israeli covert operation in Egypt known as Operation Suzannah, in which Egyptian, American and British-owned targets in Egypt were bombed in the summer of 1954. ... Nasser redirects here. ...


Geography

Alexandria from space, March 1990
Alexandria from space, March 1990

Download high resolution version (505x640, 92 KB)Alexandria, Egypt - March 1990 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Alexandria Categories: NASA images ... Download high resolution version (505x640, 92 KB)Alexandria, Egypt - March 1990 image description here File links The following pages link to this file: Alexandria Categories: NASA images ...

Layout of the ancient city

The Greek Alexandria was divided into three regions:

Brucheum
the Royal or Greek quarter, forming the most magnificent portion of the city. In Roman times Brucheum was enlarged by the addition of an official quarter, making up four regions in all. The city was laid out as a grid of parallel streets, each of which had an attendant subterranean canal;
The Jews' quarter
forming the northeast portion of the city;
Rhakotis
occupied chiefly by Egyptians (from Coptic Rakotə "Alexandria").

Two main streets, lined with colonnades and said to have been each about 60 metres (200 feet) wide, intersected in the centre of the city, close to the point where the Sema (or Soma) of Alexander (his Mausoleum) rose. This point is very near the present mosque of Nebi Daniel; and the line of the great East–West "Canopic" street, only slightly diverged from that of the modern Boulevard de Rosette. Traces of its pavement and canal have been found near the Rosetta Gate, but better remnants of streets and canals were exposed in 1899 by German excavators outside the east fortifications, which lie well within the area of the ancient city. The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... St. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...

The Eastern Harbor of Alexandria
The Eastern Harbor of Alexandria

Alexandria consisted originally of little more than the island of Pharos, which was joined to the mainland by a mole nearly a mile long (1260 m) and called the Heptastadion ("seven stadia" — a stadium was a Greek unit of length measuring approximately 180 m). The end of this abutted on the land at the head of the present Grand Square, where the "Moon Gate" rose. All that now lies between that point and the modern "Ras Al Teen" quarter is built on the silt which gradually widened and obliterated this mole. The "Ras Al Teen" quarter represents all that is left of the island of Pharos, the site of the actual lighthouse having been weathered away by the sea. On the east of the mole was the Great Harbour, now an open bay; on the west lay the port of Eunostos, with its inner basin Kibotos, now vastly enlarged to form the modern harbour. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 553 KB) Eastern harbour of Alexandria city showig a part of the Alexandria library arc , Qaitbay citadel . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 553 KB) Eastern harbour of Alexandria city showig a part of the Alexandria library arc , Qaitbay citadel . ... The Port of Alexandria is on the West Verge of the Nile Delta between the Mediterranean Sea and Mariut Lake. ... A mole is a massive structure, usually of stone, used as a pier, breakwater, or junction between places separated by water. ... This article is about the building type. ...


In Strabo's time, (latter half of 1st century BC) the principal buildings were as follows, enumerated as they were to be seen from a ship entering the Great Harbour. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

  1. The Royal Palaces, filling the northeast angle of the town and occupying the promontory of Lochias, which shut in the Great Harbour on the east. Lochias (the modern Pharillon) has almost entirely disappeared into the sea, together with the palaces, the "Private Port" and the island of Antirrhodus. There has been a land subsidence here, as throughout the northeast coast of Africa.
  2. The Great Theatre, on the modern Hospital Hill near the Ramleh station. This was used by Caesar as a fortress, where he withstood a siege from the city mob after the battle of Pharsalus
  3. The Poseidon, or Temple of the Sea God, close to the Theatre
  4. The Timonium built by Mark Antony
  5. The Emporium (Exchange)
  6. The Apostases (Magazines)
  7. The Navalia (Docks), lying west of the Timonium, along the sea-front as far as the mole
  8. Behind the Emporium rose the Great Caesareum, by which stood the two great obelisks, each of which become known as “Cleopatra's Needle”, and were transported to New York City and London. This temple became, in time, the Patriarchal Church, though some ancient remains of the temple have been discovered. The actual Caesareum, the parts not eroded by the waves, lies under the houses lining the new sea-wall.
  9. The Gymnasium and the Palaestra are both inland, near the Boulevard de Rosette in the eastern half of the town; sites unknown.
  10. The Temple of Saturn; site unknown.
  11. The Mausolea of Alexander (Soma) and the Ptolemies in one ring-fence, near the point of intersection of the two main streets
  12. The Musaeum with its famous Library and theatre in the same region; site unknown.
  13. The Serapeum, the most famous of all Alexandrian temples. Strabo tells us that this stood in the west of the city; and recent discoveries go far as to place it near “Pompey's Pillar” which was an independent monument erected to commemorate Diocletian's siege of the city.

The names of a few other public buildings on the mainland are known, but there is little information as to their actual position. None, however, are as famous as the building that stood on the eastern point of Pharos island. There, the The Great Lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, reputed to be 138 meters (450 ft) high, was sited. The first Ptolemy began the project, and the second Ptolemy completed it, at a total cost of 800 talents. It took 12 years to complete and served as a prototype for all later lighthouses in the world. The light was produced by a furnace at the top and the tower was built mostly with solid blocks of limestone. The Pharos lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake in the 14th century, making it the second longest surviving ancient wonder next to the Great Pyramid of Giza. A temple of Hephaestus also stood on Pharos at the head of the mole. A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... Belligerents Populares Optimates Commanders Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Strength Approximately 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800 Approximately 40,000-60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000 Casualties and losses 1... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... The Greeks began to build monumental temples in the first half of the eighth century BC. The temples of Hera at Samos and of Poseidon at Isthmia were among the first erected. ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... Close up of Cleopatras Needle (London) Cleopatras Needle in Paris at the Place de la Concorde. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Pompeii gymnasium, seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... For the sports arena in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, see Palestra. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... The original Musaeum or Temple of the Muses at ancient Alexandria was the source for the modern usage, which denoted in Early Modern France as much a community of scholars brought together under one roof as it did the collections themselves, which French and English writers referred to as a... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... A Serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was palatable to the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... A talent is an ancient unit of mass. ... For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ...


In the first century, the population of Alexandria contained over 180,000 adult male citizens (from a papyrus dated 32 CE), in addition to a large number of freedmen, women, children and slaves. Estimates of the total population range from 500,000 to over 1,000,000, making it one of the largest cities ever built before the Industrial Revolution and the largest pre-industrial city that was not an imperial capital. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Ancient remains

Very little of the ancient city has survived into the present day. Much of the royal and civic quarters sank beneath the harbour due to earthquake subsidence, and the rest has been rebuilt upon in modern times. This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ...


"Pompey's Pillar" is the best-known ancient monument still standing today. It is located on Alexandria's ancient acropolis — a modest hill located adjacent to the city's Arab cemetery — and was originally part of a temple colonnade. Including its pedestal, it is 30 m (99 ft) high; the shaft is of polished red granite, roughly three meters in diameter at the base, tapering to two and a half meters at the top. The structure was plundered and demolished in the 4th century when a bishop decreed that Paganism must be eradicated. "Pompey's Pillar" is a misnomer, as it has nothing to do with Pompey, having been erected in 293 for Diocletian, possibly in memory of the rebellion of Domitius Domitianus. Beneath the acropolis itself are the subterranean remains of the Serapeum, where the mysteries of the god Serapis were enacted, and whose carved wall niches are believed to have provided overflow storage space for the ancient Library. Acropolis (Gr. ... For the Swedish death metal band, see Cemetary. ... A statue of Henry IV of France on a pedestal Pedestal (from French piedestal, Italian piedestallo, foot of a stall) is a term generally applied to the support of a statue or a vase. ... For the Association football club based in Portsmouth, England also known as Pompey, see Portsmouth F.C.. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Domitius Domitianus coin, struck in Alexandria, where Domitianus had the basis of his revolt and where his corrector Aurelius Achilleus kept resisting against Diocletian, even after the death of Domitianus. ... Serapis can refer to: A series of British ships named HMS Serapis. ...


Alexandria's catacombs, known as Kom al Sukkfa, are a short distance southwest of the pillar, consist of a multi-level labyrinth, reached via a large spiral staircase, and featuring dozens of chambers adorned with sculpted pillars, statues, and other syncretic Romano-Egyptian religious symbols, burial niches and sarcophagi, as well as a large Roman-style banquet room, where memorial meals were conducted by relatives of the deceased. The catacombs were long forgotten by the citizens until they were discovered by accident in the 1800s. The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ... For the linguistic term, see syncretism (linguistics). ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ...


The most extensive ancient excavation currently being conducted in Alexandria is known as Kom al Dikka, and it has revealed the ancient city's well-preserved theatre, and the remains of its Roman-era baths. The entrance to the Roman Baths The Roman Baths from the upper level of the site. ...


Antiquities

Pompey's Pillar
Pompey's Pillar

Persistent efforts have been made to explore the antiquities of Alexandria. Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national history. Download high resolution version (349x640, 34 KB)Pompeys Pillar, Alexandria, Egypt. ... Download high resolution version (349x640, 34 KB)Pompeys Pillar, Alexandria, Egypt. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


The past and present directors of the museum have been enabled from time to time to carry out systematic excavations whenever opportunity is offered; D. G. Hogarth made tentative researches on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund and the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies in 1895; and a German expedition worked for two years (1898–1899). But two difficulties face the would-be excavator in Alexandria: lack of space for excavation and the underwater location of some areas of interest. David George Hogarth (born May 23, 1862 in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; died November 6, 1927 in Oxford) was an English archaeologist and scholar, associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans. ... The Egypt Exploration Society (abbreviated EES) is the foremost learned society in the United Kingdom promoting the field of Egyptology. ...


Since the great and growing modern city stands right over the ancient one, it is almost impossible to find any considerable space in which to dig, except at enormous cost. Also, the general subsidence of the coast has sunk the lower-lying parts of the ancient town under water. This underwater section, containing much of the most interesting sections of the Hellenistic city, including the palace-quarter, is still being extensively investigated by the French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio and his team[5] and[6]. It raised a noted head of Caesarion. These are even being opened up to tourists, to some controversy[7]. A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... Ptolemy XV Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) (lived June 23, 47 to August, 30 BC; reigned September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC) was the son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII of Egypt and the last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ...


The spaces however, that are most open are the low grounds to northeast and southwest, where it is practically impossible to get below the Roman strata. For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ...


The most important results were those achieved by Dr. G. Botti, late director of the museum, in the neighbourhood of “Pompey's Pillar”, where there is a good deal of open ground. Here substructures of a large building or group of buildings have been exposed, which are perhaps part of the Serapeum. Nearby immense catacombs and columbaria have been opened which may have been appendages of the temple. These contain one very remarkable vault with curious painted reliefs, now lighted by electricity and shown to visitors. The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ...


The objects found in these researches are in the museum, the most notable being a great basalt bull, probably once an object of cult in the Serapeum. Other catacombs and tombs have been opened in Kom el-Shuqafa (Roman) and Ras et-Tin (painted).


The German excavation team found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets in the north-east of the city, but little else. Hogarth explored part of an immense brick structure under the mound of Kom el-Dika, which may have been part of the Paneum, the Mausolea or a Roman fortress.


The making of the new foreshore led to the dredging up of remains of the Patriarchal Church; and the foundations of modern buildings are seldom laid without some objects of antiquity being discovered. The wealth underground is doubtlessly immense; but despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and the neighbourhood of “Pompey's Pillar”. The native tomb-robbers, well-sinkers, dredgers and the like, however, come upon valuable objects from time to time, most of which find their way into private collections.


Modern city

Alexandria at night
Alexandria at night

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1278x487, 68 KB) Summary Alex. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1278x487, 68 KB) Summary Alex. ...

Hais (urban districts)

Modern Alexandria is divided into 6 hais:

  • Montaza hai: population 943,100
  • Eastern Alexandria hai: population 933,600
  • Middle (or Downtown) Alexandria hai: population 566,500
  • Amreya hai: population 457,800
  • Western Alexandria hai: population 450,300
  • Gumrok hai: population 186,900

There are also two cities under the jurisdiction of the Alexandria governorate: Montaza (Arabic:المنتزه, Translated: The Park) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ...

  • Borg Al-Arab city: population 186,900
  • New Borg Al-Arab city: population 7600

Neighborhoods

Neighborhoods of Alexandria include: Agami, Amreya, Anfoushi, Assafra, Attarine, Azarita (aka Mazarita; originally Lazarette), Bab Sidra, Bahari, Bachus, Bulkeley (aka Bokla), Burg el-Arab, Cleopatra, Dekheila, Downtown, Eastern Harbor, Fleming, Gabbari (aka: Qabbari, Qubbary, Kabbary), Gianaclis, Glym (short for Glymenopoulos), Gumrok (aka al-Gomrok), Hadara, Ibrahimeya, King Mariout, Kafr Abdu, Karmous, also known as Karmouz, Kom el-Dik (aka Kom el-Dekka), Labban, Laurent, Louran, Maamoura Beach, Maamoura, Mafrouza, Mandara, Manshiyya, Mex, Miami, Montaza, Muharram Bey, Mustafa Kamel, Ramleh (aka el-Raml), Ras el-Tin, Rushdy, Saba Pasha, San Stefano, Shatby, Schutz, Sidi Bishr, Sidi Gaber, Smouha, Sporting, Stanley, Syouf, Tharwat, Victoria, Wardeyan, Western Harbor, and Zizinia. Downtown (or West al-Balad in Arabic) (Arabic:وسط البلد) is a popular neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... The Port of Alexandria is on the West Verge of the Nile Delta between the Mediterranean Sea and Mariut Lake. ... Labban (Arabic:اللبان) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... El Maamouras beach Maamoura Beach (Arabic:المعمورة الشاطئ) (Not to be confused with the district of Maamoura) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Montaza (Arabic:المنتزه, Translated: The Park) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... A mosque and a church at Suez Canal Street, Al Shatby. ... Stanley (Arabic:ستانلي) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... The Port of Alexandria is on the West Verge of the Nile Delta between the Mediterranean Sea and Mariut Lake. ...


Squares

Colonel Ahmad Orabi (April 1, 1841 - September 21, 1911), (Arabic: أحمد عرابي) also known as Orabi Pasha or Urabi Pasha, was an Egyptian army general who revolted against the khedive and European domination of Egypt in 1879 in what has become known as the Orabi Revolt. ... Downtown (or West al-Balad in Arabic) (Arabic:وسط البلد) is a popular neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Saad Zaghlul (also: Saad Zaglul, Sad Zaghlul Pasha ibn Ibrahim, etc. ... Downtown (or West al-Balad in Arabic) (Arabic:وسط البلد) is a popular neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... Downtown (or West al-Balad in Arabic) (Arabic:وسط البلد) is a popular neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Ahmed Hassan Zewail (Arabic: أحمد حسن زويل) (born February 26, 1946 in Damanhur, Egypt) is an Egyptian American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry. ...

Palaces

  • Montaza Palace, in Montaza
  • Ras el-Tin Palace, in Ras el-Tin
  • Presidential Palace, in Maamoura

Montaza Palace Montaza Palace Montaza palace was one of the palaces of the former Egyptian royal family (the descendants of Muhammad Ali) located in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Montaza (Arabic:المنتزه, Translated: The Park) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Ras el–Tin palace, located in Alexandria, Egypt, enjoys an outstanding historical position since it is one of few palaces that witnessed the initiation of Muhammad Ali’s dynasty. ...

Educational institutions

Educational institutions in Alexandria include:


Colleges and Universities:

Schools: Alexandria University (Arabic: جامعة الإسكندرية ) is a university in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Abu Qir, Alexandria The Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport (also known as AASTMT or AAST) is an Arab University specialized in Science and Technology and Maritime Transport. ... Alexandria Institute of Technology (AIT) is a private institute of higher education founded in 1996 and owned by Mohamed Ragab Foundation for social Development which is a non-profit organization registered under No. ... Pharos University in Alexandria (PUA) جامعة فاروس بالإسكندرية is a non-governmental and non-profit making university in Alexandria, Egypt. ... An international organization for the Francophonie. ...

Collège Saint Marc
Collège Saint Marc
Institution Sainte Jeanne-Antide
Institution Sainte Jeanne-Antide
Lycée Al-Horreya, Alexandria
Lycée Al-Horreya, Alexandria
  • Abbas Helmy High School
  • Al Abaseya High School
  • Al-Madina Al-Monawara High School
  • Al-Ramml High School
  • Alexandria House of English
  • British School of Alexandria
  • collège Notre Dame de Sion
  • Collège de la Mère de Dieu
  • Collège Saint Marc
  • Deutsche Schule der Borromärinnen DSB A "Saint Charles Borromé"
  • Ecole Champollion
  • Ecole Gérard
  • Ecole Saint Gabriel
  • Ecole Saint-Vincent de Paul
  • Ecole Sainte Catherine
  • Egyptian American School
  • Egypt Modern School
  • El Nasr Boys' School
  • El Nasr Girls' College
  • Gamal Abdel Naser High School
  • Institution Sainte Jeanne-Antide
  • Kaumeya Language School (KLS)
  • Janaklees National School (JNS)
  • Lycée Al-Horreya
  • Manar English Girls School
  • Mubarak Technologichal School (MTS)
  • Muharram Bey Schools
  • Modern American School
  • Pioneers American sporting school
  • Riada Language School (RLS)
  • Sacred Heart Girls' School (SHS)
  • Schutz American School
  • Sidi Gaber Language School {SLS}
  • Taymour English School (TES)
  • Victoria College
  • Zahran Language School (Z.L.S)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Collège Saint Marc Collège Saint Marc, Alexandria is a French Catholic school in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Institution Sainte Jeanne-Antide is a French girls institute. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Lycée Al-Horreya, Alexandria Lycée Al-Horreya, Alexandria or ‘’’Lycée Liberty, Alexandria’’’ (Arabic:ليسيه الحرية بالإسكندرية) is one of the main old schools in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Collège Saint Marc, Alexandria is a French Catholic school in Alexandria, Egypt. ... El Nasr Boys School (EBS) (Arabic:مدرسة النصر للبنين بالشاطبى) is a famous school in El Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt. ... El Nasr Girls College (EGC) Arabic:كلية النصر للبنات) is a famous school in El Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt. ... Institution Sainte Jeanne-Antide is a French girls institute. ... Lycée Al-Horreya, Alexandria Lycée Al-Horreya, Alexandria or ‘’’Lycée Liberty, Alexandria’’’ (Arabic:ليسيه الحرية بالإسكندرية) is one of the main old schools in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Schutz American School is located in the Schutz (Shods) neighborhood of Alexandria, Egypt; it was founded in 1924 for the children of missionaries working in Egypt, the Sudan, and Ethiopia, but has become an independent, nonsectarian, coeducational day school enrolling students from early childhood (age 3) through grade 12. ... Victoria College, Alexandria, was founded in 1902 under the impetus of the recently ennobled Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer of the Barings Bank, that was heavily invested in Egyptian stability. ...

Libraries

The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt. It was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the Library complex, the temple of the Muses — the Museion, Greek Μουσείον (from which the modern English word museum is derived). The Alexandria Library Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ... For the rock band, see Muse (band). ... The original Musaeum or Temple of the Muses at ancient Alexandria was the source for the modern usage, which denoted in Early Modern France as much a community of scholars brought together under one roof as it did the collections themselves, which French and English writers referred to as a... For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation). ...

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a modern project based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria.
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a modern project based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria.

It has been reasonably established that the Library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive and time-consuming). To this day the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy. The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2003 near the site of the old Library. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bibliotheca Alexandrina The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... Bibliotheca Alexandrina The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. ...


Museums

Alexandria Aquarium is a small aquarium in Alexandria. ... Plan du musée The Graeco-Roman Museum of Alexandria in Egypt was created in 1892. ... The Royal Jewelry Museum (Arabic:متحف المجوهرات ) in Alexandria, Egypt is located in the Zizinia neighborhood. ...

Recreational

Alexandria monument
Facade of the Montaza Palace
Facade of the Montaza Palace

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Montaza_Alexandria. ... Image File history File links Montaza_Alexandria. ... Montaza Palace Montaza Palace Montaza palace was one of the palaces of the former Egyptian royal family (the descendants of Muhammad Ali) located in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Shallalat Gardens is the name of ancient garden located in Alexandria, Egypt. ... The zoo in Alexandria is one of the largest zoos in Egypt. ... El Maamouras beach Maamoura Beach (Arabic:المعمورة الشاطئ) (Not to be confused with the district of Maamoura) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Porto Marina Marina is a tourist village located on the northern coast of Egypt, with a 7 km long beach. ...

Religion

Religious institutions include:
Churches
Saint Alexander Nevsky Church (Russian Orthodox Rite), Saint Anargyri Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Church of the Annunciation (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Anthony Church (Greek Orthodox Rite) Archangels Gabriel and Michael Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Catherine Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Catherine Church (Latin Catholic Rite), Pope Cyril I Church, in Cleopatra (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Cathedral of the Dormition, in Mansheya (Greek Catholic Rite), Church of the Dormition (Greek Orthodox Rite), Prophet Elijah Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Georges Church, in Sporting (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Georges Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Church of the Immaculate Conception, in Ibrahemeya (Greek Catholic Rite), Church of the Jesuits, in Cleopatra (Latin Catholic Rite), Saint Joseph Church, in Fleming (Greek Catholic Rite), Saint Joseph of Arimathea Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Mark Cathedral , in Ramleh (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Mark Church, in Shatby (Latin Catholic, Coptic Catholic and Coptic Orthodox Rites), Saint Mark & Saint Nectarios Chapel, in Ramleh (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Mark & Pope Peter I Church (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Mary Church, in Assafra (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Mary Church, in Gianaclis (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Menas Church, in Fleming (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Mina Church, in Mandara (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Nicholas Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Paraskevi Church (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Sava Cathedral, in Ramleh (Greek Orthodox Rite), Saint Tekle Haymanot Church (Coptic Orthodox Rite), Saint Theodore Chapel (Greek Orthodox Rite),
Mosques
Ali ibn Abi Talib Mosque, in Somouha, Bilal Mosque, El-Gamee el-Bahari, in Mandara, Hatem Mosque, in Somouha, Hoda el-Islam Mosque, in Sidi Bishr, Abu el-Abbas el-Mursi Mosque, in Anfoushi, El-Mowasah Mosque, in Hadara, Sharq el-Madina Mosque, in Miami, El-Shohadaa' Mosque, in Mostafa Kamel, Qaed Ibrahim Mosque, Yehia Mosque, in Zizinya, Sidi Beshr Mosque, in Sidi Beshr, Sidi Gaber Mosque, in Sidi Gaber, Asr El Islam Mosque, In Sidi Gaber, El Qabany Mosque, In Fleming, Abo El Nor Mosque, In Bakos, El Manara Mosque, In Shatby, Ansar EL Haq Mosque, In Sidi Beshr, EL Sayda Amna Mosque, In Sidi Gaber, El Sadaka Mosque, In Sidi Beshr, Tag EL Ser Mosque, Victoria, EL Fath Mosque, Semouha, and Nour Al-Islam mosque in Camp Cezar For other uses, see Alexander Nevsky (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... Saint Anthony the Great (c. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... There are five St. ... There are five St. ... St. ... According to Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, the body of Mary, the mother of Jesus, venerated by these denominations as the Blessed Virgin Mary or Theotokos, respectively, was taken into Heaven along with her soul after her death. ... According to Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, the body of Mary, the mother of Jesus, venerated by these denominations as the Blessed Virgin Mary or Theotokos, respectively, was taken into Heaven along with her soul after her death. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... There are communes that have the name Saint-Georges In France Saint-Georges, in the Cantal d partement Saint-Georges, in the Charente d partement Saint-Georges, in the Gers d partement Saint-Georges, in the Lot-et-Garonne d partement Saint-Georges, in the Moselle d partement Saint-Georges... There are communes that have the name Saint-Georges In France Saint-Georges, in the Cantal d partement Saint-Georges, in the Charente d partement Saint-Georges, in the Gers d partement Saint-Georges, in the Lot-et-Garonne d partement Saint-Georges, in the Moselle d partement Saint-Georges... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... St. ... Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... A mosque and a church at Suez Canal Street, Al Shatby. ... Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... St. ... Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Mark the Evangelist (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark, drawing much of his material from Peter. ... Peter of Alexandria was a Patriarch of Alexandria (300 - 311). ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the literary magazine, see St. ... Aghia Paraskevi and votive objects Paraskevi is a female name. ... Saint Sava (Serbian: , Romanized: Sveti Sava) (1175 - January 14, 1235), originally the prince Rastko Nemanjić (Serbian: Растко Немањић) (son of the Serbian ruler and founder of the Serbian medieval state Stefan Nemanja and brother of Stefan Prvovenčani, first Serbian king), is the first Serb archbishop (1219-1233), the most important saint... Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Saint Takla Haymanot the Ethiopian Tekle Haymanot or Takla Haymanot (Geez ተክለ፡ ሃይማኖት takla hāymānōt, modern tekle hāymānōt, Plant of Faith; known in the Coptic Church as Saint Takla Haymanot of Ethiopia) (c. ... Saint Theodore of Amasea (Amasenus, now Amasya, Turkey) is one of the Greek military saints of the 4th century, the earlier patron saint of Venice, now outshone there by Saint Mark, but still represented atop one of the two Byzantine columns standing in the Piazzetta of the Piazza San Marco... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub ... Entrance of Abu el-Abbas el-Mursi Mosque in Alexandria Abu el-Abbas el-Mursi Mosque (Arabic:جامع المرسي أبو العباس) is a famous mosque in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Anfoushi (Arabic:الأنفوشي) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ...


Sightseeing

Demolished monuments

Graphic reconstruction of the lighthouse according to a comprehensive study of 2006. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ...

Existing monuments

  • The Roman Amphitheatre
  • 'Pompey's Pillar'

Citadels

Citadel of Qaitbay, built in 1477 Front view of Citadel of Qaitbay The Citadel of Qaitbay (or the Fort of Qaitbay) is a 15th century defensive building located on the Mediterranean sea coast of Egypt, not far from the ruins of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt. ...

Famous spots

  • Bir Massoud, Miami
  • The Unknown Soldier, Ahmed Orabi Square in Mansheya
  • El Montaza Royal Gardens
  • Maamoura Beach

Montaza (Arabic:المنتزه, Translated: The Park) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ... El Maamouras beach Maamoura Beach (Arabic:المعمورة الشاطئ) (Not to be confused with the district of Maamoura) is a neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt. ...

Transportation

The yellow tram, a taxi and a minibus in "Saad Zaghloul square", Alexandria.
The yellow tram, a taxi and a minibus in "Saad Zaghloul square", Alexandria.
Alexandria tramway routes
Alexandria tramway routes

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 520 KB) Summary The yellow tram in Saad Zaghlouls square. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 520 KB) Summary The yellow tram in Saad Zaghlouls square. ... Tram Al Madina in Saad Zaghlul square, Alexandria. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2200x1416, 339 KB) Description: Straßenbahn-Netzplan Alexandria 1996 Source: Maximilian Dörrbecker File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexandria ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2200x1416, 339 KB) Description: Straßenbahn-Netzplan Alexandria 1996 Source: Maximilian Dörrbecker File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexandria ...

Airports

- Alexandria is served by the nearby Al Nozha Airport, located 7 km to the southeast. El Nouzha Airport (IATA: ALY, ICAO: HEAX) is a public airport located 7km southeast of Alexandria, Egypt, albeit within city limits. ...


- Another airport serves Alexandria named Borg al Arab Airport located about 25 km away from city center. This airport has been in use since about 2003. It was a military airport before that, and until now there is a military section there. Borg al Arab Airport (IATA: HBE, ICAO: HEBA) (previously called Luton International Airport) is an airport about 60 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. ...


Highways

  • The International coastal road. (Alexandria - Port Said)
  • The Desert road. (Alexandria - Cairo /220 km 6-8 lanes, mostly lit)
  • The Agricultural road. (Alexandria - Cairo)
  • The Circular road. the turnpike
  • Ta'ameer Road "Mehwar El-Ta'ameer" - (Alexandria - North Coast)

Port Said (postcard around 1915) Port Said (31. ... Cairo-Alexandria desert road is the main highway that connects Cairo to Alexandria, the two largest cities in Egypt. ...

Train

Extends from "Misr Station"; the main train station in Alexandria, to Abu Qir. Abū Qīr (Arabic أبو قير) (also Abukir or Aboukir) is a village on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 23 kilometers (14. ...


Train stations include:

  • Misr Station (the main station)
  • Sidi Gaber Station

Tram

Main article: Alexandria Tram

An extensive tramway network built in 1860 and is the oldest in Africa. A single ticket costs 25 Egyptian piastres (2007). The tram network is divided into two parts joined in the "Raml Station". Trams working east of the "Raml Station" are painted blue and usually known as "Tram Al-Raml". The ones operating to the west of "Raml station" are painted yellow and is a little smaller with a single tram working on both routes. Tram Al Madina in Saad Zaghlul square, Alexandria. ... A 100 piastre note from French Indochina, circa 1954. ...


Trams are the slowest means of transport in Alexandria but are convenient for short trips, 2-3 stations. If you are a sightseer with time to spare it is the cheapest way to see most of Alexandria.


Taxis

Taxis are a main means of public transportation in Alexandria. Taxis are painted black and yellow. Fare usually starts from 2 Egyptian pounds (2007). All taxis are required by law to have a meter but almost none is actually used since the fares have not changed in a very long time to keep up with inflation. Exactly what amount to charge a taxi is not exactly known and is left to the customers to estimate how much the trip is worth (like all other cities in Egypt, including Cairo) but most Alexandrians who use taxis usually know from experience what every trip costs. This creates a problem for travelers and tourists who are usually over-billed for their trips. Tourists are always advised to ask for how much they should pay for a taxi before hailing one. ISO 4217 Code EGP User(s) Egypt Inflation 6. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ...


Other means of public transportation

- Buses and Minibuses. Autobus redirects here. ... Volkswagen minibus A minibus is a motor vehicle that is designed to carry fewer people than a full-size bus. ...

San Stephano Beach in Alexandria.
San Stephano Beach in Alexandria.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 374 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,118 × 1,457 pixels, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 374 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,118 × 1,457 pixels, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Port

Main article: Alexandria Port

The port is divided into: The Port of Alexandria is on the West Verge of the Nile Delta between the Mediterranean Sea and Mariut Lake. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ...

  • The Eastern Harbor
  • The Western Harbor

Culture

"Eskendereyya"

This is a list of all words related to the word "Alexandria" in Arabic:

  • al-Iskandareyya(h) (الإسكندرية) (noun) (formal): Refers to the city of "Alexandria", used in formal texts and speech. Its Egyptian Arabic equivalent is Eskenderreya or Iskindereyya(h). Iskandariyya(h) and Eskendereyya(h) are different in pronunciation, though they have the same spelling when written in Arabic. In Literary Arabic, Iskandariyya(h) always takes the definite article al-, whereas in Egyptian Arabic, Eskendereyya(h) never takes el- (el- is the Egyptian Arabic equivalent of al-). The optional h at the end of both of them is called a ta' marbuta which is not usually pronounced, but is always written.
  • "Alex" (noun): Natives of both Alexandria and Cairo refer to Alexandria as "Alex", especially in informal English texts. In an English conversation between two Egyptians (whether Alexandrians or Cairenes), you would usually hear "I'm going to Alex tomorrow" instead of "I'm going to Alexandria tomorrow."
  • Esakandarani (اسكندراني) (adjective): Means 'native Alexandrian' or 'from Alexandria' in Egyptian Arabic.

Egyptian Arabic (Marī مصري) is part of the Arabic macrolanguage of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... Literary Arabic ( the Eloquent Arabic language) or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. ... Al- is not a permanent component of words, as shown here with , the Arabic for Bahrain. ... The (Arabic: ة) is a variant of the letter ta used at the end of words to denote that the word is grammatically feminine. ...

Sports

A group of cyclists in Alexandria
A group of cyclists in Alexandria

The main sport that interests Alexandrians is soccer, as is the case in all Egypt and Northern Africa. Alexandria was one of three cities that participated in hosting the African Cup of Nations in January 2006, which Egypt won. Sea sports such as surfing, jet-skiing and water polo are practised on a lower scale. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 581 KB) Summary A group of cyclists in Alexandria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 581 KB) Summary A group of cyclists in Alexandria. ... Cycling is the use of bicycles, or - less commonly - unicycles, tricycles, quadricycles and other similar wheeled human powered vehicles (HPVs) as a means of transport, a form of recreation or a sport. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... The African Cup of Nations, also referred to as the African Nations Cup (ANC) is the main international football competition in Africa. ... For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ... “PWC” redirects here. ... Water polo is a team water sport. ...


Alexandria has four stadiums: This article is about the building type. ...

Other less popular sports like tennis and squash are usually played in private social and sports clubs, like: Borg El Arab Stadium is a brand new stadium commissioned in 2006 in the Mediterranean Sea resort of Borg el Arab; 50 km west of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Harras El-Hedoud Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Alexandria Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Alexandria, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A sports club, athletics club or sports association is an eclectic institution oriented to multiple sports, which fields many teams and in several sports, working under the same umbrella organization. ...

  • Alexandria Sporting Club - in "Sporting"
  • Alexandria Country club
  • El Etehad Club
  • El Olympy Club
  • Lagoon Resort Courts
  • Smouha Club - in "Smouha"

Writings

Novels

  • Academic Year (1955, set in late 1940s) by D.J. Enright.
  • The Alexandria Quartet (1957-60, set in 1930s) by Lawrence Durrell.
  • The Bat (part of the Drifting Cities trilogy) (1965, set in 1943-44) by Stratis Tsirkas.
  • The Danger Tree (1977, set in 1942, partly in Alexandria) by Olivia Manning.
  • The Beacon at Alexandria (1986, set in 4th century) by Gillian Bradshaw.
  • City of Saffron (tr. 1989, set in 1930s) by Edwar Al-Kharrat.
  • Girls of Alexandria (tr. 1993, set in 1930s and '40s) by Edwar Al-Kharrat.
  • No One Sleeps in Alexandria (1996, set during World War II) by Ibrahim Abdel Meguid.
  • Miramar (1967) by Naguib Mahfouz.
  • Pashazade (2001, first book of the Arabesk trilogy set in a liberal Islamic Ottoman Alexandria in the 21st century) by Jon Courtenay Grimwood.

Dennis Joseph Enright (March 11, 1920 – December 31, 2002) was a British academic, poet, novelist and critic, and general man of letters. ... The Alexandria Quartet is a tetralogy of novels by British writer Lawrence Durrell, published between 1957 and 1960. ... Lawrence George Durrell (February 27, 1912 – November 7, 1990) was an expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer, though he resisted affiliation with Britain and preferred to be considered cosmopolitan. ... Olivia Manning (March 2, 1911 – July 23, 1980) was a British novelist. ... Gillian Marucha Bradshaw (born May 14, 1956) is an American writer of historical fiction, childrens literature, science fiction and contemporary novels with a strong scientific background who lives in Britain. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ... Pashazade can mean: Alternate spelling of Pashazada, Ottoman form of address meaning son of a Pasha Pashazade is a cyberpunk thriller by Jon Courtenay Grimwood, the first book in his Arabesk trilogy Categories: ... The Arabesk trilogy is a sequence of alternate history novels by the British author Jon Courtenay Grimwood. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Jon Courtenay Grimwood is a British science fiction author. ...

History

  • Alexandria: a history and a guide (1922; numerous reprints) by E.M. Forster.
  • Alexandria: City of Memory (Yale University Press, 2004) by Michael Haag.

Edward Morgan Forster (January 1, 1879 - June 7, 1970) was an English novelist. ...

Memoir

  • Out of Egypt (1994; describes family history in Alexandria) by André Aciman.

André Aciman (born 1951 in Alexandria, Egypt) is an American essayist, memoirist and leading scholar of the works of Marcel Proust. ...

Songs

Georges Moustaki album cover Yussef Mustacchi, known as Georges Moustaki, (born in Alexandria, Egypt May 3, 1934) is a singer and songwriter from France of Greek Sephardic origin, best known for his poetic rhythm, eloquent simplicity and his hundreds of romantic songs. ... Claude François Claude François (February 1, 1939 in Ismaïlia, Egypt - March 11, 1978 in Paris, France) was a French pop singer. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Fairuz at Carnegie Hall in 1971 Fairuz (also spelled Fairouz) (born 21 November 1935?) is a Lebanese singer greatly admired throughout the Arab world. ... It has been suggested that Olympia 74 be merged into this article or section. ... Moustafa Ahmed Mohamed Hassan Amar (Arabic:مصطفى قمر) (born September 22, 1966), known as Mostafa Amar, is an Egyptian musician and actor. ... Moustafa Ahmed Mohamed Hassan Amar (Arabic:مصطفى قمر) (born September 22, 1966), known as Mostafa Amar, is an Egyptian musician and actor. ... Mohamed Mounir, Fe Eshk El Banat on an album cover Mohamed (Arabic:محمد منير) (born October 10, 1954) is a Nubian-Egyptian singer who was born in Aswan, Egypt. ... Ahmed Fouad Negm (Arabic: احمد فؤاد نجم; popularly known as el-Fagoumi الفاجومي) is an Egyptian vernacular poet. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Kamelot is a power metal band that incorporates many elements of symphonic and progressive metal into their music. ...

Tourism

Alexandria is considered a main summer resort in the Middle East, visited by people from all other cities to enjoy the sun and the sea. Beaches become full of umbrellas and families and the city is usually crowded in summer. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Beaches of Alexandria are famous of having lots of cafeterias and umbrellas. There are both public beaches (which anyone can use for free, and are usually crowded) and private beaches (which can be used upon paying a small fee). There are also private beaches that are dedicated only to the guests of some hotels.


Notable People

Dr. Ahmed Nazif (Arabic: أحمد نظيف ) (born July 8, 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July 2004. ... Alypius of Alexandria was a Greek writer on music who flourished c. ... André Aciman (born 1951 in Alexandria, Egypt) is an American essayist, memoirist and leading scholar of the works of Marcel Proust. ... Antonis Benakis (Greek: Αντώνης Μπενάκης) (1873-1954) is a Greek art collector and the founder of the Benaki Museum in Athens, Greece. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Council of Constantinople in 383. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... Constantine P. Cavafy, also known as Konstantin or Konstantinos Petrou Kavafis, or Kavaphes (Greek Κωνσταντίνος Π. Καβάφης) (April 29, 1863 – April 29, 1933) was a major Alexandrine poet who worked as a journalist and civil servant. ... Cosmas Indicopleustes (literally Mr. ... // Artemios (Demis) Ventouris Roussos (born June 15, 1946) is a Greek singer. ... Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH (born June 9, 1917) is a British Marxist historian and author. ... Farouk Hosny (or Hosni, born 1938 in Alexandria, Egypt) is an abstract painter who was appointed in 1987 to the position of Minister of Culture, which he currently still holds. ... Princess Fawzia bint Fuad of Egypt (Arabic: فوزية بنت الملك فؤاد, Farsi: فوزیه فؤاد) (Alexandria, Egypt, November 5, 1921 -) was the first wife and Queen consort of Shahanshah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Iran. ... The Futurists in Paris, February 1912. ... Nasser redirects here. ... Georges Moustaki album cover Yussef Mustacchi, known as Georges Moustaki, (born in Alexandria, Egypt May 3, 1934) is a singer and songwriter from France of Greek Sephardic origin, best known for his poetic rhythm, eloquent simplicity and his hundreds of romantic songs. ... Gideon Gechtman (born 1942) is an Israeli artist and sculptor. ... Giuseppe Ungaretti. ... Haim Saban Haim Saban (born 15 October 1944 in Alexandria, Egypt) is a television and media proprietor. ... Hend Rostom Hend Rostom (Arabic:هند رستم) is one of Egypts most famous actresses. ... Hypatia, as depicted in Raphaels The School of Athens. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century _ other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Jean Desses Jean Desses (August 6, 1904 – August 2, 1970), was a world leading fashion designer in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s. ... Konstantinos Parthenis(1878-1967) was a distinguished Greek painter. ... Mahmud Bayram el-Tunsi (Arabic: بيرم التونسي; born in 1893 in Alexandria, Egypt - died 1961) was an Egyptian poet who was exiled from Egypt by the British for his nationalist poetry. ... Wax statue of Mohammad Fayed Mohamed Abdel Moneim Fayed (Arabic: محمد الفايد ) (born January 27, 1929) is an Egyptian businessman. ... Moustafa Ahmed Mohamed Hassan Amar (Arabic:مصطفى قمر) (born September 22, 1966), known as Mostafa Amar, is an Egyptian musician and actor. ... MTM is an abbreviation which can stand for: Mark-to-market, an economics term. ... Not to be confused with Umer Sharif. ... Pappus of Alexandria is one of the most important mathematicians of ancient Greek time, known for his work Synagoge or Collection (c. ... Image:Delta1. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... Sayed Darwish was an Egyptian singer and composer who was considered the father of Arab popular music. ... Sherif Attia, (born May 12, 1989 in Alexandria, Egypt), is a college basketball player playing for the Florida Institute of Technology (Florida Tech). ... Tawfiq al-Hakim,in Arabic توفيق الحكيم, the son of a wealthy Egyptian judge, was born in Alexandria in 1898. ... Youssef Chahine (Arabic: يوسف شاهين) (born January 25, 1926 in Alexandria, Egypt) is an Egyptian film director active in the Egyptian film industry since 1950. ...

Gallery

Image:Cornelius de Bruyn, view of Pompey's Pillar with Alexandria in the background, 1681.jpg|view of Pompey's Pillar with Alexandria in the background, 1681.


See also

Map of Egypt showing Alexandria Governorate. ... Egypt is divided into 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah): Ad Daqahliyah Al Bahr al Ahmar Al Buhayrah Al Fayyum Al Gharbiyah Al Iskandariyah Al Ismailiyah Al Jizah Al Minufiyah Al Minya Al Qahirah Al Qalyubiyah Al Wadi al Jadid Ash Sharqiyah As Suways Aswan Asyut Bani Suwayf Bur Sa...

Notes

  • "Alexandria: City of Memory" by Michael Haag (London and New Haven, 2004). A social, political and literary portrait of cosmopolitan Alexandria during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  • Victor W. Von Hagen. The Roads that led to Rome The World publishing Company, Cleveland and New York. 1967.

References

  1. ^ Erskine, Andrew (Apr. 1995). "Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser.,". Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: The Museum and Library of Alexandria Vol. 42, (No. 1): pgs 38–48 [42]. “One effect of the newly created Hellenistic kingdoms was the imposition of Greek cities occupied by Greeks on an alien landscape. In Egypt there was a native Egyptian population with its own culture, history, and traditions. The Greeks who came to Egypt, to the court or to live in Alexandria, were separated from their original cultures. Alexandria was the main Greek city of Egypt and within it there was an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds.” 
  2. ^ Erskine, Andrew (Apr. 1995). "Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser.,". Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: The Museum and Library of Alexandria Vol. 42 (No. 1): pgs 38–48 [42–43]. “The Ptolemaic emphasis on Greek culture establishes the Greeks of Egypt with an identity for themselves. […] But the emphasis on Greek culture does even more than this – these are Greeks ruling in a foreign land. The more Greeks can indulge in their own culture, the more they can exclude non-Greeks, in other words Egyptians, the subjects whose land has been taken over. The assertion of Greek culture serves to enforce Egyptian subjection. So the presence in Alexandria of two institutions devoted to the preservation and study of Greek culture acts as a powerful symbol of Egyptian exclusion and subjection. Texts from other cultures could be kept in the library, but only once they had been translated, that is to say Hellenized.
    […] A reading of Alexandrian poetry might easily give the impression that Egyptians did not exist at all; indeed Egypt itself is hardly mentioned except for the Nile and the Nile flood, […] This omission of the Egypt and Egyptians from poetry masks a fundamental insecurity. It is no coincidence that one of the few poetic references to Egyptians presents them as muggers.”
     
  3. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, "Res Gestae", 26.10.15-19
  4. ^ Stiros, Stathis C.: “The AD 365 Crete earthquake and possible seismic clustering during the fourth to sixth centuries AD in the Eastern Mediterranean: a review of historical and archaeological data”, Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 23 (2001), pp. 545-562 (549 & 557)
  5. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/203470.stm
  6. ^ http://newssearch.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/search/results.pl?q=Alexandria+underwater&scope=newsukfs&tab=news
  7. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/940333.stm

Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Alexandria
  • Official website
  • Alexandria travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Cairo and Alexandria guidebook from Wikitravel Press
  • Expatriates in Alexandria
  • British Council's Lawrence Durrell Celebration in Alexandria
  • Read more and see photo galleries about Alexandria (English)
  • Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: “Alexandria, Egypt”
  • Landmarks in Alexandria (English)

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Maps of Alexandria

  • Alexandria is at coordinates 31°11′53″N 29°55′09″E / 31.198, 29.9192 (Alexandria)Coordinates: 31°11′53″N 29°55′09″E / 31.198, 29.9192 (Alexandria)
Preceded by
Sais
Capital of Egypt
331 BC - 641 AD
Succeeded by
Fustat
Preceded by
Madrid
World Book Capital
2002
Succeeded by
New Delhi
Preceded by
Taipei
Wikimania host city
2008
Succeeded by
Buenos Aires

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... World Book Capital is a title bestowed by UNESCO to a city in recognition of the quality of its programs to promote books and reading and the dedication of all players in the book industry. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Torino redirects here. ... Bogota redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


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