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Encyclopedia > Alexander the Great
Alexander III, the Great
Basileus of Macedon, Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt
Alexander fighting Persian king Darius III. From Alexander Mosaic, from Pompeii, Naples, Museo Archeologico Nazionale.
Reign 336 BC-323 BC
Born July 20, 356 BC
Pella, Macedon
Died June 10, 323 BC
Babylon
Predecessor Philip II
Successor Alexander IV
Consort Roxana of Bactria
Stateira of Persia
Issue Alexander IV
Father Philip II of Macedon
Mother Olympias of Epirus

Alexander the Great (Greek: Αλέξανδρος ο Μέγας or Μέγας Aλέξανδρος,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC),[3][4][5] also known as Alexander III, was an ancient Greek king (basileus) of Macedon (336–323 BC). He was one of the most successful military commanders in history, and was undefeated in battle. By the time of his death, he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks. Combatants Macedon Athens, Thebes Commanders Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great Chares of Athens, Lysicles of Athens, Theagenes of Boeotia Strength 32,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry 35,000 Casualties Unknown 1,000 Athenians killed, 254 Boeotians killed, 2,000 captured The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), fought near... Combatants Macedon, Greek allies Persia, Greek mercenaries Commanders Alexander the Great, Parmenion, Clitus the Black Spithridates, Mithridates, Memnon of Rhodes Strength 20,000 peltasts[1] 22,000 hoplites[2] 5,000 cavalry[2] 9,500 peltasts[2] 5,000 Greek hoplites[3] 10,000 cavalry[3] Casualties 350 killed 4... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... In 332 BC, Alexander the Great set out to conquer Tyre, a strategic coastal base in the war between the Greeks and the Persians. ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... Combatants Macedonian Empire Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Ariobarzan † Strength 17,000[1][2] 700[1] Casualties Thousands[1] 700[1] The Battle of the Persian Gate was fought northeast of todays Yasuj in Iran between a group of Persian patriots led by Ariobarzan against the large invading Macedonian... Sogdiana, ca. ... Combatants Macedonian Empire Greek allies Persian allies Indian allies Paurava Commanders Alexander the Great, Craterus King Porus Strength 34,000 infantry,[2][3][4] 7,000 cavalry[5][6] 50,000 infantry,[7] 5,000 cavalry,[7] 200 war elephants,[8][9] 1,000 chariots[10] Casualties 4,000 infantry... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ...


Following the unification of the multiple city-states of ancient Greece under the rule of his father, Philip II of Macedon (a labour Alexander had to repeat because the southern Greeks rebelled after Philip's death), Alexander conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire, including Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Judea, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia and extended the boundaries of his own empire as far as the borders of Punjab. Before his death, Alexander had already made plans to also turn west and conquer Europe. He also wanted to continue his march eastwards in order to find the end of the world, since his boyhood tutor Aristotle had told him tales about where the land ends and the Great Outer Sea begins. Alexander integrated foreigners into his army, leading some scholars to credit him with a "policy of fusion." He encouraged marriage between his army and foreigners, and practised it himself. After twelve years of constant military campaigning, Alexander died, possibly of malaria, West Nile virus, typhoid fever, viral encephalitis or the consequences of heavy drinking.[6][7] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Pacific redirects here. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ...


His conquests ushered in centuries of Greek settlement and cultural influence over distant areas, a period known as the Hellenistic Age, a combination of Greek and Middle Eastern culture. Alexander himself lived on in the history and myth of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. After his death (and even during his life) his exploits inspired a literary tradition in which he appears as a legendary hero in the tradition of Achilles. The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Alexander fighting a lion with his friend Craterus (detail). He wears a chlamys cape, and a petasus hat. 3rd century B.C. mosaic, Pella museum.
Alexander fighting a lion with his friend Craterus (detail). He wears a chlamys cape, and a petasus hat. 3rd century B.C. mosaic, Pella museum.

Born in Pella, capitol of Macedon, Alexander was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and of his fourth wife Olympias, an Epirote princess. On his mother's side, he was a second cousin of Pyrrhus of Epirus; thus, there are notable examples of military genius on both sides of his family. According to Plutarch, his father descended from Heracles through Karanus of Macedon and his mother descended from Aeacus through Neoptolemus and Achilles.[8] Plutarch relates that both Philip and Olympias dreamt of their son's future birth. In Philip's dream, he sealed her womb with the seal of the lion. Alarmed by this, he consulted the seer Aristander of Telmessos, who determined that his wife was pregnant and that the child would have the character of a lion.[9] Another odd coincidence is that the temple of Artemis in Ephesus was set afire on the night of his birth. Plutarch's explanation is that the Gods were too busy watching over Alexander to care for the temple. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (938x624, 868 KB) Alexander fighting a lion. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (938x624, 868 KB) Alexander fighting a lion. ... Craterus (c. ... A Chlamys (&#967;&#955;&#945;&#956;&#944;&#962;) is an Ancient Greek piece of clothing, namely a cloak. ... The winged hat, symbol of Hermes, the Greek Messenger God (Roman equivalent Mercury). ... Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... This article is about the Macedonian princess. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος) was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic era. ... Alcides redirects here. ... King Karanus (808- 778 BC)was the first king of ancient Macedon. ... In Greek mythology, Aeacus (Greek: Aiakos, bewailing or earth borne) was king in the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf. ... Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Aristander of Telmessus in Caria was Alexander the Greats favorite seer. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ...


After his visit to the Oracle of Ammon at Siwa, according to five historians of antiquity (Arrian, Curtius, Diodorus, Justin, and Plutarch), rumors spread that the Oracle had revealed Alexander's father to be Zeus, rather than Philip. In support of this, Plutarch (Alexander 3.1,3) claims that Philip avoided Olympias' bed because of her affinity for sleeping in the company of snakes. Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historical writer in the first or second century AD, generally thought to have written under the reign of Claudius. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...

World view at the time of Alexander: reconstruction of Hecataeus' ancient world map, 5th century BC.
World view at the time of Alexander: reconstruction of Hecataeus' ancient world map, 5th century BC.

In his early years, Alexander was raised by his nurse Lanike, who was Cleitus' older sister. Following this, Alexander was educated by a strict teacher: Leonidas, a relative of his mother Olympias. Leonidas thought Alexander narcissistic and silly, and was equally disliked by Alexander. Reportedly, when Alexander threw a large amount of sacrificial incense into a fire, Leonidas harshly reprimanded him, telling him that when he had conquered the spice bearing regions, he could waste as much as he wanted. Years later, when Alexander had conquered Gaza, a city directly on the Persian spice trade route, he sent back over 15 tons of myrrh to Leonidas as a sort of ultimate comeback. Aristotle, however, was Alexander's most famous and important tutor since he gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy. Aristotle gave him a copy of the Iliad which he always kept with him and read frequently. Image File history File links Hecataeus_world_map-en. ... Image File history File links Hecataeus_world_map-en. ... Hecataeus (c. ... Ancient world maps cover depictions of the world from Classical times to the Age of Discovery and the emergence of modern Geography. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cleitus the Black (Greek: Κλείτος ο Μέλας) (ca. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ...


When Alexander was ten years old, a Thessalian brought a black horse to sell to Philip. The horse turned out to be wild and no man could mount him. The young Alexander went to the horse, and turned him towards the sun, for he had noticed that the horse was just afraid of his own shadow. He was then able to mount and ride it. His father and other people who saw this were very impressed, and when the young Alexander returned and dismounted the horse Philip kissed him with tears of joy and said "My son, seek thee out a kingdom equal to thyself; Macedonia has not room for thee." This line probably had as much paranoid fear in it as pride. Philip II knew perfectly well what happened to Macedonian kings with ambitious sons. The horse was named Bucephalus (which means "ox-head"). Bucephalus would be his companion and one of his best friends for the next two decades until the horse died (according to Plutarch due to old age, for he was already 30; other sources claim that Bocephus died of wounds sustained in a battle in India). Alexander then named a city after him called Bocephia. Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Statue of Alexander the Great riding Bucephalus, Thessaloniki, Greece For the branding mark anciently used on horses, see Bucephalus (brand). ...


Ascent of Macedon

Sardonyx cameo representing Alexander the Great. Thought to be by Pyrgoteles, engraver of Alexander, around 325 BC. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.
Sardonyx cameo representing Alexander the Great. Thought to be by Pyrgoteles, engraver of Alexander, around 325 BC. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.

When Philip led an attack on Byzantium in 340 BC, Alexander, aged 16, was left as regent of Macedonia. In 339 BC, Philip took a fifth wife, Cleopatra Eurydice. While Alexander's mother, Olympias, was from Epirus (a land in the western part of the Greek peninsula and not part of Macedon), Cleopatra Eurydice was a true Macedonian; this led to a dispute over Alexander's legitimacy as heir to the throne. During the wedding feast, Attalus, the uncle of the bride, supposedly gave a toast for the marriage to result in a legitimate heir to the throne of Macedon. Alexander responded by hurling his goblet at Attalus, shouting "What am I, a bastard then?" Alexander's father apparently drew his sword and moved towards Alexander, but fell in a drunken stupor. Alexander then remarked, "Here is the man planning on conquering from Greece to Asia, and he cannot even move from one table to another." Alexander and his mother left Macedon in anger, while his sister (also named Cleopatra) remained. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (668x703, 806 KB) Summary Sardonix cameo representing Alexander the Great. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (668x703, 806 KB) Summary Sardonix cameo representing Alexander the Great. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Eurydice (Ευρυδικη), née Cleopatra (Κλεοπάτρα). Mid. ... This article is about the Macedonian princess. ... Attalus (in Greek Άτταλος, c. ... Cleopatra of Macedon (ca. ...


Eventually Philip reconciled with his son, and Alexander returned home; Olympias remained in Epirus. In 338 BC Alexander assisted his father at the decisive Battle of Chaeronea against the city-states of Athens and Thebes, in which the cavalry wing led by Alexander annihilated the Sacred Band of Thebes, an elite corps regarded as invincible. After the battle, Philip led a wild celebration, from which Alexander was notably absent (it is believed he was treating the wounded and burying the dead, both of his own troops and of the enemy). It is speculated that Alexander personally treated Demades, a notable orator of Athens, who had opposed Athenian alignment against Philip. The assembled Athenian army voted on a peace plan drawn up and presented by Demades. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of its dominion over Boeotia and leave a Macedonian garrison in the citadel. A few months later, to strengthen Macedon's control over the Greek city-states, the League of Corinth was formed. Combatants Macedon Athens, Thebes Commanders Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great Chares of Athens, Lysicles of Athens, Theagenes of Boeotia Strength 32,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry 35,000 Casualties Unknown 1,000 Athenians killed, 254 Boeotians killed, 2,000 captured The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), fought near... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... The Companions (Greek Εταίροι) were Alexander the Greats elite cavalry, the main offensive arm of his army, and also his elite guard. ... The Sacred Band of Thebes (ancient Greek: ) was a troop of picked soldiers, numbering 150 age-structured which formed the elite force of the Theban army in the 4th century BC.[1] It was organized by the Theban commander Gorgidas in 378 BC and it played a crucial role in... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... The League of Corinth was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC to facilitate his use of Greek military forces in his war against Persia. ...

Bust of Alexander (Roman copy of a 330 BCE statue by Lysippus, Louvre Museum). According to Diodorus, the Alexander sculptures by Lysippus were the most faithful.
Bust of Alexander (Roman copy of a 330 BCE statue by Lysippus, Louvre Museum). According to Diodorus, the Alexander sculptures by Lysippus were the most faithful.
Silver coin of Alexander (336-323 BCE). British Museum.
Silver coin of Alexander (336-323 BCE). British Museum.

In 336 BC Philip was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to her uncle King Alexander of Epirus. The assassin was supposedly a former lover of the king, the disgruntled young nobleman Pausanias of Orestis, who held a grudge against Philip because the king had ignored a complaint of his. Philip's murder was once thought to have been planned with the knowledge and involvement of Alexander or Olympias. Another possible instigator could have been Darius III, the recently crowned King of Persia. After Philip's death, the army proclaimed Alexander, then aged 20, as the new king of Macedon. Greek cities like Athens and Thebes, which had been forced to pledge allegiance to Philip, saw in the untested new king an opportunity to regain full independence. Alexander moved swiftly and Thebes, which had been most active against him, submitted when he appeared at its gates. The assembled Greeks at the Isthmus of Corinth, with the exception of the Spartans, elected him to the command against Persia, which had previously been bestowed upon his father. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (576x768, 671 KB) Bust of Alexander the Great, Louvre Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (576x768, 671 KB) Bust of Alexander the Great, Louvre Museum. ... Lysippos was a Greek sculptor of the fourth century BC. Among the works attributed to him are Eros Stringing the Bow (various copies exist; the best is in the British Museum); Agias (known from a marble copy found and preserved in Delphi); Weary Hercules (originally placed in the Baths of... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (1489 × 775 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (1489 × 775 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Cleopatra of Macedon (ca. ... Alexander I of Epirus (c. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Pausanias of Orestis was a member of Philip II of Macedons somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...


The next year (335 BC), Alexander felt free to engage the Thracians and the Illyrians in order to secure the Danube as the northern boundary of the Macedonian kingdom. While he was triumphantly campaigning north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again. Alexander reacted immediately and while the other cities once again hesitated, Thebes decided this time to resist with the utmost vigor. The resistance was useless; in the end, the city was conquered with great bloodshed. The Thebans encountered an even harsher fate when their city was razed to the ground and its territory divided between the other Boeotian cities. Moreover, all of the city's citizens were sold into slavery; Alexander spared only the priests, the leaders of the pro-Macedonian party, and the descendants of Pindar, whose house was the only one left standing. The end of Thebes cowed Athens into submission. According to Plutarch, a special Athenian embassy led by Phocion, an opponent of the anti-Macedonian faction, was able to persuade Alexander to give up his demand for the exile of leaders of the anti-Macedonian party, particularly Demosthenes.[10] Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ...


Period of conquests

Map of Alexander's empire.
Map of Alexander's empire.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 805 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great User:Macedonia User:Asteraki ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 805 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great User:Macedonia User:Asteraki ...

Fall of the Persian Empire

Alexander's army had crossed the Hellespont with about 42,000 soldiers from Macedon and from various Greek city-states, mostly southern ones, as well as others from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria. After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis and proceeded down the Ionian coast. At Halicarnassus, Alexander successfully waged the first of many sieges, eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates, to withdraw by sea. Alexander left Caria in the hands of Ada, who was ruler of Caria before being deposed by her brother Pixodarus. From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities and denying them to his enemy. From Pamphylia onward, the coast held no major ports and so Alexander moved inland. At Termessos, Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city. At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander "undid" the tangled Gordian Knot, a feat said to await the future "king of Asia." According to the most vivid story, Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone, and he hacked it apart with his sword. Another version claims that he did not use the sword, but actually figured out how to undo the knot. Also, it is known that Alexander admired a Persian king, Cyrus the Great, which he visited Cyrus's Tomb. The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Paionia or Paeonia (in Greek Παιονία) was in ancient geography, the land of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες), the exact boundaries of which, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Combatants Macedon, Greek allies Persia, Greek mercenaries Commanders Alexander the Great, Parmenion, Clitus the Black Spithridates, Mithridates, Memnon of Rhodes Strength 20,000 peltasts[1] 22,000 hoplites[2] 5,000 cavalry[2] 9,500 peltasts[2] 5,000 Greek hoplites[3] 10,000 cavalry[3] Casualties 350 killed 4... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Memnon of Rhodes (380 – 333 BC) was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian king Darius III when Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded Persia in 334 BC and won the Battle of the Granicus River. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... Orontobates (in Greek Oρoντoβατης; lived 4th century BC) was a Persian, who married the daughter of Pixodarus, the usurping satrap of Caria, and was sent by the king of Persia to succeed him. ... Ada of Caria (4th century BC) came to power as the ruler of the large and profitable provincial capital city of Halicarnassus in Caria, a satrapy of the Persian Empire at a time when Darius was actively seeking to conquer it. ... Pixodarus (in Greek ΠιξωδαρoÏ‚; ruled 340–335 BC), a prince or king of Caria, was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively held the sovereignty of their native coutry. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... Wall of upper city in Termessos. ... Pisidia was an inland region in southern Anatolia. ... Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. ... Alexander cuts the Gordian Knot, by Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743–1811) The Gordian Knot is a legend associated with Alexander the Great. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...

Alexander's army crossed the Cilician Gates, met and defeated the main Persian army under the command of Darius III at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. Darius was forced to leave the battle and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis, and much of his personal treasure. Later afterwards he offered a peace treaty to Alexander of 10,000 talents of ransom for his family, and a great deal of territory. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Persia, it was he alone who decided who got what territory. Proceeding down the Mediterranean coast, he took Tyre and Gaza after famous sieges (see Siege of Tyre). Alexander passed through Judea and was deterred from destroying Jerusalem by a Jewish priest who showed him a 200 year old Biblical prophecy from Daniel 8:3-8 & 8:20-22. Alexander was so amazed by it that he decided to leave Jerusalem alone, and not do anything to it. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1160x630, 743 KB) Alexander the Great battling Darius at the Battle of Issus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1160x630, 743 KB) Alexander the Great battling Darius at the Battle of Issus. ... The Alexander Mosaic, dating from approx. ... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... The House of the Faun is the largest private residence to be discovered in the ruins of Pompeii. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... The Cilician Gates of wic (Turkish Külek Boazi or Gulek Bogazi) form the main passage through the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... For other uses, see Battle of Issus (disambiguation). ... Sisygambis was the mother of Darius III of Persia, whose reign was ended in the wars of Alexander the Great. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... In 332 BC, Alexander the Great set out to conquer Tyre, a strategic coastal base in the war between the Greeks and the Persians. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


In 332 BC–331 BC, Alexander was welcomed as a liberator in Egypt and was pronounced the son of Zeus by Egyptian priests of the god Amun at the Oracle of the god at the Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert. Henceforth, Alexander referred to the god Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and subsequent currency featuring his head with ram horns was proof of this widespread belief. He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic dynasty after his death. Leaving Egypt, Alexander marched eastward into Assyria (now northern Iraq) and defeated Darius and a third Persian army at the Battle of Gaugamela. Darius was forced to leave the field after his charioteer was killed, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. While Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), Alexander marched to Babylon. Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: ArbÄ«l; Arabic: , ArbÄ«l; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...

Statuette of a Greek soldier, from a 4th–3rd century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, at the maximum extent of Alexander's advance in the East (Ürümqi, Xinjiang Museum, China) (drawing).
Statuette of a Greek soldier, from a 4th–3rd century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, at the maximum extent of Alexander's advance in the East (Ürümqi, Xinjiang Museum, China) (drawing).

From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury. Sending the bulk of his army to Persepolis, the Persian capital, by the Royal Road, Alexander stormed and captured the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains), then sprinted for Persepolis before its treasury could be looted. After several months Alexander allowed the troops to loot Persepolis. A fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city. It was not known if it was a drunken accident or a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War. The Book of Arda Wiraz, a Zoroastrian work composed in the 3rd or 4th century AD, also speaks of archives containing "all the Avesta and Zand, written upon prepared cow-skins, and with gold ink" that were destroyed; but it must be said that this statement is often treated by scholars with a certain measure of skepticism, because it is generally thought that for many centuries the Avesta was transmitted mainly orally by the Magi. Download high resolution version (387x744, 32 KB)Probable depiction of Greek soldier, found in a burial north of the Tian Shan mountains. ... Download high resolution version (387x744, 32 KB)Probable depiction of Greek soldier, found in a burial north of the Tian Shan mountains. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: &#22825;&#23665;; Pinyin: Ti&#257;n Sh&#257;n; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Ürümqi Ürümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ürümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... The map of Achaemenid Empire and the Royal Road. ... Persian Gates: ancient name of the pass now known as Tang-e Meyran, north of modern Yasuj in Iran. ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The Sacred Rock) in the world. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ...


He then set off in pursuit of Darius, who was kidnapped, and then murdered by followers of Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman. Bessus then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V and retreated into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander. With the death of Darius, Alexander declared the war of vengeance over, and released his Greek and other allies from service in the League campaign (although he allowed those that wished to re-enlist as mercenaries in his imperial army). Bessus (died summer 329 BC) was a Persian nobleman and satrap of Bactria and Sogdiana, and later self-proclaimed king of Persia. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


His three-year campaign against first Bessus and then the satrap of Sogdiana, Spitamenes, took him through Media, Parthia, Aria (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia. In the process, he captured and refounded Herat and Maracanda. Moreover, he founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. In the end, both of his opponents were betrayed by their men, Bessus in 329 BC and Spitamenes the year after. Sogdiana, ca. ... Spitamenes (in old Persian Spitamaneh; killed 328 BC) was a Persian courtier who betrayed in 329 BC his self-proclaimed sovereign Artaxerexes IV, handing him over to Ptolemy, Alexander the Greats general, with the hope of appeasing the latter. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Drangiana (Old Persian: Zranka waterland) was a historical region of the Achaemenid Empire, now part of Afghanistan and Eastern Iran. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Alexandria Eschate (Greek , “Alexandria the Furthest”) was founded by Alexander the Great in 329 BCE as his most advanced base in Central Asia. ...


Hostility

During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis, a symbolic kissing of the hand that Persians paid to their social superiors, but a practice of which the Greeks disapproved. The Greeks regarded the gesture as the preserve of deities and believed that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him much in the sympathies of many of his countrymen. Here, too, a plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for treason for failing to bring the plot to his attention. Parmenion, Philotas' father, who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated by command of Alexander, who feared that Parmenion might attempt to avenge his son. Several other trials for treason followed, and many Macedonians were executed. Later on, in a drunken quarrel at Maracanda, he also killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black. Later in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life, this one by his own pages, was revealed, and his official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus (who had fallen out of favor with the king by leading the opposition to his attempt to introduce proskynesis), was implicated on what many historians regard as trumped-up charges. There is evidence to show that Callisthenes, the teacher of the pages, was likely the one who persuaded them to assassinate the king. A Persian king (centre) and the courtiers doing proskynesis (right). ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Parmenion (also Parmenio) (in Greek Παρμενίων, c. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Colour photograph taken in Samarkand ca. ... Cleitus the Black (Greek: Κλείτος ο Μέλας) (ca. ... A page is a young male servant. ... Callisthenes, or Kallisthenes, ( in Greek) of Olynthus (c. ... Olynthus, an ancient city of Chalcidice, situated in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, at some little distance from the sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 miles) from Potidaea. ...


Invasion of India

Campaigns and landmarks of Alexander's invasion of Southern Asia.
Campaigns and landmarks of Alexander's invasion of Southern Asia.
See also: Alexander's Conflict with the Kambojas and Battle of the Hydaspes River

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana (Roshanak in Bactrian) to cement his relations with his new Central Asian satrapies, in 326 BC Alexander was finally free to turn his attention to the Indian subcontinent. Alexander invited all the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara, in the north of what is now Pakistan, to come to him and submit to his authority. Ambhi (Greek: Omphis), ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Jhelum (Greek:Hydaspes), complied. But the chieftains of some hilly clans including the, Aspasios and Assakenois sections of the Kambojas (classical names), known in Indian texts as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas (names referring to the equestrian nature of their society from the Sanskrit root word Ashva meaning horse), refused to submit. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1117x1391, 292 KB) Conquests of Alexander in India. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1117x1391, 292 KB) Conquests of Alexander in India. ... Greek historians refer to three warlike peoples -viz. ... Combatants Macedonian Empire Greek allies Persian allies Indian allies Paurava Commanders Alexander the Great, Craterus King Porus Strength 34,000 infantry,[2][3][4] 7,000 cavalry[5][6] 50,000 infantry,[7] 5,000 cavalry,[7] 200 war elephants,[8][9] 1,000 chariots[10] Casualties 4,000 infantry... Spitamenes (in old Persian Spitamaneh; killed 328 BC) was a Persian courtier who betrayed in 329 BC his self-proclaimed sovereign Artaxerexes IV, handing him over to Ptolemy, Alexander the Greats general, with the hope of appeasing the latter. ... Roxana (Bactrian: Roshanak; literally midnight soul or nightmare), was a Bactrian noble and a wife of Alexander the Great. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Taxiles (in Greek Tαξιλης; lived 4th century BC) was a prince or king, who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Hydaspes rivers, in the Punjab at the period of the expedition of Alexander the Great, 327 BC. His real name was Ambhi, and the Greeks appear to... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Jhelum or Jehlum may mean: Jhelum River in India and Pakistan Jhelum City in Punjab, Pakistan Jhelum District in Punjab, Pakistan This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Eurasian nomads. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Alexander personally took command of the shield-bearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians and horse-javelin-men and led them against the Kamboja clans—the Aspasios of Kunar/Alishang valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus (Panjkora) valley, and the Assakenois of the Swat and Buner valleys. Writes one modern historian: "They were brave people and it was hard work for Alexander to take their strongholds, of which Massaga and Aornus need special mention."[11] A fierce contest ensued with the Aspasios in which Alexander himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart but eventually the Aspasios lost the fight; 40,000 of them were enslaved. The Assakenois faced Alexander with an army of 30,000 cavalry, 38,000 infantry and 30 elephants.[12] They had fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to the invader in many of their strongholds like cities of Ora, Bazira and Massaga. The fort of Massaga could only be reduced after several days of bloody fighting in which Alexander himself was wounded seriously in the ankle. When the Chieftain of Massaga fell in the battle, the supreme command of the army went to his old mother Cleophis (q.v.) who also stood determined to defend her motherland to the last extremity. The example of Cleophis assuming the supreme command of the military also brought the entire women of the locality into the fighting.[13] Alexander could only reduce Massaga by resorting to political strategem and actions of betrayal. According to Curtius: "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubbles." A similar manslaughter then followed at Ora, another stronghold of the Assakenois. Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Kunar Valley is a valley in Afghanistan. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Panjkora river rises rises high in the Hindu Kush at Lat. ... Swat (Pashto/Urdu: سوات) is a valley and a district in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... // History Geography Climate Economy Civic administration Transport Utility services Demographics People and culture Media Education Sports External links Further reading References ... Aornos is a greek word and in free translation means unbird. It is said that aornos was a stone located in the mountain Alexander sieged. ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Ora is a Kosovar political party founded in the summer of 2004 by Veton Surroi, a famous Kosovar publicist. ... Barikot is a city in the North West Frontier province of Pakistan, located in the Swat valley region (ancient Udyana). ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Cleophis (Sanskrit: Kripa?)[1] was the mother of Assakenos or Assacanus, the reigning war-leader of the Assakenoi or Assacani people at the time of Alexander’s invasion (Curtius). ... Curtius is a Roman nomen shared by several notables. ...

A painting by Charles Le Brun depicting Alexander and Porus (Puru) during the Battle of the Hydaspes.
A painting by Charles Le Brun depicting Alexander and Porus (Puru) during the Battle of the Hydaspes.

In the aftermath of general slaughter and arson committed by Alexander at Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenian people fled to a high fortress called Aornos. Alexander followed them close behind their heels and captured the strategic hill-fort but only after the fourth day of a bloody fight. The story of Massaga was repeated at Aornos and a similar carnage on the tribal-people followed here too. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x389, 75 KB) Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, painted 1673. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x389, 75 KB) Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, painted 1673. ... Charles Le Brun, contemporary portrait Charles Le Brun (February 24, 1619 - February 22, 1690) was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France. ... The battle of the Hydaspes River was a battle fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against the Indian king Purushotthama (better known as Porus) on the Hydaspes River (now the Jhelum) in present-day Pakistan. ... Look up Slaughter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Aornos is a greek word and in free translation means unbird. It is said that aornos was a stone located in the mountain Alexander sieged. ... Carnage refers to wholesale slaughter; see massacre. ...


Writing on Alexander's campaign against the Assakenois, Victor Hanson comments: "After promising the surrounded Assacenis their lives upon capitulation, he executed all their soldiers who had surrendered. Their strongholds at Ora and Aornus were also similarly stormed. Garrisons were probably all slaughtered.”[14] Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ...


Sisikottos, who had helped Alexander in this campaign, was made the governor of Aornos. After reducing Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and is believed to have won an epic battle against a local ruler Porus (original Indian name Raja Puru), who ruled a region in the Punjab, in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC. King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, The state falls with in the territory of Trigata Kingdom of Katoch Rulers i. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The battle of the Hydaspes River was a battle fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against the Indian king Purushotthama (better known as Porus) on the Hydaspes River (now the Jhelum) in present-day Pakistan. ...


After the battle, Alexander was greatly impressed by Porus for his bravery in battle, and therefore made an alliance with him and appointed him as satrap of his own kingdom, even adding some land he did not own before. Alexander then named one of the two new cities that he founded, Bucephala, in honor of the horse who had brought him to India, who had died during the Battle of Hydaspes. Alexander continued on to conquer all the headwaters of the Indus River. A goldeneye can be: A duck belonging to the genus Bucephala, which includes Bucephala clangula, the Common Goldeneye Bucephala islandica, Barrows Goldeneye Bucephala albeola, Bufflehead These are small seaducks. ... The battle of the Hydaspes River was a battle fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against the Indian king Purushotthama (better known as Porus) on the Hydaspes River (now the Jhelum) in present-day Pakistan. ...


East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River (original Indian name Ganga), was the powerful empire of Magadha ruled by the Nanda dynasty. Fearing the prospects of facing another powerful Indian army and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River) refusing to march further east. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests: This article is about the river. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ...

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand fighting elephants.

PlutarchVita Alexandri, 62 [15]
Ptolemy coin with Alexander wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests in India.
Ptolemy coin with Alexander wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests in India.

Alexander, after the meeting with his officer Coenus, was convinced that it was better to return. Alexander was forced to turn south. Along the way his army ran into the Malli clans (in modern day Multan). The Malli were the most warlike clans in South Asia during that period. Alexander's army challenged the Malli, and the ensuing battle led them to the Malli citadel. During the assault, Alexander himself was wounded seriously by a Malli arrow.[16] His forces, believing their king dead, took the citadel and unleashed their fury on the Malli who had taken refuge within it.[17] Following this, the surviving Malli surrendered to Alexander's forces, and his beleaguered army moved on.[18] He sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with his general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest of his forces back to Persia by the southern route through the Gedrosian Desert (now part of southern Iran and Makran now part of Pakistan). Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 621 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (717 × 692 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 621 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (717 × 692 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Coenus (in Greek KoινoÏ‚; died 326 BC), a son of Polemocrates and son-in-law of Parmenion, was one of the ablest and most faithful generals of Alexander the Great in his eastern expedition. ... Melli (also spelt Malli) is a town on the West Bengal-Sikkim border on the River Teesta. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Kerman is a province rich in historical sites and monuments. ... Craterus (c. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Nearchus (or Nearchos) was one of the officers in the army of Alexander the Great. ... Gedrosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southernwestern part of today s Pakistan, from the Indus River to the areas of Baluchistan and Makran. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ...


Alexander left forces in India however. In the territory of the Indus, he nominated his officer Peithon as a satrap, a position he would hold for the next ten years until 316 BC, and in the Punjab he left Eudemus in charge of the army, at the side of the satrap Porus and Taxiles. Eudemus became ruler of a part of the Punjab after their death. Both rulers returned to the West in 316 BC with their armies. In 321 BCE, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in India and overthrew the Greek satraps. Peithon, son of Agenor (?-312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Eudemus (in Greek EυδημoÏ‚; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals, who was appointed by him to the command of the troops left in India. ... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, The state falls with in the territory of Trigata Kingdom of Katoch Rulers i. ... Taxiles (in Greek Tαξιλης; lived 4th century BC) was a prince or king, who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Hydaspes rivers, in the Punjab at the period of the expedition of Alexander the Great, 327 BC. His real name was Ambhi, and the Greeks appear to... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...


After India

Statuette of the young Alexander striding a horse, Begram, Afghanistan.
Statuette of the young Alexander striding a horse, Begram, Afghanistan.

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed a number of them as examples on his way to Susa. As a gesture of thanks, he paid off the debts of his soldiers, and announced that he would send those over-aged and disabled veterans back to Macedonia under Craterus, but his troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis, refusing to be sent away and bitterly criticizing his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units. Alexander executed the ringleaders of the mutiny, but forgave the rank and file. In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian subjects, he held a mass marriage of his senior officers to Persian and other noblewomen at Susa, but few of those marriages seem to have lasted much beyond a year. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Originally a Sabine goddess, Ops (plenty) was a fertility deity and earth-goddess in Roman mythology. ...


His attempts to merge Persian culture with his Greek soldiers also included training a regiment of Persian boys in the ways of Macedonians. Most historians believe that Alexander adopted the Persian royal title of Shahanshah (meaning: "The King of Kings"). Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ...


It is claimed that Alexander wanted to overrun or integrate the Arabian peninsula, but this theory is widely disputed. It was assumed that Alexander would turn westwards and attack Carthage and Italy, had he conquered Arabia. Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ...


After traveling to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure, his closest friend and possibly lover[19] Hephaestion died of an illness, or possibly of poisoning. Alexander mourned by Hephaestion's side for six months. The Stone Lion of Hamedan is said to have been erected by Alexander The Great, upon the death of Hephaestion. ...


Death

The world at Alexander's death, showing his empire in its greater geopolitical context; Alexander's empire is in dark green.
The world at Alexander's death, showing his empire in its greater geopolitical context; Alexander's empire is in dark green.
Eastern Hemisphere, 323bc.

On the afternoon of June 10–11, 323 B.C., Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon. He was just one month short of attaining 33 years of age. Various theories have been proposed for the cause of his death which include poisoning by the sons of Antipater or others, sickness that followed a drinking party, or a relapse of the malaria he had contracted in 336 BC. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4500x2234, 466 KB) // The world, c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4500x2234, 466 KB) // The world, c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (2880 × 1692 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (2880 × 1692 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar () (c 630-562 B.C.E), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... Antipater (Greek: Αντίπατρος Antipatros; c. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


It is known that on May 29, Alexander participated in a banquet organized by his friend Medius of Larissa. After some heavy drinking, immediately before or after a bath, he was forced into bed due to severe illness. The rumors of his illness circulated with the troops causing them to be more and more anxious. On June 9, the generals decided to let the soldiers see their king alive one last time. They were admitted to his presence one at a time. Because the king was too ill to speak, he confined himself to moving his hand. The day after, Alexander was dead. Medius (in Greek Mηδιoς; lived 4th century BC), son of Oxythemis, was a native of Larissa in Thessaly and a friend of Alexander the Great. ... Larissa (Greek: Λάρισα, Lárisa) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Larissa Prefecture. ...


Cause

Coin of Alexander the Great, depicting Athena in profile, and a standing Nike.
Coin of Alexander the Great, depicting Athena in profile, and a standing Nike.

The poisoning theory derives from the story held in antiquity by Justin and Curtius. The original story stated that Cassander, son of Antipater, viceroy of Greece, brought the poison to Alexander in Babylon in a mule's hoof, and that Alexander's royal cupbearer, Iollas, brother of Cassander, administered it. Many had powerful motivations for seeing Alexander gone, and were none the worse for it after his death. Deadly agents that could have killed Alexander in one or more doses include hellebore and strychnine. In R. Lane Fox's opinion, the strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days had passed between the start of his illness and his death and in the ancient world, such long-acting poisons were probably not available. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 411 pixelsFull resolution (2230 × 1146 pixels, file size: 617 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 411 pixelsFull resolution (2230 × 1146 pixels, file size: 617 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Look up nike in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...  Kingdom of Cassander Other diadochi  Kingdom of Seleucus  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Ptolemy  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies Cassander (in Greek, Κάσσανδρος — Kassandros, ca. ... Iollas (in Greek Ioλλας or Ioλας; lived 4th century BC), son of Antipater, and brother of Cassander, king of Macedon. ... Species See text(#Species) Hellebores (the Genus Helleborus in the Family Ranunculaceae) are perennial flowering plants that are often grown in gardens for decorative purposes, as well as for their purported medicinal abilities and uses in witchcraft. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ...


The warrior culture of Macedon favoured the sword over strychnine, and many ancient historians, like Plutarch and Arrian, maintained that Alexander was not poisoned, but died of natural causes. Instead, it is likely that Alexander died of malaria or typhoid fever, which were rampant in ancient Babylon. Other illnesses could have also been the culprit, including acute pancreatitis or the West Nile virus[20]. Recently, theories have been advanced stating that Alexander may have died from the treatment not the disease. Hellebore, believed to have been widely used as a medicine at the time but deadly in large doses, may have been overused by the impatient king to speed his recovery, with deadly results. Disease-related theories often cite the fact that Alexander's health had fallen to dangerously low levels after years of heavy drinking and suffering several appalling wounds (including one in India that nearly claimed his life), and that it was only a matter of time before one sickness or another finally killed him. Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ...


No story is conclusive. Alexander's death has been reinterpreted many times over the centuries, and each generation offers a new take on it. What is certain is that Alexander died of a high fever on June 10 or 11 of 323 BC.


Successor

A diary from the year 323–322 BC that records the death of Alexander. Located at the British Museum, London
A diary from the year 323–322 BC that records the death of Alexander. Located at the British Museum, London

On his death bed, his marshals asked him to whom he bequeathed his kingdom. Since Alexander had no obvious and legitimate heir (his son Alexander IV would be born after his death, and his other son was by a concubine, not a wife), it was a question of vital importance. There is some debate to what Alexander replied. Some believe that Alexander said, "Kratisto" (that is, "To the strongest!") or "Krat'eroi" (to the stronger). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1069 KB) Summary A diary of space and weather observations from the year 323-322 BC that records the death of Alexander the Great, referring to him simply as The King. On display at the British Museum, London. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1069 KB) Summary A diary of space and weather observations from the year 323-322 BC that records the death of Alexander the Great, referring to him simply as The King. On display at the British Museum, London. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Alexander IV Aegus (in Greek, Aλέξανδρος Aιγός — 323–309 BC) was the son of Alexander III of Macedon and the princess Roxana, of Bactria. ...


Alexander may have said, "Krater'oi" (To Craterus). This is possible because the Greek pronunciation of "the stronger" and "Craterus" differ only by the position of the accented syllable. Most scholars believe that if Alexander did intend to choose one of his generals, his obvious choice would have been Craterus because he was the commander of the largest part of the army (infantry), because he had proven himself to be an excellent strategist, and because he displayed traits of the "ideal" Macedonian. But Craterus was not around, and the others may have chosen to hear "Krat'eroi" — the stronger. Regardless of his reply, Craterus was assassinated before he could take over the empire. The empire then split amongst his successors (the Diadochi). Craterus (c. ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ...


Alexander's death has been surrounded by as much controversy as many of the events of his life. Before long, accusations of foul play were being thrown about by his generals at one another, making it incredibly hard for a modern historian to sort out the propaganda and the half-truths from the actual events. No contemporary source can be fully trusted because of the incredible level of self-serving recording, and as a result what truly happened to Alexander the Great may never be known. Most theories that he died from syphilis have been more or less discredited.


Body

Alexander's body was placed in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus, which was in turn placed in a second gold casket and covered with a purple robe. Alexander's coffin was placed, together with his armour, in a gold carriage that had a vaulted roof supported by an Ionic peristyle. The decoration of the carriage was very lavish and is described in great detail by Diodoros. The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entrablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8...

A rare coin of Ptolemy I, showing himself on the obverse at the beginning of his reign, and on the reverse Alexander the Great triumphantly riding a chariot drawn by elephants, a reminder of his successful campaigns with Alexander in India.
A rare coin of Ptolemy I, showing himself on the obverse at the beginning of his reign, and on the reverse Alexander the Great triumphantly riding a chariot drawn by elephants, a reminder of his successful campaigns with Alexander in India.

According to one legend, Alexander was preserved in a clay vessel full of honey (which can act as a preservative) and interred in a glass coffin. According to Aelian (Varia Historia 12.64), Ptolemy stole the body and brought it to Alexandria, where it was on display until Late Antiquity. It was here that Ptolemy IX, one of the last successors of Ptolemy I, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one, and melted the original down in order to strike emergency gold issues of his coinage. The citizens of Alexandria were outraged at this and soon after Ptolemy IX was killed. Image File history File linksMetadata PtolemyWithElephants. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PtolemyWithElephants. ... For the unrelated astronomer, see Ptolemy Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC&#8211;283 BC), ruler of Egypt (reigned 323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Ptolemy IX (Ptolemy Soter II) was king of Egypt three times, from 116 BC to 110 BC, 109 BC to 107 BC and 88 BC to 80 BC, with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. ...


The Roman emperor Caligula was said to have looted the tomb, stealing Alexander's breastplate, and wearing it. Around 200 AD, Emperor Septimius Severus closed Alexander's tomb to the public. His son and successor, Caracalla, was a great admirer of Alexander, and visited the tomb in his own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are sketchy. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ...


The so-called "Alexander Sarcophagus," discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, is now generally thought to be that of Abdylonymus, whom Hephaestion had appointed as the king of Sidon by Alexander's order. The sarcophagus depicts Alexander and his companions hunting and in battle with the Persians. The Alexander Sarcophagus is a 4th century BC stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Istanbul Archaeology Museum (Turkish: İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzesi) is an archeological museum, located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace. ... Abdylonymus was a gardener for the Persian Satrap of Sidon in the 3rd Century BC. 12 years before Alexanders arrival at the city, there had been a uprising against Persian rule and the rebels had wanted to torch the gardens of the satrap. ...


Testament

Some classical authors, such as Diodorus, relate that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Although Craterus had already started to implement Alexander's orders, such as the building of a fleet in Cilicia for expedition against Carthage, Alexander's successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds that they were impractical and extravagant.[21] Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ... Craterus (c. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ...


The testament, described in Diodorus XVIII, called for military expansion into the Southern and Western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations. Its most remarkable items were:

  • The completion of a pyre to Hephaestion
  • The building of "a thousand warships, larger than triremes, in Phoenicia, Syria, Cilicia, and Cyprus for the campaign against the Carthaginians and the other who live along the coast of Libya and Iberia and the adjoining coastal regions as far as Sicily"
  • The building of a road in northern Africa as far as the Pillars of Heracles, with ports and shipyards along it.
  • The erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Dium, Amphipolis, Cyrnus and Ilium.
  • The construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip, "to match the greatest of the pyramids of Egypt"
  • The establishment of cities and the "transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties." (Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historia, XVIII)

The Stone Lion of Hamedan is said to have been erected by Alexander The Great, upon the death of Hephaestion. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Pillars of Hercules is the ancient name given to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Straits of Gibraltar. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dodona (disambiguation). ... Dion may mean: People: Dion (tyrant of Syracuse) (408-354 BC), ancient Greek politician Adolphe de Dion (1823-1908), archaeologist who excavated the château of Montfort LAmaury Marquis Albert de Dion, founder of the automobile company de Dion-Bouton Dion DiMucci (b. ... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (Greek, Ἀμφίπολις – Amphípolis) was an ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... Capital Ajaccio Land area¹ 8,680 km² President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Population   - Jan. ... The term Illion, Ilium has several meanings, including in legends, in anatomy, and in the arts: Ilion or Ilium is an alternative name for the legendary city of Troy. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

Personal life

Alexander's lifelong companion was Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble. Hephaestion also held the position of second-in-command of Alexander's forces until his death, which devastated Alexander. The full extent of his relationship with Hephaestion is the subject of much historical speculation. The source material on Alexander the Greats personal life is scarce. ... The Stone Lion of Hamedan is said to have been erected by Alexander The Great, upon the death of Hephaestion. ...


Alexander married two women: Roxana, daughter of a Bactrian nobleman, Oxyartes, and Stateira, a Persian princess and daughter of Darius III of Persia. There is also an accepted tradition of a third wife- Parysatis whom he is supposed to have married in Persia though nothing is known about her. Another personage from the court of Darius III with whom he was intimate was Bagoas. His son by Roxana, Alexander IV of Macedon, was killed after the death of his father, before he reached adulthood. Roxana (Bactrian: Roshanak; literally midnight soul or nightmare), was a Bactrian noble and a wife of Alexander the Great. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Oxyartes was a Bactrian, father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great. ... The marriages of Alexander III of Macedon with Stateira II and Hephaestion with Drypetis, at Susa Stateira II was daughter of Stateira I and Darius III of Persia. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Bagoas (in Old Persian Bagoi) was a eunuch in the Persian Empire in the 4th Century BCE. He was reportedly the lover of Alexander the Great. ... Alexander IV Aegus (in Greek, Aλέξανδρος Aιγός — 323–309 BC) was the son of Alexander III of Macedon and the princess Roxana, of Bactria. ...


Alexander was admired during his lifetime for treating all his lovers humanely.[22][23]


Legacy and division of the empire

Main article: Diadochi
Coin of Alexander bearing an Aramaic language inscription.
Coin of Alexander bearing an Aramaic language inscription.

After Alexander's death, in 323 BC, the rule of his Empire was given to Alexander's half-brother Philip Arridaeus and Alexander's son Alexander IV. However, since Philip was mentally ill and the son of Alexander still a baby, two regents were named in Perdiccas (who had received Alexander's ring at his death) and Craterus (who may have been the one mentioned as successor by Alexander), although Perdiccas quickly managed to take sole power. In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Image File history File links Alexander_Aramaic_coin. ... Image File history File links Alexander_Aramaic_coin. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Philip III (Arrhidaeus) (c. ... Perdiccas (d. ... Craterus (c. ...


Perdiccas soon eliminated several of his opponents, killing about 30 (Diodorus Siculus), and at the Partition of Babylon named former generals of Alexander as satraps of the various regions of his Empire. In 321 BC Perdiccas was assassinated by his own troops during his conflict with Ptolemy, leading to the Partition of Triparadisus, in which Antipater was named as the new regent, and the satrapies again shared between the various generals. From that time, Alexander's officers were focused on the explicit formation of rival monarchies and territorial states. The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories by Alexander the Great between his generals, soon after his death in 323 BCE. The partition was a result of a compromise, essentially brokered by Eumenes, following a conflict of opinion between the party of Meleager, who wished to give... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... The Partition of Triparadasus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 320 BCE between the generals (diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and established the repartition of their satrapies. ... Antipater (Greek: Αντίπατρος Antipatros; c. ...

The Hellenistic world view after Alexander: ancient world map of Eratosthenes (276-194 BC), incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors.[24]

Ultimately, the conflict was settled after the Battle of Ipsus in Phrygia in 301 BC. Alexander's empire was divided at first into four major portions: Cassander ruled in Macedon, Lysimachus in Thrace, Seleucus in Mesopotamia and Persia, and Ptolemy I Soter in the Levant and Egypt. Antigonus ruled for a while in Anatolia and Syria but was eventually defeated by the other generals at Ipsus (301 BC). Control over Indian territory passed to Chandragupta Maurya, the first Maurya emperor, who further expanded his dominions after a settlement with Seleucus. Image File history File links Iran. ... Image File history File links Iran. ... Ancient world maps cover depictions of the world from Classical times to the Age of Discovery and the emergence of modern Geography. ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... Combatants Antigonids Macedonians Seleucids Commanders Antigonus I†, Demetrius I of Macedon Prepelaus, Lysimachus, Seleucus I Nicator, Pleistarchus Strength 45,000 heavy infantry, 25,000 light infantry, 10,000 cavalry, 75 elephants 40,000 heavy infantry, 20,000 light infantry, 12,000 Persian cavalry, 3,000 heavy cavalry, 400 elephants, 100... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ...  Kingdom of Cassander Other diadochi  Kingdom of Seleucus  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Ptolemy  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies Cassander (in Greek, Κάσσανδρος — Kassandros, ca. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Lysimachus (c. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322&#8211;298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ...


By 270 BC, the Hellenistic states were consolidated, with The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...

The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (reigned c. 200-180 BCE), wearing an elephant scalp, took over Alexander's legacy in the east by again invading India in 180 BCE, and establishing the Indo-Greek kingdom (180 BC- 10 AD).
The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (reigned c. 200-180 BCE), wearing an elephant scalp, took over Alexander's legacy in the east by again invading India in 180 BCE, and establishing the Indo-Greek kingdom (180 BC- 10 AD).

By the 1st century BC though, most of the Hellenistic territories in the West had been absorbed by the Roman Republic. In the East, they had been dramatically reduced by the expansion of the Parthian Empire. The territories further east seceded to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom (250 BC- 140 BC), which further expanded into India to form the Indo-Greek kingdom (180 BC- 10 AD). The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Macedonian kings descended from Alexander the Greats general Antigonus I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed). Antigonus himself ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Ptolemaic Kingdom, in blue. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Silver tetradrachm depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (r. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ...


The Ptolemy dynasty persisted in Egypt until the epoch of the queen Cleopatra, best known for her alliances with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, just before the Roman republic officially became the Roman Empire. Cleopatra redirects here. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Alexander's conquests also had long term cultural effects, with the flourishing of Hellenistic civilization throughout the Middle East and Central Asia, and the development of Greco-Buddhist art in the Indian subcontinent. Alexander and his successors were tolerant of non-Greek religious practices, and interesting syncretisms developed in the new Greek towns he founded in Central Asia. The first realistic portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time; they are reminiscent of Greek statues of Apollo. Several Buddhist traditions may have been influenced by the ancient Greek religion; the concept of Boddhisatvas is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes [citation needed], and some Mahayana ceremonial practices (burning incense, gifts of flowers and food placed on altars) are similar to those practiced by the ancient Greeks. Zen Buddhism draws in part on the ideas of Greek stoics, such as Zeno [citation needed]. The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... In Buddhism, offerings (Pali: pūjā) are expressions of honour, worship, devotional attention. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ...


Among other effects, the Hellenistic, or koine dialect of Greek became the lingua franca throughout the so-called civilized world. For instance the standard version of the Hebrew Scriptures used among the Jews of the diaspora, especially in Egypt, during the life of Jesus was the Greek Septuagint translation, which was compiled ca 200 BC by seventy-odd scholars under the patronage of the Macedonian ruler Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Thus many Jews from Egypt or Rome would have trouble understanding the teachings of the scholars in the Temple in Jerusalem who were using the Hebrew original text and an Aramaic translation, being themselves only acquainted with the Greek version. There has been much speculation on the issue whether Jesus spoke Koine Greek as the Gospel-writers, themselves writing in Greek, don't say anything decisive about the matter. The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... The literal meaning of the Greek word koine (κοινή) is common. It is used in several senses: Koiné Greek (Κοινή Ἑλληνική), a Greek dialect that developed from the Attic dialect (of Athens) and became the spoken language of Greece at the time of the Empire of Alexander the Great. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... 309–246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: , 309 BC–246 BC), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Influence on Ancient Rome

A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC. The couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.
A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC. The couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.

In the late Republic and early Empire, educated Roman citizens used Latin only for legal, political, and ceremonial purposes, and used Greek to discuss philosophy or any other intellectual topic. No Roman wanted to hear it said that his mastery of the Greek language was weak. Throughout the Roman world, the one language spoken everywhere was Alexander's Greek.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Mosaica. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mosaica. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ...


Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements, although very little is known about Roman-Macedonian diplomatic relations of that time. Julius Caesar wept in Spain at the mere sight of Alexander's statue and Pompey the Great rummaged through the closets of conquered nations for Alexander's 260-year-old cloak, which the Roman general then wore as the costume of greatness. However, in his zeal to honor Alexander, Augustus accidentally broke the nose off the Macedonian's mummified corpse while laying a wreath at the hero's shrine in Alexandria, Egypt. The unbalanced emperor Caligula later took the dead king's armor from that tomb and donned it for luck. The Macriani, a Roman family that rose to the imperial throne in the 3rd century A.D., always kept images of Alexander on their persons, either stamped into their bracelets and rings or stitched into their garments. Even their dinnerware bore Alexander's face, with the story of the king's life displayed around the rims of special bowls.[25] This article refers to the Roman General. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


In the summer of 1995, during the archaeological work of the season centered on excavating the remains of domestic architecture of early-Roman date, a statue of Alexander was recovered from the structure, which was richly decorated with mosaic and marble pavements and probably was constructed in the 1st century AD and occupied until the 3rd century.[26]


General timeline

Character

Modern opinion on Alexander has run the gamut from the idea that he believed he was on a divinely-inspired mission to unite the human race, to the view that he was a megalomaniac bent on world domination. Such views tend to be anachronistic, and the sources allow for a variety of interpretations. Much about Alexander's personality and aims remains enigmatic. There were no disinterested commentators in Alexander's own time or soon afterward, so all accounts need to be read with skepticism. The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... This article is about the psychopathological condition. ... Global domination, global conquest, taking over the world, world conquest, or world domination is an ambitious goal in which one government, one ideology or belief system, or even one person, seeks to secure complete political control of the entire planet. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Alexander is remembered as a legendary hero in Europe and much of both Southwest Asia and Central Asia, where he is known as Iskander or Iskandar Zulkarnain. To Zoroastrians, on the other hand, he is remembered as the conqueror of their first great empire and as the destroyer of Persepolis. Ancient sources are generally written with an agenda of either glorifying or denigrating the man, making it difficult to evaluate his actual character. Most refer to a growing instability and megalomania in the years following Gaugamela, but it has been suggested that this simply reflects the Greek stereotype of an orientalizing king. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... This article is about the ancient city. ... For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ...

Equestrian statue of Alexander the Great, on the waterfront in Thessaloniki, Greece.
Equestrian statue of Alexander the Great, on the waterfront in Thessaloniki, Greece.

The murder of his friend Cleitus, which Alexander deeply and immediately regretted, is often cited as a sign of his paranoia, as is his execution of Philotas and his general Parmenion for failure to pass along details of a plot against him. There is also the view that this may have been more prudence than paranoia. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 237 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 237 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Cleitus the Black (Greek: Κλείτος ο Μέλας) (ca. ...


Modern Alexandrists continue to debate these same issues, among others, in modern times. One unresolved topic involves whether Alexander was actually attempting to better the world by his conquests, or whether his purpose was primarily to rule the world.


Partially in response to the ubiquity of positive portrayals of Alexander, an alternate character is sometimes presented which emphasizes some of Alexander's negative aspects. Some proponents of this view cite the destructions of Thebes, Tyre, Persepolis, and Gaza as examples of atrocities, and argue that Alexander preferred to fight rather than negotiate. It is further claimed, in response to the view that Alexander was generally tolerant of the cultures of those whom he conquered, that his attempts at cultural fusion were severely practical and that he never actually admired Persian art or culture. To this way of thinking, Alexander was, first and foremost, a general rather than a statesman. Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ...


Alexander's character also suffers from the interpretation of historians who themselves are subject to the bias and idealisms of their own time. Good examples are W. W. Tarn, who wrote during the late 19th century and early 20th century, and who saw Alexander in an extremely good light, and Peter Green, who wrote after World War II and for whom Alexander did little that was not inherently selfish or ambition-driven. Tarn wrote in an age where world conquest and warrior-heroes were acceptable, even encouraged, whereas Green wrote with the backdrop of the Holocaust and nuclear weapons. William Woodthorpe Tarn (1869 - 1957) was an historian and a writer of the 20th century. ... Peter Green (born 1924) is a British classical scholar noted for his Alexander to Actium, a general account of the Hellenistic Age, and other works. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


Greek and Latin sources

In addition to cuneiform evidence from Babylonia that is still being discovered and translated, there are numerous Greek and Latin texts about Alexander. The primary sources, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander, are all lost, apart from a few inscriptions and some letter-fragments of dubious authenticity. Contemporaries who wrote full accounts of his life include the historian Callisthenes, Alexander's general Ptolemy, Aristobulus, Nearchus, and Onesicritus. Another influential account is by Cleitarchus who, while not a direct witness of Alexander's expedition, used sources which had just been published. His work was to be the backbone of that of Timagenes, who heavily influenced many historians whose work still survives. None of these works survives, but we do have later works based on these primary sources. Callisthenes, or Kallisthenes, ( in Greek) of Olynthus (c. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Aristobulus, of Cassandreia, Greek historian, accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns, of which he wrote an account, mainly geographical and ethnological. ... Nearchus (or Nearchos) was one of the officers in the army of Alexander the Great. ... Onesicritus, or Onesicrates, of Aegina or Astypaleia (probably simply the old city of Aegina) was one of the writers on Alexander the Great. ... Cleitarchus, one of the historians of Alexander the Great, son of Demon, also an historian, was possibly a native of Egypt, or at least spent a considerable time at the court of Ptolemy Lagus. ... Timagenes was a Greek writer, historian and teacher of rhetoric. ...


The five main surviving accounts are by Arrian, Curtius, Plutarch, Diodorus, and Justin.

  • Anabasis Alexandri (The Campaigns of Alexander in Greek) by the Greek historian Arrian of Nicomedia, writing in the 2nd century AD, and based largely on Ptolemy and, to a lesser extent, Aristobulus and Nearchus. It is considered generally the most trustworthy source.
  • Historiae Alexandri Magni, a biography of Alexander in ten books, of which the last eight survive, by the Roman historian Quintus Curtius Rufus, written in the 1st century AD, and based largely on Cleitarchus through the mediation of Timagenes, with some material probably from Ptolemy;
  • Life of Alexander (see Parallel Lives) and two orations On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great (see Moralia), by the Greek historian and biographer Plutarch of Chaeronea in the second century, based largely on Aristobulus and especially Cleitarchus.
  • Bibliotheca historia (Library of world history), written in Greek by the Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus, from which Book 17 relates the conquests of Alexander, based almost entirely on Timagenes's work. The books immediately before and after, on Philip and Alexander's "Successors," throw light on Alexander's reign.
  • The Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus by Justin, which contains factual errors and is highly compressed. It is difficult in this case to understand the source, since we only have an epitome, but it is thought that also Pompeius Trogus may have limited himself to use Timagenes for his Latin history.

To these five main sources some like to add the Metz Epitome, an anonymous late Latin work that narrates Alexander's campaigns from Hyrcania to India. Much is also recounted incidentally in other authors, including Strabo, Athenaeus, Polyaenus, Aelian, and others. Anabasis Alexandri, the Campaigns of Alexander by Arrian is the most important source on Alexander the Great. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Quintus Curtius Rufus was a Roman historical writer in the first or second century AD, generally thought to have written under the reign of Claudius. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great &#8212; an important adjunct to his Life of the great general &#8212; On... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Chaeronea was a city in the province of Boeotia in Ancient Greece. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ... Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, 1st century BC Roman historian, of the Celtic tribe of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, flourished during the age of Augustus, nearly contemporary with Livy. ... Gorgan (&#1711;&#1585;&#1711;&#1575;&#1606;); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... Polyaenus (died 278 BC), born in Macedonia, was a Greek rhetorician who served as military commander in the Roman army. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ...


The "problem of the sources" is the main concern (and chief delight) of Alexander-historians. In effect, each presents a different "Alexander", with details to suit. Arrian is mostly interested in the military aspects, while Curtius veers to a more private and darker Alexander. Plutarch can't resist a good story, light or dark. All, with the possible exception of Arrian, include a considerable level of fantasy, prompting Strabo to remark, "All who wrote about Alexander preferred the marvelous to the true." Nevertheless, the sources tell us much, and leave much to our interpretation and imagination. Perhaps Arrian's words are most appropriate:

One account says that Hephaestion laid a wreath on the tomb of Patroclus; another that Alexander laid one on the tomb of Achilles, calling him a lucky man, in that he had Homer to proclaim his deeds and preserve his memory. And well might Alexander envy Achilles this piece of good fortune; for in his own case there was no equivalent: his one failure, the single break, as it were, in the long chain of his successes, was that he had no worthy chronicler to tell the world of his exploits.

Legend

Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus.
Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus.

Alexander was a legend in his own time. His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in proskynesis. Writing after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, went so far as to invent a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons. When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time." Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 900 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 900 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Alexander Sarcophagus is a 4th century BC stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... A Persian king (centre) and the courtiers doing proskynesis (right). ... Onesicritus, or Onesicrates, of Aegina or Astypaleia (probably simply the old city of Aegina) was one of the writers on Alexander the Great. ... Courtship (sometimes called dating or going steady) is the process of selecting and attracting a mate for marriage or sexual intercourse. ... In Greek mythology, Queen Thalestris of the Amazons brought three hundred women to Alexander the Great, hoping to breed a race of children as strong and intelligent as him. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Lysimachus (c. ...


In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the more legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance, later falsely ascribed to the historian Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages, exhibiting a plasticity unseen in "higher" literary forms. Latin and Syriac translations were made in Late Antiquity. From these, versions were developed in all the major languages of Europe and the Middle East, including Armenian, Georgian, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Hebrew, Serbian, Slavonic, Romanian, Hungarian, German, English, Italian, and French. The "Romance" is regarded by many Western scholars as the source of the account of Alexander given in the Qur'an (Sura The Cave). It is the source of many incidents in Ferdowsi's "Shahnama". A Mongolian version is also extant. Some believe that, excepting certain religious texts, it is the most widely-read work of pre-modern times. The Alexander Romance is any of several collections of legends concerning the mythical exploits of Alexander the Great. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Alexander in the Quran is a theory that holds that the character of Dhul-Qarnayn, mentioned in the Quran, is in fact Alexander the Great. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ...


Alexander is also a character of Greek folklore (and other regions), as the protagonist of 'apocryphal' tales of bravery. A maritime legend says that his sister is a mermaid and asks the sailors if her brother is still alive. The unsuspecting sailor who answers truthfully arouses the mermaid's wrath and his boat perishes in the waves; a sailor mindful of the circumstances will answer "He lives and reigns, and conquers the world", and the sea about his boat will immediately calm. Alexander is also a character of a standard play in the Karagiozis repertory, "Alexander the Great and the Accursed Serpent". The ancient Greek poet Adrianus composed an epic poem on the history of Alexander the Great, called the Alexandriad, which was probably still extant in the 10th century, but which is now lost to us. For other uses, see Mermaid (disambiguation). ... Karagiozis (Greek: Καραγκιόζης, from Turkish: Karagöz) is a shadow puppet and fictional character of Greek traditional folklore inspired from an Ottoman Turkish counterpart who was known as Karagöz. ... For other uses, see Adrianus (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


In the Bible

There is a prophetic reference to Alexander the Great in Daniel 8:5-8 and 21-22. The prophecy states that a King of Greece that will conquer the Medes and Persians but then die at the height of his power and have his kingdom broken into four kingdoms. In Biblical prophecy, the speed of his conquest as well as the foretold split of his kingdom into 4 kingdoms is represented by a leopard with four heads and with four eagle's wings.


Alexander was briefly mentioned in the first Book of the Maccabees Chapter 1, verses 1-7. 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ...


He was described as Alexander son of Philip the Macedonian. He defeated Darius, king of the Persians and succeeded him as king (Alexander previously became king of Greece). He gathered a strong army and ruled over countries and nations. He fell sick and perceived that he was dying so he summoned his officers and divided his kingdom among them. After Alexander reigned for twelve years, he died.


In the Qur'an

15th cent. Persian miniature painting from Herat depicting Iskander, the Persian name for Alexander the Great
15th cent. Persian miniature painting from Herat depicting Iskander, the Persian name for Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great sometimes is identified in Persian and Arabic traditions sources as Dhul-Qarnayn, Arabic for the "Two-Horned One", possibly a reference to the appearance of a horn-headed figure that appears on coins minted during his rule and later imitated in ancient Middle Eastern coinage. Accounts of Dhul-Qarnayn appear in the Qur'an, and so may refer to Alexander. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (339x633, 105 KB) Summary 15th century Persian miniature painting from Herat depicting Iskander, the Persian name for Alexander the Great who venerated by Muslims as Dhul-Qarnayn. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (339x633, 105 KB) Summary 15th century Persian miniature painting from Herat depicting Iskander, the Persian name for Alexander the Great who venerated by Muslims as Dhul-Qarnayn. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Persia redirects here. ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Iskander Missile Iskander (NATO reporting name SS-26 Stone) is a short range, solid fuel propelled, theater quasiballistic missile produced in Russia. ... Dhul-Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين) is a figure who was well-known in the lore of the early medieval dwellers of the Arabian Peninsula, and is mentioned in the Quran, the sacred scripture of Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


References to Alexander may also be found in the Persian tradition. The same traditions from the Pseudo-Callisthenes were combined in Persia with Sassanid Persian ideas about Alexander in the Iskandarnamah. In this tradition, Alexander built a wall of iron and melted copper in which Gog and Magog are confined. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gog and Magog redirect here. ...


Some Muslim scholars disagree that Alexander was Dhul-Qarnayn. There are actually some theories that Dhul-Qarnayn was a Persian King with a vast Empire as well, possibly King Cyrus the Great. The reason being is Dhul-Qarnayn is described in the Holy Quran as a monotheist believer who worshipped Allah (God). This, it is claimed, removes Alexander as a candidate for Dhul-Qarnayn as Alexander was a polytheist. Yet contemporaneous Persian nobles would have practiced Zurvanism, thus disqualifying them on the same basis. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ...


In the Shahnameh

The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, one of the oldest books written in modern Persian, has a chapter about Alexander. It is a book of epic poetry written around 1000 AD, and is believed to have played an important role in the survival of the Persian language in the face of Arabic influence. It starts with a mythical history of Iran and then gives a story of Alexander, followed by a brief mention of the Arsacids. The accounts after that, still in epic poetry, portray historical figures. Alexander is described as a child of a Persian king, Daraaye Darab (the last in the list of kings in the book whose names do not match historical kings), and a daughter of Philip, a Roman king. However, due to problems in the relationship between the Persian king and Philip's daughter, she is sent back to Rome. Alexander is born to her afterwards, but Philip claims him as his own son and keeps the true identity of the child secret. Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf...


Names

Alexander is also known in the Zoroastrian Middle Persian work Arda Wiraz Nāmag as "the accursed Alexander" due to his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital Persepolis. He is known as Eskandar-e Maqduni (Alexander of Macedonia) in Persian, Al-Iskander Al-Makadoni (Alexander of Macedonia) in Arabic, Alexander Mokdon in Hebrew, and Tre-Qarnayia in Aramaic (the two-horned one, apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon), al-Iskandar al-Akbar الاسكندر الاكبر (Alexander the Great) in Arabic, Sikandar-e-azam (سکندر اعظم) in Urdu and Skandar in Pashto. Sikandar, his name in Urdu and Hindi, is also a term used as a synonym for "expert" or "extremely skilled". Iskandar Yunani,Iskander Rumi in Arabic,Iskender Yunani,Iskender Rumi in turkish All of them mean Alexander the Greek see Names of the Greeks Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... Persia redirects here. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is a language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


In ancient and modern culture

Around seventy towns or outposts are claimed to have been founded by Alexander.[27] Diodorus Siculus credits Alexander with planning cities on a grid plan.[28] // Around seventy towns or outposts are claimed to have been founded by Alexander the Great. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ...


Alexander has figured in works of both "high" and popular culture from his own era to the modern day.


Notes

  1. ^ The name Αλέξανδρος derives from the Greek words αλέξω (to repel, shield, protect) and ανήρ (man; genitive case ανδρός), and means "protector of men."
  2. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary, Alexander, Retrieved on 2007-06-09
  3. ^ bbc.co.uk - Health Alexander's death riddle is 'solved'
  4. ^ The actual date of his birth still lies in question. Though July twentieth seems to be the most widely accepted one
  5. ^ livius.org - Note 7: The first month of the year, theoretically starting on the first new moon after the summer's solstice. This could mean that Alexander was born on 20 July 356. The astronomical, religious and civil calendars did not coincide in the fourth century; as a consequence, it is impossible to give the date of Alexander's birth
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ Plutarch, Alexander 2.1.
  9. ^ Plutarch, Alexander 2.2–3.
  10. ^ Plutarch, Phocion, 17
  11. ^ Worthington, p. 162, from an extract of A. K. Narain, 'Alexander the Great', Greece and Rome 12 1965, p 155–165.
  12. ^ Curtius.
  13. ^ (Ancient India, 1971, p 99, Dr R. C. Majumdar; History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, Foreign Invasion, p 46, Dr R. K Mukerjee.
  14. ^ Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power, 2002, p 86, Victor Hanson.
  15. ^ Plutarch, Vita Alexandri, 62
  16. ^ Plutarch, Alexander 63.5.
  17. ^ [3]
  18. ^ Alexander the Great Alexander of Macedon Biography,History of Macedonia
  19. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia; XII.7
  20. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol9no12/03-0288.htm
  21. ^ "At the same time he [Craterus] had received written instructions which the king had given him for execution; nevertheless, after the death of Alexander, it seemed best to the successors not to carry out these plans." Diodorus XVIII,4
  22. ^ Plutarch, Alexander, 21
  23. ^ Plutarc's Moralia II "On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander", 6
  24. ^ Source
  25. ^ Frank L. Holt, Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions, University of California Press.
  26. ^ Salima Ikram. Nile Currents
  27. ^ Alexander the Great: his towns
  28. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historia, vol. 8

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...

References

  • Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, English translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt (1971, first published 1958) Penguin Classics published by the Penguin Group, London ISBN 0-14-044253-7.
  • Green, Peter. Alexander of Macedon: 356–323 B.C. A Historical Biography. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992. ISBN 0-520-07166-2.
  • Lane Fox, Robin, Alexander the Great, London (Allen Lane) 1973, ISBN 0-86007-707-1.
  • Lane Fox, Robin, The Search for Alexander, Little Brown & Co. Boston, 1st edition (October 1980). ISBN 0-316-29108-0.
  • Renault, Mary. The Nature of Alexander, 1st American edition (November 12, 1979), Pantheon Books ISBN 0-394-73825-X.
  • Wilcken, Ulrich, Alexander the Great, W. W. Norton & Company; Reissue edition (March 1997). ISBN 0-393-00381-7.
  • Worthington, Ian, Alexander the Great, Routledge; 1st edition (February 1, 2003). ISBN 0-415-29187-9.

Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Aubrey de Selincourt (Sélincourt) (1896-1962) was an English writer, classical scholar, and translator. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Peter Green (born 1924) is a British classical scholar noted for his Alexander to Actium, a general account of the Hellenistic Age, and other works. ... Robin Lane Fox (born 1946) is an English academic and historian, currently a Fellow of New College, Oxford, and University Reader in Ancient History. ... Mary Renault (pronounced Ren-olt[1]) (4 September 1905 – 13 December 1983) born Mary Challans, was an English writer best known for her historical novels set in Ancient Greece. ... Pantheon Books was an American publishing company that was acquired by Random House in 1961. ...

Further reading

  • Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction, edited by A.B. Bosworth, E.J. Baynham. New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 2002 (Paperback, ISBN 0-19-925275-0).
  • Baynham, Elizabeth. Alexander the Great: The Unique History of Quintus Curtius. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-472-10858-1); 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-472-03081-7).
  • Brill's Companion to Alexander the Great by Joseph Roisman (editor). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2003.
  • Cartledge, Paul. Alexander the Great: The Hunt for a New Past. Woodstock, NY; New York: The Overlook Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-58567-565-2); London: PanMacmillan, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4050-3292-8); New York: Vintage, 2005 (paperback, ISBN 1-4000-7919-5).
  • Dahmen, Karsten. The Legend of Alexander the Great on Greek and Roman Coins. Oxford: Routledge, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-39451-1; paperback, ISBN 0-415-39452-X).
  • De Santis, Marc G. “At The Crossroads of Conquest.” Military Heritage, December 2001. Volume 3, No. 3: 46–55, 97 (Alexander the Great, his military, his strategy at the Battle of Gaugamela and his defeat of Darius making Alexander the King of Kings).
  • Fuller, J.F. C; A Military History of the Western World: From the earliest times to the Battle of Lepanto; New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1987 and 1988. ISBN 0-306-80304-6
  • Gergel, Tania Editor Alexander the Great (2004) published by the Penguin Group, London ISBN 0-14-200140-6 Brief collection of ancient accounts translated into English
  • Larsen, Jakob A. O. "Alexander at the Oracle of Ammon", Classical Philology, Vol. 27, No. 1. (Jan., 1932), pp. 70–75.
  • Lonsdale, David. Alexander the Great, Killer of Men: History's Greatest Conqueror and the Macedonian Way of War, New York, Carroll & Graf, 2004, ISBN 0786714298
  • Pearson, Lionel Ignacius Cusack. The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great. Chicago Ridge, IL: Ares Publishers, 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-89005-590-4).
  • Thomas, Carol G. Alexander the Great in his World (Blackwell Ancient Lives). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0631232451; paperback, ISBN 063123246X).

Paul Cartledge is a Professor of Greek History at Cambridge University, and a fellow of Clare College. ... Military Heritage is a glossy, bi-monthly history magazine published by Sovereign Media. ... Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ...

Non-Greek/Latin perspectives

  • A. Shapur Shahbazi, "Iranians and Alexander", American Journal of Ancient History n.s. 2 (2003), 5–38: the Persian side of the story.
  • R.J. van der Spek, "Darius III, Alexander the Great and Babylonian scholarship" in: Achaemenid History 13 (2003), 289–346: an overview of several Babylonian sources
  • Two chapters of Jona Lendering's Dutch book Alexander de Grote, which uses the cuneiform sources, are available in translation. In this chapter, he argues that at Gaugamela, Alexander attacked a Persian army that was looking for an excuse to run away; and in this chapter, he offers a Babylonian perspective on Alexander's final days.

Jona Lendering is a Dutch historian and the author of books on antiquity, Dutch history and modern management. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Alexander the Great in
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Primary Sources Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

  • Alexander the Great: An annotated list of primary sources from Livius.org
  • Alexander the Great Alexander the Great forum, articles, and referenced information.
  • Wiki Classical Dictionary, extant sources and fragmentary and lost sources
  • Plutarch, Life of Alexander (English)
  • Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus (English)
  • Plutarch, Of the Fortune or Virtue of Alexander the Great (English)
  • Quintus Curtius Rufus, Histories of Alexander (Latin)
  • Alexander The Great in the French museum Le Louvre
  • Alexander, The Great Mystery by T. Peter Limber in "Saudi Aramco Magazine"

Projects

  • Alexander the Great on the Web, a comprehensive directory of some 1,000 sites
  • Pothos.org: Alexander's Home on the Web
  • Alexander Tells History from his perspective; broken down into 33 segments, covering his childhood, education, upbringing, influences, strategy, leadership, friendship as well as the numerous clashes he had against Darius of the Persian Empire.
  • Alexander the Great Coins, a site depicting Alexander's coins and later coins featuring Alexander's image
  • Alexander III the Great, entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith

Narratives

  • Alexander the Great of Macedon, a project by John J. Popovic

Bibliography

  • PDF: A Bibliography of Alexander the Great by Waldemar Heckel (please note that Heckel ignores the Babylonian sources and publications on these sources; cf. this review)
Alexander the Great
Born: 356 BC Died: 323 BC
Preceded by
Philip II
King of Macedon
336 BC–323 BC
Succeeded by
Philip III & Alexander IV
Preceded by
Darius III
Great King (Shah) of Persia
330 BC–323 BC
Pharaoh of Egypt
332 BC–323 BC
Persondata
NAME Alexander the Great
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Alexander III, Μέγας Aλέξανδρος (Greek)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Greek military commander
DATE OF BIRTH July 20, 356 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Pella, Macedon
DATE OF DEATH June 10, 323 BC
PLACE OF DEATH Babylon

John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


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