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Encyclopedia > Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia)
Alexandra Feodorovna
Empress Consort of Russia
Empress Alexandra Feodorovna by A. Maliukov, 1836, Hermitage Museum
Titles HIH Grand Duchess Alexandra Feodorovna (1817-1825)
HIM The Dowager Empress (1855-1860)
Born 13 July 1798(1798-07-13)
Charlottenburg, Prussia
Died 1 November 1860 (aged 62)
Tsarskoe Selo, Russia
Consort December 1, 1825 - March 2, 1855
Consort to Nicholas I
Issue Alexander
Maria
Olga
Alexandra
Konstantin
Nicholas
Michael
Royal House House of Hohenzollern
Father Frederick William III of Prussia
Mother Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Alexandra Feodorovna, born Charlotte, Princess of Prussia, (July 13, 1798November 1, 1860) was Empress consort of Russia. She was the wife of Tsar Nicholas I, and mother of Tsar Alexander II. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location of Charlottenburg in Berlin Charlottenburg palace Charlottenburg is an area of Berlin within the borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Portrait by Franz Winterhalter. ... Grand Duchess Olga of Russia (September 11, 1822 – October 30, 1892), later Queen Olga of Württemberg, was a member of the Russian Imperial Family who became the Queen consort of Württemberg. ... Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia (24 June 1825 - 10 August 1844) was a daughter of Nicholas I of Russia and his wife, Charlotte of Prussia. ... Grand Duke Konstantin of Russia. ... Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich of Russia Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich (Russian: Великий князь Николай Николаевич) (born July 27, 1831 in Tsarskoye Selo, died April 13, 1891 in Alupka) was the third son and sixth child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. ... Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia (October 13, 1832 - December 18, 1909) was the fourth son and seventh child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Nicholas I Pavlovich (Russian: Николай I Павлович, July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855) was the Emperor of Russia and king of Poland from 1825 until his death in... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ...

Contents

Princess of Prussia

Alexandra Feodorovna was born on July 13, 1798 in Charlottenburg Palace, as Princess Frederica-Louise-Charlotte-Wilhelmina of Prussia. She was the eldest surviving daughter and fourth child of Frederick William III, King of Prussia, and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Schloss Charlottenburg, front view Schloβ Charlottenburg is the largest existing palace in Berlin. ... Frederick William III Frederick William III, known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm III, reigned as king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ...


Princess Charlotte's childhood was marked by the Napoleonic Wars. After the French defeat of the Prussian army, Princess Charlotte and her whole family were forced to flee to East Prussia, where they were given protection by Tsar Alexander I. Soon, Berlin fell under Napoleon’s control, and Princess Charlotte grew up in war-torn Memel, Prussia. Her mother died in 1810 shortly after Charlotte’s twelfth birthday, and for the rest of her life she treasured her mother’s memory.[1] From her early childhood Princess Charlotte occupied the first female rank in Prussia as the eldest daughter of her widower father. She would remain attached to Prussia and her family all of her life. Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Emperor of Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), King of Poland (reigned 1815–1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of the Duke... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In the fall of 1814, Grand Duke Nicholas Pavlovich of Russia, the future Tsar Nicholas I, and his brother Grand Duke Michael, visited Berlin. Arrangements were made between the two royal families for Nicholas to marry Princess Charlotte, and on the second visit the following year, Nicholas fell in love with the then seventeen year old Princess Charlotte. The feeling was mutual, "I like him and am sure of being happy with him." She wrote to her brother, "What we have in common is our inner life; let the world do as it pleases, in our hearts we have a world of our own." Hand-in-hand, they wandered over the Postdam country side, and attended the Berlin Court Opera. By the end of his visit, Grand Duke Nicholas and Princess Charlotte were engaged. The wedding would not take place for another two years. Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Nicholas I Pavlovich (Russian: Николай I Павлович, July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855) was the Emperor of Russia and king of Poland from 1825 until his death in... Staatsoper Unter den Linden, 2003 Berlin State Opera (in German: Staatsoper Unter den Linden) is a prominent German opera company. ...


On June 9, 1817 Princess Charlotte came to Russia with her brother William[2] . After arriving in St. Petersburg she converted to Russian Orthodoxy, and took the Russian name Alexandra Feodorovna. On her birthday, July 13, 1817, she and Nicholas were married in the Chapel of the Winter Palace. "...I felt myself very, very happy when our hands joined..." she would later write about her wedding. " With complete confidence and trust, I gave my life into the hands of my Nicholas, and he never once betrayed it."[3] June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ...


Grand Duchess of Russia

At first, Alexandra Feodorovna had problems adapting to the Russian court, the change of religion affected her and she was overwhelmed by her new surroundings. She gained the favor of her mother-in-law, Maria Feodorovna, but did not get along well with the Empress Elizabeth Alexeievna, wife of Tsar Alexander I. Roslins portrait of Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, with the Pavlovsk Palace in the background. ... Empress Elizabeth Alexeievna of Russia (Russian: Елизавета Алексеевна), born Louise Maria Auguste, Princess of Baden (13/24 January 1779 - 4 May/16 May, 1826) was the wife of Tsar Alexander I of Russia. ... Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Emperor of Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), King of Poland (reigned 1815–1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of the Duke...


Weeks after the wedding, Alexandra was pregnant. On April 17, 1818 she gave birth to her first son, the future Tsar Alexander II, and the next year she had a daughter, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna. In 1820 Alexandra produced a stillborn daughter, her third pregnancy in three years, which brought on a deep depression. Her doctors advised a holiday, and in the autumn of 1820 Nicholas took her to see her family in Berlin, where they remained until the summer of 1821, returning again in the summer of 1824. They did not come back to St. Petersburg until March of 1825 when Tsar Alexander I required their presence in Russia. is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, Hermitage Museum Maria Nikolaievna (Russian: Мария Николаевна) (August 18, 1819 - February 21, 1876) was a daughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia and sister of Alexander II. She was Duchess of Leuchtenberg and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Aleksandr Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), Emperor of Russia (reigned March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825), King of Poland (reigned 1815–1825), son of the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul I, and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of the Duke...


Alexandra Feodorovna spent her first years in Russia trying to learn the language and customs of her adopted country under the tutelage of the poet Vasily Zhukovsky, whom she characterized as being "too much of a poet to be a good tutor." The Imperial family spoke German and wrote their letters in French, and as a consequence, Alexandra never completely mastered the Russian language. On the publication of Pushkins first major work in 1820, Zhukovsky presented the younger poet with this famous portrait of himself, over the inscription: To the victorious disciple from his vanquished tutor. Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky (29 Jan/9 Feb 1783, Mishenskoe near Tula - 12/24 Apr 1852, Baden-Baden... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ...


Nicholas and Alexandra Feodorovna were private people who found great pleasure in each other’s company. She wrote in her memoirs of her first years in Russia, "We both were truly happy only when we found ourselves alone in our apartments with me sitting on his knees while he was loving and tender." For eight years, during the reign of Tsar Alexander I, the couple lived quietly, never once looking forward to the possibility of occupying the Russian throne. Tsar Alexander I had no children and his heir, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, renounced his succession rights in 1822, making Nicholas the new Tsarevich. Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ...


In 1825 Alexandra received from her brother-in-law, Alexander I, the Palace of Peterhof, where she and Nicholas lived happily at the start of her life in Russia. It would remain her favorite summer residence. Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Peterhof: the Samson Fountain and Sea Channel Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally Piterhof, Dutch for Peters Court) is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south...

Alexandra Feodorovna with her two eldest children, the Tsarevich Alexander, and the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna, c. 1820

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 1877 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) source:Nancy Tryon Collection Empress Alexandra Feodorovna with her children Alexander and Maria, c 1820 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 1877 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) source:Nancy Tryon Collection Empress Alexandra Feodorovna with her children Alexander and Maria, c 1820 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, Hermitage Museum Maria Nikolaievna (Russian: Мария Николаевна) (August 18, 1819 - February 21, 1876) was a daughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia and sister of Alexander II. She was Duchess of Leuchtenberg and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint...

Personality

Alexandra was tall, slender with a small head of refined features[4]. Her blue eyes were set deep in her head[5]. She had an air of regal majesty. Her quick, light walk was graceful. She was frail, often in poor health. Her voice was hoarse, but she spoke rapidly and with decision.[6] Dysphonia is the medical term for hoarseness or other phonation disorders. ...


Alexandra Feodorovna was an avid reader and enjoyed music. She was kind and liked privacy and simplicity. She dressed elegantly, with a decided preference for light colors, and collected beautiful jewels. Neither arrogant nor frivolous, Alexandra was not without intelligence and had an excellent memory; her reading was quite extensive; her judgment of men sure, slightly ironical[7]. However, her interests were mostly shallow. She loved to dance and the fantastic world of the Palaces and court balls filled her horizon[8] . She did not worry about knowing the real problems of the Russian people that demanded from its Empress the energy to take care of the needed and the sick.


For her, Russia was summed up in the person of her beloved husband. By forcing his will on this fragile, irresponsible and delicate creature, Nicholas destroyed Alexandra’s individuality [9]. Her husband gave her no time for reflection, for giving herself a sustained occupation, other than adoring wife and devoted mother.[10]


Empress of Russia

Alexandra Feodorovna became empress consort upon her husband's accession as Tsar Nicholas I on December, 1825. It was a turbulent period, marked by the bloody repression of the Decembrist revolt. Nicholas I Pavlovich (Russian: Николай I Павлович, July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855) was the Emperor of Russia and king of Poland from 1825 until his death in... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ...


By 1832 Nicholas and Alexandra had seven children whom they raised with care. Nicholas I never wavered in his love for his wife, whom he nicknamed “Mouffy”. In 1837, when much of the Winter Palace was destroyed by fire, Nicholas reportedly told an aide-de-camp "Let everything else burn up, only just save for me the small case of letters in my study which my wife wrote to me when she was my betrothed."[11] Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ...


Only after more than twenty-five years of fidelity did Nicholas take a mistress. He turned to Barbara Nelidova, one of Alexandra's ladies-in-waiting, as the doctors had forbidden the Empress from sex due to her poor health and recurring heart-attacks. Nicholas continued to seek refuge from the cares of state in Alexandra’s company. "Happiness, joy, and repose - that is what I seek and find in my old Mouffy." he once wrote.[12]


In 1845 Nicholas wept when Court doctors urged the Empress to visit Palermo for several months due to poor health. "Leave me my wife."[13] he begged her physicians, and when he learned that she had no choice, he made plans to join her, if only for a brief time. Nelidova went with them, and though Alexandra was jealous in the beginning, she soon came to accept the affair, and remained on good terms with her husband's mistress. 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


The Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, was always frail and in bad health. At forty she looked far older than her years, becoming increasingly thin. For a long time she suffered from a nervous twitching that became a convulsive shaking of her head.


In 1837 the Empress chose the resort in the Crimea for a new residence. There, Nicholas ordered that the Palace of Oreanda be built for her. She was only able to visit the Palace once however, as in 1852 the Crimean War began. Towards the end of 1854 Alexandra Feodorovna became very ill, and she came very close to death[14], though she managed to recover. In 1855 Tsar Nicholas I contracted influenza, and he died on 6/18 February. Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

The Dowager Empress Alexandra Feodorovna in 1860, the year of her death

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 948 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)source:The camera and the Tsars : the Romanov family in photographs Template:Alexandra Feodorovna, Tsarina of Russia, 1860 The two-dimensional work of art depicted... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 948 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)source:The camera and the Tsars : the Romanov family in photographs Template:Alexandra Feodorovna, Tsarina of Russia, 1860 The two-dimensional work of art depicted...

Dowager Empress

Alexandra Feodorovna survived her husband for five years. She retired to the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo, and remained in good terms with her husband’s mistress Barbara Nelidova, who she made her personal reader.[15] View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ...


The Dowager Empress's health became more and more fragile with the years. Unable to spend the harsh winters in Russia, she was forced to make long sojourns abroad. She wrote in September 1859 "I am homesick for my country and I reproached myself for costing so much money at a time when Russia has need of every ruble. But I cough and my sick lungs cannot go without a southern climate" [16]. In the autumn of 1860, her doctors told her that she would not live through the winter if she did not return once more to the south. Knowing the danger, she preferred to stay in St. Petersburg, so that if death did come it would happen on Russian soil. The night before her death, she was heard to say, "Niki, I am coming to you." [17] She died in her sleep at the age of sixty-two on November 1, 1860 at Alexander Palace in Tsarskoe Selo. Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... View of the corps de logis from the cour dhonneur. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ...


Children

Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodorovna had ten children:

Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Princess Yekaterina Mikhailovna Dolgorukaya (In Russian Княжна Екатерина Михаиловна Долгорукая) (14 November 1847 - 15 February 1922) Catherine was the daughter of Prince Mikhail Dolgoruky and Vera Visnevskaya. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, Hermitage Museum Maria Nikolaievna (Russian: Мария Николаевна) (August 18, 1819 - February 21, 1876) was a daughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia and sister of Alexander II. She was Duchess of Leuchtenberg and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maximilian Joseph Eugene Auguste Napoleon de Beauharnais (2 October 1817 Munich - 1 November 1852 St. ... Grand Duchess Olga of Russia (September 11, 1822 – October 30, 1892), later Queen Olga of Württemberg, was a member of the Russian Imperial Family who became the Queen consort of Württemberg. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Karl of Württemberg was the third King of Württemberg, from 25 June 1864 until his death. ... Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia (24 June 1825 - 10 August 1844) was a daughter of Nicholas I of Russia and his wife, Charlotte of Prussia. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jan. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Grand Duke Konstantin of Russia. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Alexandra Iosifovna, born Princess Alexandra Friederike Henriette of Saxe-Altenburg, (1830-1911) married Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich Romanov of Russia, second son of Nicholas I of Russia in September 1848. ... Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich (July 27, 1831 - April 13, 1891) was the third son and sixth child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Grand Duchess Alexandra Petrovna of Russia Grand Duchess Alexandra Petrovna of Russia (Russian: Александра Петровна; June 2, 1838 – April 25, 1900) was a daughter of Duke Peter of Oldenburg and a great granddaughter of Emperor Paul I of Russia. ... Look up Issue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia (October 13, 1832 - December 18, 1909) was the fourth son and seventh child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Olga Feodorovna painted by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 138
  2. ^ Nicholas I Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias: W.Bruce Lincoln, p. 66
  3. ^ The Romanovs: Autocrats of All the Russias: W.Bruce Lincoln, p. 414
  4. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 137
  5. ^ Romanov Autumn,Zaeepvat, Charlotte, p. 8
  6. ^ Romanov Autumn,Zaeepvat, Charlotte, p. 8 Impressions of Alexandra Feodorovna by Lady Bloomfield, wife of the British representative in St. Petersburg
  7. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 137 Description of Alexandra Feodorovna personality by Meyendorff
  8. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 30
  9. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 137 Impressions of Mandt, Doctor of The Imperial Family
  10. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 137 Impressions of Anna Tiutcheva, Alexandra Feodorovna's maid of honor, taken from Tiutcheva's book: In the Court of Two Tsarinas
  11. ^ The Romanovs: Autocrats of All the Russias: W.Bruce Lincoln, p. 417
  12. ^ The Romanovs: Autocrats of All the Russias: W.Bruce Lincoln, p. 418
  13. ^ The Romanovs: Autocrats of All the Russias: W.Bruce Lincoln, p. 418
  14. ^ The Romanovs: Autocrats of All the Russias: W.Bruce Lincoln, p. 425
  15. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 289
  16. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 289. Letter from Alexandra Feodorovna to Meyendorff in September, 1859.
  17. ^ Tsar Nicholas I The Life of an absolute monarch: Constantin de Grunwald, p. 289 quoted from a letter from Meyerdorff to his son

Bibliography

  • Grunwald, Constantin de, Tsar Nicholas I the Life of An Absolute Monarch, Alcuin Press, ASIN B000I824DU.
  • Lincoln, W. Bruce, The Romanovs: Autocrats of All the Russias, Anchor, ISBN 0385279086.
  • Zeepvat, Charlotte, Romanov Autumn , Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0750927399
  • Lincoln, W. Bruce, Nicholas I, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias , Northern Illinois University Press, ISBN 0875805485.

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prince Augustus William of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick William II of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louise Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick William III of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Caroline of Zweibrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charlotte of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prince Charles I Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Friederike Caroline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Maria of Leiningen-Dagsburg
 
 
 
 
 
 

Augustus William (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722, Berlin – 12 June 1758, Oranienburg), Prince of Prussia, was the second son of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Louise Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1722-1780) was daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (December 15, 1719 – May 13, 1790) was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg. ... Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (October 16, 1751 – February 25, 1805) was Queen of Prussia as the second wife of Frederick William II of Prussia. ... Charles II in 1800 Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German: ) (October 10, 1741 - November 6, 1816) was first duke, then grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... Princess Elizabeth Albertine Princess of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Duchess in Saxony (4 August 1713 - 29 June 1761) was a member of the reigning family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz during the 18th century. ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ...

Gallery

Preceded by
Louise of Baden
Royal Consorts of Russia
18251855
Succeeded by
Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt

 
 

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