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Encyclopedia > Alexander Shulgin
Alexander and Ann Shulgin, in a photo from their book TiHKAL, c. 1997.
Alexander and Ann Shulgin, in a photo from their book TiHKAL, c. 1997.

Alexander "Sasha" Shulgin (born June 17, 1925 in Berkeley, California) is an American pharmacologist, chemist and drug developer of Russian descent. Image File history File links Shulgin. ... Image File history File links Shulgin. ... TiHKAL is a 1997 book written by Dr Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about tryptamines. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Chemist Julie Perkins of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory pours from a Florence flask. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ...


Shulgin is credited with the popularizing of MDMA in the late 1970s and early 1980s, especially for psychopharmaceutical use and the treatment of depression and Post-traumatic stress disorder. In subsequent years, Shulgin discovered, synthesized, and bioassayed over 230 psychoactive compounds. In 1991 and 1997, he and his wife Ann Shulgin authored the books PiHKAL and TiHKAL on the topic of psychoactive drugs. Shulgin discovered many noteworthy phenethylamines including the 2C* family of which 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-I, and 2C-B are most well known. Additionally, Shulgin performed seminal work into the descriptive synthesis of compounds based on the organic compound tryptamine. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street name ecstasy or XTC, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family, whose primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts of serotonin as well as dopamine and... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful experiences that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... Ann Shulgin (March 22, 1931) is an author and wife of famous chemist Alexander Shulgin. ... Cover of PiHKAL PiHKAL is a 1991 book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about psychedelic phenethylamines. ... TiHKAL is a 1997 book written by Dr Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about tryptamines. ... Phenethylamine is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... 2C-T-2 is a psychedelic phenethylamine presumably first synthesized in 1981 by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-7 is a psychedelic phenethylamine and is sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-I is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and phenethylamine that was developed and popularized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-B is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ...


He is currently continuing his work at home in Lafayette, CA, and is writing a new comprehensive psychedelic drug index. Lafayette is a city located in Contra Costa County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

Contents


Early career

Shulgin began studying organic chemistry as a Harvard University scholarship student. At the age of 19, he dropped out of school, and joined the U.S. Navy, where he eventually became interested in pharmacology.[1] After serving in the Navy, he returned to Berkeley, California, and in 1954, earned his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. Through the late 50's, Shulgin completed post-doctoral work in the fields of psychiatry and pharmacology at University of California, San Francisco. After working at BioRad Laboratories as a research director for a brief period, he began work at Dow Chemical Company as a senior research chemist.[1] Harvard University campus (old map) Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is an accredited private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... Psychiatry is a medical speciality whose primary goal is the treatment of mental illness. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems. ... The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is one of the worlds leading centers of health sciences research, patient care, and education. ... Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850 ) is a United States-based multinational corporation. ...


It was at this time that he experienced a series of psychedelic experiences that helped to shape his further goals and research, beginning with an experience with mescaline.[2] Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a hallucinogenic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ...

I first explored mescaline in the late '50s, Three-hundred-fifty to 400 milligrams. I learned there was a great deal inside me.

— Alexander Shulgin, LA Times, 1995[2] The Los Angeles Times (also L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ...

He would later write that everything he saw and thought "had been brought about by a fraction of a gram of a white solid, but that in no way whatsoever could it be argued that these memories had been contained within the white solid... I understood that our entire universe is contained in the mind and the spirit. We may choose not to find access to it, we may even deny its existence, but it is indeed there inside us, and there are chemicals that can catalyze its availability."


Shulgin's professional activities continued to lean in the direction of psychopharmacology, furthered by his personal experiences with psychedelics, but he was able to do little independent research. His opportunity for further research came with his development of Zectran, the first biodegradeable pesticide, and a highly profitable product. Dow Chemical Company, in return for the valuable patent, gave Shulgin great freedom in his research. During this time, he patented drugs he created when Dow asked, and published findings on others in journals such as Nature and Journal of Organic Chemistry. Eventually, Dow Chemical requested that he no longer use their name on his publications.[1] First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The Journal of Organic Chemistry (abbreviated as ) is a scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in organic and bioorganic chemistry. ...


In 1965, Shulgin left Dow to pursue his own interests, and became a private consultant, also frequently teaching classes in the local universities and at the San Francisco General Hospital. Through his friend Bob Sager, head of the U.S. DEA's Western Laboratories, Shulgin formed a relationship with the DEA and began holding pharmacology seminars for the agents, supplying the DEA with samples of various compounds, and occasionally serving as an expert witness in court. He also authored a definitive law enforcement reference book on controlled substances[3] and received several awards from the DEA. Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...


Independent research

Through his work with the DEA, Shulgin obtained a DEA Schedule I license, allowing him to possess and synthesize any otherwise illicit drug. Shulgin set up a chemical synthesis laboratory in a small building behind his house, which gave him a great deal of career autonomy. Shulgin used this freedom to synthesize and test the effects of psychoactive drugs. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 13). ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ...


In 1967, Shulgin was introduced to MDMA (ecstasy) by a student at University of California, San Francisco. MDMA had been synthesized and patented by Merck in 1917 as a byproduct of another synthesis, but was considered useless, and was never explored. Shulgin went on to develop a new synthesis method, and in 1976, introduced the chemical to Leo Zeff, a psychologist from Oakland, California. Zeff used the substance in his practice in small doses as an aid to talk therapy. Zeff introduced the substance to hundreds of psychologists around the nation, including Ann Shulgin, whom Alexander Shulgin met in 1979, and married in 1981.[1] ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is one of the worlds leading centers of health sciences research, patient care, and education. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Merck may refer to: Merck & Co. ... A psychologist is a scientist who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human behavior and mental processes. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is a major American city on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Ann Shulgin (March 22, 1931) is an author and wife of famous chemist Alexander Shulgin. ...


After judicious self-experiments, Shulgin enlisted a small group of friends with whom he regularly tested his creations. They developed systematic way of ranking the effects of the various drugs, known as the Shulgin Rating Scale, with a vocabulary to describe the visual, auditory and physical sensations. He personally tested hundreds of drugs, mainly analogues of various phenethylamines (family containing MDMA, and mescaline), and tryptamines (family containing DMT and psilocybin). There are a seemingly infinite number of slight chemical variations, all of which produce variations in effect--some pleasant and some unpleasant--and all of which are meticulously recorded in Shulgin's books.[1] The Shulgin Rating Scale is used when describing the level of activity of a psychoactive compound at a given dossage. ... Phenethylamine (β-Phenylethylamine) is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street name ecstasy or XTC, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family, whose primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts of serotonin as well as dopamine and... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a hallucinogenic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Dimethyltryptamine, also known as DMT and N,N-dimethyltryptamine, not to be confused with 5-MeO-DMT, is a psychedelic tryptamine, similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... For discussion of Johns Hopkins experiment, see Effects. ...


In 1994, two years after the publication of PiHKAL, the DEA raided his lab; finding problems with his record keeping, the DEA requested that Shulgin turn over his license for violating the license's terms, and he was fined US$25,000 for possession of anonymous samples sent to him for quality testing. Two earlier, unannounced reviews during the 15 years in which Shulgin held his license, both before the publication of PiHKAL, had failed to find any irregularities.[4] Richard Meyer, spokesman for DEA's San Francisco Field Division, has stated that "It is our opinion that those books are pretty much cookbooks on how to make illegal drugs. Agents tell me that in clandestine labs that they have raided, they have found copies of those books," suggesting to many that the publication of PiHKAL and the termination of Shulgin's license were related.[1] Cover of PiHKAL PiHKAL is a 1991 book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about psychedelic phenethylamines. ... Cover of PiHKAL PiHKAL is a 1991 book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about psychedelic phenethylamines. ... Cover of PiHKAL PiHKAL is a 1991 book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about psychedelic phenethylamines. ...


Notable developments

Some of the more interesting chemicals mentioned in Shulgin's books include DiPT (diisopropyltryptamine), which appears to almost exclusively affect the sense of hearing. Perceived frequencies of sounds are shifted down nonlinearly (as opposed to each pitch shifting the same amount), which indicates that the drug might affect cortical processing areas rather than the ear itself. DIPT or diisopropyltryptamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the tryptamine family that has a unique effect. ...


Bibliography

Books

  • with Wendy Perry. The Simple Plant Isoquinolines. Berkeley: Transform Press, 2002. [ISBN 0-9630096-2-1]
  • with Ann Shulgin. "A New Vocabulary". In Robert Forte (ed.), Entheogens and the Future of Religion, Berkeley: Council on Spiritual Practices, 1997. [ISBN 1-889725-01-3]
  • with Ann Shulgin. Tihkal: The Continuation. Berkeley: Transform Press, 1997. [ISBN 0-9630096-9-9]
  • with Ann Shulgin. Pihkal: A Chemical Love Story. Berkeley: Transform Press, 1991. [ISBN 0-9630096-0-5]
  • Controlled Substances: Chemical & Legal Guide to Federal Drug Laws, Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, 1988. [ISBN 0-914171-50-X]

TiHKAL is a 1997 book written by Dr Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about tryptamines. ... Cover of PiHKAL PiHKAL is a 1991 book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about psychedelic phenethylamines. ...

Other notable publications

  • 1963. "Psychotomimetic agents related to mescaline". Experientia 19: 127. 19
  • 1963. "Composition of the myristicin fraction from oil of nutmeg". Nature 197: 379. 20
  • 1963. "Concerning the pharmacology of nutmeg". Mind 1: 299-302. 23
  • 1964. "3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy amphetamine, a new psychotomimetic agent". Nature 201: 1120-1121. 29
  • 1964. "Psychotomimetic amphetamines: methoxy 3,4-dialkoxyamphetamines". Experientia 20: 366. 30
  • 1964. with H. O. Kerlinger. "Isolation of methoxyeugenol and trans-isoelemicin from oil of nutmeg". Naturwissenschaften 15: 360-361. 31
  • 1965. "Synthesis of the trimethoxyphenylpropenes". Can. J. Chem. 43: 3437-3440. 43
  • 1966. "Possible implication of myristicin as a psychotropic substance". Nature 210: 380-384. 45
  • 1966. "The six trimethoxyphenylisopropylamines (trimethoxyamphetamines)". J. Med. Chem. 9: 445-446. 46
  • 1966. with T. Sargent, and C. Naranjo. "Role of 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamin in schizophrenia". Nature 212: 1606-1607. 48
  • 1967. with T. Sargent, and C. Naranjo. "The chemistry and psychopharmacology of nutmeg and of several related phenylisopropylamines". In D. H. Efron [ed.]: Ethnopharmacologic search for psychoactive drugs. U. S. Dept. of H. E. W., Public Health Service Publication No. 1645. Pp. 202-214. Discussion: ibid. pp. 223-229. 49
  • 1967. with T. Sargent. "Psychotropic phenylisopropylamines derived from apiole and dillapiole". Nature 215: 1494-1495. 50
  • 1967. with Sargent, T. W., D. M. Israelstam, S. A. Landaw, and N. N. Finley. "A note concerning the fate of the 4-methoxyl group in 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine (DMPEA)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 29: 126-130. 52
  • 1967. with Naranjo, C. and T. Sargent. "Evaluation of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) as an adjunct to psychotherapy". Med. Pharmacol. Exp. 17: 359-364. 53
  • 1968. "The ethyl homologs of 2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylisopropylamine". J. Med. Chem. 11: 186-187. 54
  • 1969. with T. Sargent and C. Naranjo. "Structure activity relationships of one-ring psychotomimetics". Nature 221: 537-541. 57
  • 1969. "Recent developments in cannabis chemistry". J. Psyched. Drugs 2: 15-29. 58
  • 1969. "Psychotomimetic agents related to the catecholamines". J. Psyched. Drugs 2(2): 12-26. 59
  • 1970. "Chemistry and structure-activity relationships of the psychotomimetics". In D. H. Efron [ed.]. "Psychotomimetic Drugs". Raven Press, New York. Pp. 21-41. 60
  • 1970. "The mode of action of psychotomimetic drugs; some qualitative properties of the psychotomimetics". Neur. Res. Prog. Bull. 8: 72-78. 61
  • 1970. "4-alkyl-dialkoxy-alpha-methyl-phenethylamines and their pharmacologically-acceptable salts". U. S. Patent 3,547,999, issued Dec. 15, 1970. 63
  • 1971. with T. Sargent and C. Naranjo. "4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine, a new centrally active amphetamine analog". Pharmacology 5: 103-107. 64
  • 1971. "Chemistry and sources". In S. S. Epstein [ed]. "Drugs of abuse: their genetic and other chronic nonpsychiatric hazards". The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Pp 3-26. 65
  • 1971. "Preliminary studies of the synthesis of nitrogen analogs of Delta1-THC". Acta Pharm. Suec. 8: 680-681. 66
  • 1972. "Hallucinogens, CNS stimulants, and cannabis. In S. J. Mulé and H. Brill [eds.]: Chemical and biological aspects of drug dependence". CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio. Pp. 163-175. 67
  • 1973. "Stereospecific requirements for hallucinogenesis". J. Pharm. Pharmac. 25: 271-272. 68
  • 1973. "Mescaline: the chemistry and pharmacology of its analogs". Lloydia 36: 46-58. 69
  • 1973. "The narcotic pepper - the chemistry and pharmacology of Piper methysticum and related species". Bull. Narc. 25: 59-1974. "Le poivre stupéfiant - chemie et pharmacologie du Piper methysticum et des espéces apparentées". Bull. Stupéfiants 25: 61-77. 70
  • 1973. with T. Sargent and C. Naranjo. "Animal pharmacology and human psychopharmacology of 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine (MMDA)". Pharmacology 10: 12-18. 71
  • 1974. with Kalbhen, D. A., T. Sargent, G. Braun, H. Stauffer, N. Kusubov, and M. L. Nohr. "Human pharmacodynamics of the psychodysleptic 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine labelled with [82]Br". IRCS (Int. Res. Comm. Sys.) 2: 1091. 73
  • 1975. with Sargent, T., D. A. Kalbhen, H. Stauffer, and N. Kusubov. "A potential new brain-scanning agent: 4-[77]Br-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine (4-Br-DPIA)". J. Nucl. Med. 16: 243-245. 74
  • 1975. with M. F. Carter. "Centrally active phenethylamines". Psychopharm. Commun. 1: 93-98. 75
  • 1975. with Sargent, T., D. A. Kalbhen, G. Braun, H. Stauffer, and N. Kusubov. "In vivo human pharmacodynamics of the psychodysleptic 4-Br-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine labelled with [82]Br or [77]Br". Neuropharmacology 14: 165-174. 76
  • 1975. "The chemical catalysis of altered states of consciousness. Altered states of consciousness, current views and research problems". The drug abuse council, Washington, D. C. Pp. 123-134. 77
  • 1975. "Drug use and anti-drug legislation". The PharmChem Newsletter 4 (#8). 79
  • 1975. with D. C. Dyer. "Psychotomimetic phenylisopropylamines. 5. 4-alkyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenylisopropylamines". J. Med. Chem. 18: 1201-1204. 80
  • 1975. with C. Helisten. "Differentiation of PCP, TCP, and a contaminating precursor PCC, by thin layer chromatography". Microgram 8: 171-172. 81
  • 1975. with Helisten, C. "The detection of 1-piperidinodydlohexanecarbonitrile contamination in illicit preparations of 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine and 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine". J. Chrom. 117: 232-235. 82
  • 1976. "Psychotomimetic agents". In M. Gordon [ed.] "Psychopharmacological agents", Vol. 4. Academic Press, New York. Pp. 59-146. 83
  • 1976. "Abuse of the term 'amphetamines'". Clin. Tox. 9: 351-352. 84
  • 1976. "Profiles of psychedelic drugs. 1. DMT". J. Psychedelic Drugs 8: 167-168. 85
  • 1976. "Profiles of psychedelic drugs. 2. TMA-2". J. Psychedelic Drugs 8: 169. 86
  • 1976. with D. E. MacLean. "Illicit synthesis of phencyclidine (PCP) and several of its analogs". Clin. Tox. 9: 553-560. 87
  • 1976. with Nichols, D. E. "Sulfur analogs of psychotomimetic amines". J. Pharm. Sci. 65: 1554-1556. 89
  • 1976. with Sargent, T. and N. Kusubov. "Quantitative measurement of demethylation of [14]C-methoxyl labeled DMPEA and TMA-2 in rats". Psychopharm. Commun. 2: 199-206. 90
  • 1976. with Standridge, R. T., H. G. Howell, J. A. Gylys, R. A. Partyka. "Phenylalkylamines with potential psychotherapeutic utility. 1. 2-amino-1-(2,5,-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)butane". J. Med. Chem. 19: 1400-1404. 91
  • 1976. "Profiles of psychedelic drugs. 3. MMDA". J. Psychedelic Drugs 8: 331. 92
  • 1977. "Profiles of psychedelic drugs. 4. Harmaline". J. Psychedelic Drugs 9: 79-80. 93
  • 1977. "Profiles of psychedelic drugs. 5. STP". J. Psychedelic Drugs 9: 171-172. 94
  • 1977. with Nichols, D. E., and D. C. Dyer. "Directional lipophilic character in a series of psychotomimetic phenethylamine derivatives". Life Sciences 21: 569-576. 95
  • 1977. with Jacob, P. III, G. Anderson III, C. K. Meshul, and N. Castagnoli Jr. "Mononethylthio analogues of 1-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)2-aminopropane". J. Med. Chem. 20: 1235-1239. 96

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Bennett, Drake, "Dr. Ecstasy", New York Times Magazine, New York Times, 2005-01-30. Retrieved on 2006-07-08. (in English)
  2. ^ a b Romero, Dennis, "Sasha Shulgin, Psychedelic Chemist", Los Angeles Times, 1995-09-05. Retrieved on 2006-07-08. (in English)
  3. ^ Shulgin, Alexander (1988). Controlled Substances: Chemical & Legal Guide to Federal Drug Laws. Ronin Publishing. ISBN 0-914171-50-X.
  4. ^ DEA Raid of Shulgin's Laboratory. Erowid (2004-01-08). Retrieved on 2006-07-08.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the western United States. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... Erowid. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ...

External links

  • Erowid Character Vaults : Alexander Shulgin
  • The Ask Dr. Shulgin Blog he runs

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Shulgins - Ann & Sasha (395 words)
As a result of his creation of a series of successful (and profitable) patents for Dow Chemical, Shulgin was handed a DEA license and a good deal of career autonomy.
Shulgin used this freedom to synthesize and test the effects of psychoactive drugs.
They had a systematic way of ranking the effects of the various drugs, known as the Shulgin Rating Scale, with a vocabulary to describe the visual, auditory and physical sensations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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