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Encyclopedia > Alexander Pushkin
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin

Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin
Born June 6, 1799(1799-06-06)
Moscow, Russian Empire
Died February 10, 1837 (aged 37)
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
Occupation Poet, novelist, playwright
Influences Nikolai Karamzin
Influenced Fyodor Dostoevsky, Henry James

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, pronounced [ɐlʲɪˈksandr sʲɪˈrgʲevʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn], listen ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1][2][3][4] and the founder of modern Russian literature.[5][6] Pushkin pioneered the use of vernacular speech in his poems and plays, creating a style of storytelling—mixing drama, romance, and satire—associated with Russian literature ever since and greatly influencing later Russian writers. Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Vasiliy Pushkin - lesser-known poet, Aleksandr Pushkins uncle Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum... Image File history File links Aleksander_Puszkin. ... Portrait of Alexander Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Vasily Andreevich Tropinin (Russian: ) (March 30 (O.S. March 19) 1776 – May 16 (O.S. May 4) 1857) was a Russian painter who worked in the Romantic movement. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... This article is about work. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin (December 1, 1766--1826) a Russian author credited with reforming the Russian literary language. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Ru-Pushkin. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Romantics redirects here. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...


Born in Moscow, Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen, and was widely recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo. Pushkin gradually became committed to social reform and emerged as a spokesman for literary radicals; in the early 1820s he clashed with the government, which sent him into exile in southern Russia. While under the strict surveillance of government censors and unable to travel or publish at will, he wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, but could not publish it until years later. His novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was published serially from 1825 to 1832. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A lyceum is most often used today to denote either an educational institution (most often a school of secondary education in parts of Europe) or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Boris Godunov (Russian: , Borís Godunóv) [Variant Title: Драматическая повесть, Комедия o настоящей беде Московскому государству, o царе Борисе и о Гришке Отрепьеве, A Dramatic Tale, The Comedy of the Distress of the Muscovite State, of Tsar Boris, and of Grishka Otrepyev] is a drama by Aleksandr Pushkin, written in 1825, published in 1831, but not approved for performance by the censor... A verse novel is a poem, long enough to be at least of novella proportions, and also in some way adapting conventions of the novel, rather than of the epic poem. ... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ...


Pushkin and his wife Natalya Goncharova, whom he married in 1831, later became regulars of court society. In 1837, while falling into greater and greater debt amidst rumors that his wife had started conducting a scandalous affair, Pushkin challenged her alleged lover, Georges d'Anthès, to a duel. Pushkin was mortally wounded and died two days later. Natalia Pushkina, portrait by Alexander Brullov, 1831. ... Georges-Charles de Heeckeren dAnthès Georges-Charles de Heeckeren dAnthès, baron (1812–1895). ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ...


Because of his liberal political views and influence on generations of Russian rebels, Pushkin was portrayed by Bolsheviks as an opponent to bourgeois literature and culture and a predecessor of Soviet literature and poetry.[6] Tsarskoe Selo was renamed after him. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... CCCP redirects here. ... Pushkin is a town in Russia that is located 24 kilometres south of Saint Petersburg, at 59°44′N 30°23′E. The town was founded in the 18th century as the summer residence of the Russian tsars under the name Tsarskoye Selo (Royal Village). ...

Contents

Life

The 16-year old Pushkin recites a poem before Gavrila Derzhavin. Painting by Ilya Repin (1911).
The 16-year old Pushkin recites a poem before Gavrila Derzhavin. Painting by Ilya Repin (1911).

Pushkin's mother descended from a distinguished family of the Russian nobility which traced its ancestry back to the 12th century. Pushkin's great-grandfather was Abram Petrovich Gannibal a Black slave raised by Peter the Great, and who traces his origin to Eritrean, a minor province in Ethopia highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. This is near the present capital of Eritrea, Asmara. Records and paintings indicate that his great-grandfather was known as Ibrihim and he had several wives, he is presumed to have been a Black Muslim. After education in France as a military engineer, Gannibal became governor of Reval and eventually General-en-Chef for the building of sea forts and canals in Russia. Image File history File links Pushkin_derzhavin. ... Image File history File links Pushkin_derzhavin. ... Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (Гаврила Романович Державин, 1743 – 1816) was the greatest Russian poet before Alexander Pushkin. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic... Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, (1696 – 14 May[1]1781) was an African slave who was brought to Russia by Peter the Great and became major-general, military engineer and governor of Reval. ... Asmara (English) (Geez: አሥመራ Asmera, formerly known as Asmera, or in Arabic: Asmaraa) is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... The city of Tallinn is the capital city and main seaport of Estonia. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...


Born in Moscow, Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fourteen. By the time he finished as part of the first graduating class of the prestigious Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo near St. Petersburg, the Russian literary scene recognized his talent widely. After finishing school, Pushkin installed himself in the vibrant and raucous intellectual youth culture of the capital, St. Petersburg. In 1820 he published his first long poem, Ruslan and Lyudmila, amidst much controversy about its subject and style. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A lyceum is most often used today to denote either an educational institution (most often a school of secondary education in parts of Europe) or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Ruslan and Lyudmila (Russian: Руслан и Людмила, Ruslan i Ljudmila) is a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin, published in 1820. ...


Pushkin gradually became committed to social reform and emerged as a spokesman for literary radicals. This angered the government, and led to his transfer from the capital (1820). He went to the Caucasus and to the Crimea, then to Kishinev, where he became a Freemason. Here he joined the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and establish an independent Greek state. He was inspired by the Greek Revolution and when the war against the Ottoman Turks broke out he kept a diary with the events of the great national uprising. He stayed in Kishinev until 1823 and wrote there two Romantic poems which brought him wide acclaim, The Captive of the Caucasus and The Fountain of Bakhchisaray. In 1823 Pushkin moved to Odessa, where he again clashed with the government, which sent him into exile at his mother's rural estate in north Russia from 1824 to 1826. However, some of the authorities allowed him to visit Tsar Nicholas I to petition for his release, which he obtained. But some of the insurgents in the Decembrist Uprising (1825) in St. Petersburg had kept some of his early political poems amongst their papers, and soon Pushkin found himself under the strict control of government censors and unable to travel or publish at will. He had written what became his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, while at his mother's estate but could not gain permission to publish it until five years later. The drama's original, uncensored version would not receive a premiere until 2007. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Chişinău (Russian Кишинёв, Kishinyov, also Kishinev; Moldovan Cyrillic Кишинэу), estimated population 920,000 (2002), is the capital of Moldova. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ... Combatants Greek guerilla forces Ottoman Empire forces Commanders Kolokotronis Vrionis, Ibrahim Pasha Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war waged by the Greeks between 1821 and 1827 to win independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Chişinău (Russian Кишинёв, Kishinyov, also Kishinev; Moldovan Cyrillic Кишинэу), estimated population 920,000 (2002), is the capital of Moldova. ... Romantics redirects here. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... This article is about the failed Russian revolt. ... Boris Godunov (Russian: , Borís Godunóv) [Variant Title: Драматическая повесть, Комедия o настоящей беде Московскому государству, o царе Борисе и о Гришке Отрепьеве, A Dramatic Tale, The Comedy of the Distress of the Muscovite State, of Tsar Boris, and of Grishka Otrepyev] is a drama by Aleksandr Pushkin, written in 1825, published in 1831, but not approved for performance by the censor...

Alexander Pushkin by Orest Kiprensky
Alexander Pushkin by Orest Kiprensky

In 1831, highlighting the growth of Pushkin's talent and influence and the merging of two of Russia's greatest early writers, he met Nikolai Gogol. After reading Gogol's 1831-2 volume of short stories Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka, Pushkin would support him critically and later in 1836 after starting his magazine, The Contemporary, would feature some of Gogol's most famous short stories. Later, Pushkin and his wife Natalya Goncharova, whom he married in 1831, became regulars of court society. When the Tsar gave Pushkin the lowest court title, the poet became enraged: He felt this occurred not only so that his wife, who had many admirers—including the Tsar himself—could properly attend court balls, but also to humiliate him. In 1837, falling into greater and greater debt amidst rumors that his wife had started conducting a scandalous affair, Pushkin challenged her alleged lover, Georges d'Anthès, to a duel which left both men injured, Pushkin mortally. He died two days later. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x723, 72 KB) Alexander Pushkin 1827 Tretyakov Gallery Downloaded from http://artportret. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x723, 72 KB) Alexander Pushkin 1827 Tretyakov Gallery Downloaded from http://artportret. ... Self Portrait 1828 Orest Adamovich Kiprensky (Russian: 24 March (O.S. 13 March) 1782-17 October (O.S. 5 October) 1836) was a leading Russian portraitist in the Age of Romanticism. ... Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: ; IPA: ; Ukrainian: ) (April 1, 1809 — March 4, 1852) was a Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin. ... Natalia Pushkina, portrait by Alexander Brullov, 1831. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Georges-Charles de Heeckeren dAnthès Georges-Charles de Heeckeren dAnthès, baron (1812–1895). ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ...


The government feared a political demonstration at his funeral, which it moved to a smaller location and made open only to close relatives and friends. His body was spirited away secretly at midnight and buried on his mother's estate.


Pushkin had four children in his marriage to Natalya: Alexander, Grigory, Maria, and Natalia (the last of whom married, morganatically, into the royal house of Nassau and become the Countess of Merenberg). A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... Count of Merenberg (German: Graf von Merenberg) is Nassauer the title bestowed upon the wife and the male-line descendants of the morganatic marriage (1868) of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau-Weilburg (1832-1905) and Natalia Alexandrovna Pushkina (1836-1913). ...


Literary legacy

Statue of Pushkin in Tsarskoe Selo (1900).

Critics consider many of his works masterpieces, such as the poem The Bronze Horseman and the drama The Stone Guest, a tale of the fall of Don Juan. His poetic short drama "Mozart and Salieri" was the inspiration for Peter Shaffer's Amadeus. Pushkin himself preferred his verse novel Eugene Onegin, which he wrote over the course of his life and which, starting a tradition of great Russian novels, follows a few central characters but varies widely in tone and focus. "Onegin" is a work of such complexity that, while only about a hundred pages long, translator Vladimir Nabokov needed two full volumes of material to fully render its meaning in English. Because of this difficulty in translation, Pushkin's verse remains largely unknown to English readers. Even so, Pushkin has profoundly influenced western writers like Henry James.[7] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Памятник_Пушкину_Царское_Село.jpg |} File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... Image File history File links Памятник_Пушкину_Царское_Село.jpg |} File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... Alexandre Benoiss illustration to the poem (1904). ... The Stone Guest is a poetic drama by Aleksandr Pushkin based on the Spanish legend of Don Juan. ... For other uses, see Don Juan (disambiguation). ... // Sir Peter Levin Shaffer (born May 15, 1926) is an English dramatist, author of numerous award-winning plays, several of which have been filmed. ... Playbill, 1981 For other uses, see Amadeus (disambiguation). ... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...


Pushkin's works also provided fertile ground for Russian composers. Glinka's Ruslan and Lyudmila is the earliest important Pushkin-inspired opera, and a landmark in the tradition of Russian music. Tchaikovsky's operas Eugene Onegin (1879) and The Queen of Spades (1890) became perhaps better known outside of Russia than Pushkin's own works of the same name, while Mussorgsky's monumental Boris Godunov (two versions, 1868-9 and 1871-2) ranks as one of the very finest and most original of Russian operas. Other Russian operas based on Pushkin include Dargomyzhsky's Rusalka and The Stone Guest; Rimsky-Korsakov's Mozart and Salieri, Tale of Tsar Saltan, and The Golden Cockerel; Cui's Prisoner of the Caucasus, Feast in Time of Plague, and The Captain's Daughter; Tchaikovsky's Mazeppa; and Nápravník's Dubrovsky. This is not to mention ballets and cantatas, as well as innumerable songs set to Pushkin's verse. Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... Ruslan and Lyudmila (Russian: , transliteration: Ruslan i Lyudmila) is an opera in five acts (eight tableaux) composed by Mikhail Glinka between 1837 and 1842. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин in Russian, Yevgeny Onegin in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Konstantin Shilovsky and the composer, based on the novel of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... I regard the people as a great being, inspired by a single idea. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky Александр Сергеевич Даргомыжский (February 14, 1813–May 17, 1869) was a 19th century Russian composer. ... Rusalka (Русалка in Cyrillic; stress on the second syllable) is an opera in four acts, six tableaux, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, composed during 1848-1855. ... The Stone Guest (Kamennïy gost in transliteration) is an opera in three acts, left incomplete, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky to Russian libretto by Alexander Pushkin, using the story of the same name from his collection The Little Tragedies. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Mozart and Salieri (Motsart i Sal’yeri in transliteration) is an opera in two acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to Russian libretto by the composer, based on a verse drama by Alexander Pushkin. ... The Tale of Tsar Saltan (Сказка о царе Салтане in Russian, Skazka o care Saltane in transliteration) is an opera in four acts (six tableaux) with a prologue, by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by Vladimir Ivanovich Belsky, based on the poem of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Golden Cockerel (Russian: , Zolotoy Petushok, Golden Cockerel) is an an opera in three acts by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. ... César Antonovich Cui (Russian: , Tsezar Antonovič Kjui) (January 6, 1835 (Old Style)-March 13, 1918) was a Russian of French and Lithuanian descent. ... Prisoner of the Caucasus (Кавказский пленник in Cyrillic, Kavkazskij plennik in transliteration) is an opera in three acts, composed by César Cui. ... Feast in Time of Plague (Пир во время чумы in Cyrillic, Pir vo vremja čumy in transliteration) is an opera (literally labeled dramatic scenes) in one act by César Cui, composed in 1900. ... The Captains Daughter (Капитанская дочка in Cyrillic; Kapitanskaja dočka in transliteration) is an opera in four acts (eight tableaux) by César Cui, composed during 1907-1909. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Mazeppa, also Mazepa (Russian: ) is an opera in three acts (six scenes) by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Victor Burenin, based on Pushkins poem Poltava. ... Eduard Frantsovitch Nápravník (24 August 1839, Býšť, Bohemia - 23 November 1916) was Czech/Russian conductor and composer. ... Leonid Sobinov as Vladimir Dubrovsky, Moscow Dubrovsky (Russian: Дубровский) is an opera in four acts (5 scenes) Op. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one singer and often with piano accompaniment. ...


Some attention has also been given to Pushkin's use of a slur for Jew that could be found in his writings, as well as those of Fyodor Dostoevsky and Nikolai Gogol.[8]


Influence on the Russian language

Alexandr Pushkin is usually credited with developing literary Russian. Not only is he seen as having originated the highly nuanced level of language which characterizes Russian literature after him, but he is also credited with substantially augmenting the Russian lexicon. Where he found gaps in the Russian vocabulary, he devised calques. His rich vocabulary and highly sensitive style are the foundation for modern literary Russian.Alexander Pushkin played an absolutely unique role in the Russian literature. Russian literature virtually begins with Alexander Pushkin. His talent set up new records for development of the Russian language and culture. He became the father of Russian literature in 19th century, marking the highest achievements of 18th century and the beginning of literary process of 19th century. Alexander Pushkin introduced Russia to all the European literary genres as well as a great number of West European writers. He brought natural speech and foreign influences to create modern poetic Russian. Though his life brief, he left examples of nearly every literary genre of his day: lyric poetry, narrative poetry, the novel, the short story, the drama the critical essay, and even the personal letter. From him derive the folk tales and genre pieces of other authors: Esenin, Leskov and Gorky. His use of Russian language formed the basis of the style of novelists Ivan Turgenev, Ivan Goncharov, and Leo Tolstoy. Pushkin was recognized by Nikolay Vasilyevich Gogol, his successor and pupil, the great Russian critic Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky, who produced the fullest and deepest critical study of Pushkin's work, which still retains much of its relevance. Alexander Pushkin became the inseparable part of the literary world of the Russian people. He also exerted a profound influence on other aspects of Russian culture, most notably in opera. Translated into all the major languages, his works are regarded both as expressing most completely Russian national consciousness and as transcending national barriers. Pushkin’s intelligence, sharpness of his opinion, his devotion to poetry, realistic thinking and incredible historical and political intuition make him one of the greatest Russian national geniuses. In linguistics, a calque (pronounced [kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) is a phrase borrowed from another language by literal word-for-word translation. ...


Works

The famous Pushkin Monument in Moscow, opened in 1880 by Turgenev and Dostoyevsky.
The famous Pushkin Monument in Moscow, opened in 1880 by Turgenev and Dostoyevsky.
Six winged Seraph (after Pushkin's poem Prophet), 1905. By Mikhail Vrubel.
Six winged Seraph (after Pushkin's poem Prophet), 1905. By Mikhail Vrubel.
  • Руслан и Людмила (Ruslan and Ludmila) (1820) - poem
  • Кавказский пленник (The Captive of the Caucasus) (1822) - poem
  • Бахчисарайский фонтан (The Fountain of Bakhchisaray) (1824) - poem
  • Цыганы (The Gypsies (narrative poem)) (1827) - narrative poem
  • Полтава (Poltava) (1829)
  • Маленькие трагедии (including Каменный гостьThe Stone Guest, Моцарт и СальериMozart and Salieri, Скупой рыцарь - The Miserly Knight, and Пир во время чумы - A Feast During the Plague) (1830)
  • Борис Годунов (Boris Godunov) (1825) - drama
  • Сказка о попе и о работнике его Балде (The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda) (1830) - poem
  • Повести покойного Ивана Петровича Белкина (The Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin) (a collection of 5 short stories: Выстрел - The Shot, Метель - The Blizzard, Гробовщик - The Undertaker, Станционный смотритель - The Station Master, and Барышня-крестьянка - The Squire's Daughter) (1831) - prose
  • Сказка о Царе Салтане (The Tale of Tsar Saltan) (1831) - poem
  • Дубровский (Dubrovsky) (1832-1833, published 1841) - prose novel
  • Сказка о мертвой царевне и семи богатырях (The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights) (1833) - poem
  • Пиковая дама (The Queen of Spades) (1833) later adapted as an opera and several films - prose
  • Золотой Петушок (The Golden Cockerel) (1834) later adapted as an opera - poem
  • Сказка о рыбаке и рыбке (The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish) (1835) - poem
  • Евгений ОнегинEugene Onegin (1825-1832) - verse novel
  • Медный всадникThe Bronze Horseman (1833) - poem
  • История Пугачева (The History of Pugachev's Riot) (1834) - prose non-fiction
  • Капитанская дочка (The Captain's Daughter) (1836) a romanticized historical novel of "Pugachevshchina", the life and times of Pugachev - prose
  • Кирджали (Kırcali) (1834) - short story
  • Гавриилиада (Gavriiliada) (1821) - poem
  • Вновь я посетил... (I Have Visited Again) (1835) - poem
  • История села Горюхина (The Story of the Village of Goryukhino) - prose, unfinished
  • Сцены из рыцарских времен (Scenes from Chivalrous Times) (1835)
  • Египетские ночи (Egyptian Nights) (1835) - short story with poetry, unfinished
  • К А. П. Керн (To A.P. Kern) (1828) - poem, one of the most beautiful love poems in the Russian language
  • Братья-Разбойники (The Robber Brothers) (1821) - play
  • Арап Петра Великого (The Moor of Peter the Great) (1827) - historical novel, unfinished, based on the life of his great-grandfather Gannibal
  • Граф Нулин (Count Nulin) (1825) - poem
  • Зимний вечер (Winter Evening) (1825) - poem

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x762, 160 KB) 19th-century postcard of Alexander Pushkin Monument and Strastnoy Monastery in Moscow. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x762, 160 KB) 19th-century postcard of Alexander Pushkin Monument and Strastnoy Monastery in Moscow. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (Ива́н Серге́евич Турге́нев, November 9, 1818 - September 3, 1883) was a major Russian novelist and playwright. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2139x1520, 1333 KB) Mikhail Vrubel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2139x1520, 1333 KB) Mikhail Vrubel. ... For other uses, see Seraph (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Self-portrait, 1885 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Russian: Михаил Александрович Врубель;March 17, 1856 - April 14, 1910, all n. ... Ruslan and Ludmila (Russian: Руслан и Людмила, Ruslan i Ludmila) is a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin, published in 1820. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Stone Guest is a poetic drama by Aleksandr Pushkin based on the Spanish legend of Don Juan. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Boris Godunov (Russian: , Borís Godunóv) [Variant Title: Драматическая повесть, Комедия o настоящей беде Московскому государству, o царе Борисе и о Гришке Отрепьеве, A Dramatic Tale, The Comedy of the Distress of the Muscovite State, of Tsar Boris, and of Grishka Otrepyev] is a drama by Aleksandr Pushkin, written in 1825, published in 1831, but not approved for performance by the censor... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Priest and Balda (1939 animated film) The Tale of the Priest and of his Workman Balda (Сказка о попе и о его работнике Балде) is a 1830 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Tales of the late Ivan Petrovich Belkin is a series of 5 short stories and a fictional editorial by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Tale of Tsar Saltan is a 1831 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin, written after the Russian fairy tale edited by Vladimir Dahl. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Dubrovsky and Egyptian Nights Cover, Hesperus Press, ISBN:1843910535 Dubrovsky (Russian: Дубровский) is a prose novel by Alexander Pushkin (1799 – 1837), written in 1832 and published after Pushkin’s death in 1841. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Tale of the Dead Princess (1951 animated film) The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights (Сказка о мертвой царевне и о семи богатырях) is a 1833 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Queen of Spades (Russian: ) is an acclaimed 1833 story by Alexander Pushkin. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Golden Cockerel (Russian: , Zolotoy Petushok, Golden Cockerel) is an an opera in three acts by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (1950 animated film) The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (Сказка о рыбаке и рыбке) is a 1835 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alexandre Benoiss illustration to the poem (1904). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Emelyan Pugachov Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Russian: ), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some of the events... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Captains Daughter (Russian: Капитанская дочка - Kapitanskaya Dochka) is a novel by the Russian writer Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gavriiliada (Гавриилиада, Saga of Gabriel in Russian) is an anonymous sexually explicit work. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Anna P. Markova-Vinogradskaya (Kern). ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Hoaxes and other attributed works

In the late 1980s, a book entitled Secret Journal 1836–1837 was published by a Minneapolis publishing house (M.I.P. Company), claiming to be the decoded content of an encrypted private journal kept by Pushkin. Promoted with little details about its contents, and touted for many years as being 'banned in Russia', it was an erotic novel narrated from Pushkin's perspective. Some mail-order publishers still carry the work under its fictional description. In 2006 a bilingual Russian-English edition was published in Russia by Retro Publishing House. Encrypt redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Pushkin's self-portrait on a one ruble coin, 1999
Pushkin's self-portrait on a one ruble coin, 1999

Image File history File links Russian coin (1999) about Alexander Pushkin File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... Image File history File links Russian coin (1999) about Alexander Pushkin File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... The Pushkin Prize was established in 1881 by Russian Academy of Sciences to honor one of the greatest Russian poets Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837). ... Literaturnaya Gazeta (Literary Newspaper, Russian: ) is an influential weekly cultural and political newspaper published in Russia. ... Sketch of Vasiliy Pushkin Vasiliy Lvovich Pushkin (April 27, 1766 - August 20, 1830) was a minor Russian poet best known as an uncle of the much more famous Alexander Pushkin. ... Anna P. Markova-Vinogradskaya (Kern). ... Anton Delvig (1798–1831) was a Russian poet. ... Dahls portrait by Vasily Perov. ... Count Fyodor Tolstoy by Sergey Zaryanko (1850) Count Fyodor Petrovich Tolstoy (Russian: ) (10 February 1783 – 17 April 1873) was a Russian artist who served as Vice-President of the Imperial Academy of Arts for forty years (1828-1868). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Short biography from University of Virginia, retrieved on 24 November 2006.
  2. ^ Allan Reid, "Russia's Greatest Poet/Scoundrel", retrieved on 2 September 2006.
  3. ^ BBC News, 5 June 1999, "Pushkin fever sweeps Russia", retrieved 1 September 2006.
  4. ^ BBC News, 10 June 2003, "Biographer wins rich book price", retrieved 1 September 2006.
  5. ^ Biography of Pushkin at the Russian Literary Institute "Pushkin House", retrieved 1 September 2006.
  6. ^ a b Maxim Gorky, "Pushkin, An Appraisal", retrieved 1 September 2006
  7. ^ Joseph S. O'Leary, Pushkin in 'The Aspern Papers' , the Henry James E-Journal Number 2, March 2000, retrieved on 24 November 2006.
  8. ^ Russian Urges Quotas on Jews; Communists Begin to Split Over Comrade's Antisemitism. David Hoffman. The Washington Post.A SECTION; Pg. A28. November 12, 1998.

The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...

References

  • Elaine Feinstein (ed.): After Pushkin: versions of the poems of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin by contemporary poets. Manchester: Carcanet Press; London: Folio Society, 1999 ISBN 1-85754-444-7
  • Serena Vitale: Pushkin's button; transl. from the Italian by Ann Goldstein. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1998 ISBN 1-85702-937-2
  • Markus Wolf: Freemasonry in life and literature. With an introduction to the history of Russian Freemasonry (in German). Munich: Otto Sagner publishers, 1998 ISBN 3-87690-692-X
  • (Russian)Yuri Lotman: Пушкин. Биография писателя. Статьи и заметки. Available online: [1]
  1. ^ Troyat, Henri (1957). "Pushkin's Ethiopian Ancestry". Ethiopia Observer 6.
  2. ^ Black Russian - A Review by Andrew Kahn of Hugh Barnes' Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg.
  3. ^ Barnes, Hugh. Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg, London 2005, p. 4.
  4. ^ Gnammankou, Dieudonné. Abraham Hanibal - l’aïeul noir de Pouchkine, Paris 1996, p. 129.
  5. ^ Barnes, Hugh. Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg, London 2005, p. 219.

Yuri Mikhailovich Lotman (also Juri, Jüri, Jurij) (Russian: Юрий Михайлович Лотман) (28 February 1922 in Petrograd, Russia - 28 October 1993 in Tartu, Estonia) - a prominent Russian formalist critic, semiotician, culturologist. ...

Further reading

  • T. J. Binyon has written an English biography: Pushkin: A Biography (London: HarperCollins, 2002) (ISBN 0-00-215084-0; US edition: New York: Knopf, 2003; ISBN 1-4000-4110-4).
  • Yuri Druzhnikov, Prisoner of Russia: Alexander Pushkin and the Political Uses of Nationalism, Transaction Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-56000-390-1

Timothy John Binyon (February 18, 1936 - October 7, 2004) was an English scholar and crime writer. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Alexander Pushkin
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Alexander Pushkin
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alexander Pushkin
Persondata
NAME Pushkin, Aleksandr Sergeyevich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Russian Poet, novelist, playwright
DATE OF BIRTH June 6, 1799
PLACE OF BIRTH Moscow, Russia
DATE OF DEATH February 10, 1837
PLACE OF DEATH St. Petersburg, Russia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexander (Aleksandr) Pushkin (444 words)
Alexander Pushkin on his father's side was descended from one of the oldest families of the Russian gentry.
The young Alexander's first poems appeared when he was but fifteen, and by the time he left school he was regarded as a rival by the acknowledged literary leaders of the day.
Pushkin's greatest contemporary successes with the general public were his two poems, The Captive of the Caucasus and The Fountain of Bakhchisaray, and the drama, Boris Godunov.
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