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Encyclopedia > Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope (c.1727), an English poet best known for his Essay on Criticism, Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad
Born May 21, 1688(1688-05-21)
London
Died May 30, 1744 (aged 56)
Occupation Poet

Alexander Pope (21 May 168830 May 1744) is generally regarded as the greatest English poet of the early eighteenth century, best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer. He is the third most frequently quoted writer in the English language, after Shakespeare and Tennyson.[1] Pope was a master of the heroic couplet. Alexander Pope may refer to: Alexander Pope (1688–1744), English poet Alexander Pope (Texas politician) See also Pope Alexander. ... Alexander Pope, ca 1727, studio of Michael Dahl, oil on canvas, National Portrait Gallery 4132, Primary Collection. ... // Jonathan Swift revisits England this year and stays with his friend Alexander Pope until the visit is cut short when Swift gets word that Esther Johnson is dying. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... An Essay on Criticism was the first major poem written by the British writer Alexander Pope. ... The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope and published in May 1717. ... Alexander Pope The Dunciad is a landmark literary satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... This article is about work. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject (individuals, organizations, states) often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ... A heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, particularly for epic and narrative poetry. ...

Contents

Early life

Pope was born in the City of London to Alexander (senior, a linen merchant) and Edith (born Turner) Pope, who were both Roman Catholics. Pope's education was affected by the laws in force at the time upholding the status of the established Church of England, which banned Catholics from teaching on pain of perpetual imprisonment. Pope was taught to read by his aunt and then sent to two surreptitious Catholic schools, at Twyford and at Hyde Park Corner. Catholic schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas. Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... A Cloth Merchant is, strictly speaking, like a draper, the term for any vendor of cloth. ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... See also civil religion. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Twyford School is a preparatory school located in the village of Twyford, Hampshire. ...


From early childhood he suffered numerous health problems, including Pott's disease[2] (a form of tuberculosis affecting the spine) which deformed his body and stunted his growth, no doubt helping to end his life at the relatively young age of 56. He never grew beyond 1.37 metres (4 feet 6 inches) tall. Although he never married, he had many women friends and wrote them witty letters. Tuberculosis of the spine in an Egyptian mummy Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ...


In 1700, his family was forced to move to a small estate in Binfield, Berkshire due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Catholics from living within 10 miles of either London or Westminster. Pope would later describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest. Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Binfield is a village civil parish in the Bracknell Forest borough of Berkshire, England. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...


With his formal education now at an end, Pope embarked on an extensive campaign of reading. As he later remembered: "In a few years I had dipped into a great number of the English, French, Italian, Latin, and Greek poets. This I did without any design but that of pleasing myself, and got the languages by hunting after the stories...rather than read the books to get the languages." His very favourite author was Homer, whom he had first read aged eight in the English translation of John Ogilby. Pope was already writing verse: he claimed he wrote one poem, Ode to Solitude, at the age of twelve. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Poets are authors of poems. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... John Ogilby (1600-1676) was a British writer and cartographer. ...


At Binfield, he also began to make many important friends. One of them, John Caryll (the future dedicatee of The Rape of the Lock), was two decades older than the poet and had made many acquaintances in the London literary world. He introduced the young Pope to the aging playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet, who helped Pope revise his first major work, The Pastorals. He also met the Blount sisters, Martha and Teresa, who would remain lifelong friends. The New Star, Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for The Rape of the Lock The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope, first published in 1712 in two cantos, and then reissued in 1714 in a much-expanded 5-canto version. ... William Wycherley in 1675. ... William Walsh (1663 - 1708), English poet and critic, son of Joseph Walsh of Abberley, Worcestershire. ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ...


Early literary career

First published in 1710 in a volume of Poetical Miscellanies by Jacob Tonson, The Pastorals brought instant fame to the twenty-year-old Pope. They were followed by An Essay on Criticism (1711), which was equally well received, although it incurred the wrath of the prominent critic John Dennis, the first of the many literary enmities which would play such a great role in Pope's life and writings. Windsor Forest (1713) is a topographical poem celebrating the "Tory Peace" at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... Jacob Tonson, 18th-century British publisher best known for having obtained a copyright on the plays of William Shakespeare by buying up the rights of the heirs of the publisher of the Fourth Folio after the Statute of Anne went into effect. ... The three pastoral epistles are books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. ... An Essay on Criticism was the first major poem written by the British writer Alexander Pope. ... John Dennis (1657 - January 6, 1734), English critic and dramatist, the son of a saddler, was born in London. ... Topographical poetry or loco-descriptive poetry is a genre of poetry that describes, and often praises, a landscape or place. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny...


Around 1711, Pope made friends with the Tory writers John Gay, Jonathan Swift and John Arbuthnot, as well as the Whigs Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. Pope's friendship with Addison would later cool and he would satirise him as "Atticus" in his Epistle to Doctor Arbuthnot. For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other people named John Arbuthnot, see John Arbuthnot (disambiguation) Dr. John Arbuthnot, often known simply as Dr. Arbuthnot, (baptised April 29, 1667 – February 27, 1735), was a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Joseph Addison, the Kit-cat portrait, circa 1703–1712, by Godfrey Kneller. ... Sir Richard Steele (bap. ...


Pope, Gay, Swift, Arbuthnot and Thomas Parnell formed the Scriblerus Club in 1712. The aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus. Pope's major contribution to the club would be Peri Bathous, or the Art of Sinking in Poetry (1728), a parodic guide on how to write bad verse. Thomas Parnell (1679-1718) was a poet, born in Dublin and educated at Trinity College. ... The Scriblerus Club was an informal group of friends that included Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, John Gay, John Arbuthnot, and Thomas Parnell. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ...

Title page and frontispiece by George Vertue of Pope's Miscellany of Poems, the 1726 Fifth Edition.
Title page and frontispiece by George Vertue of Pope's Miscellany of Poems, the 1726 Fifth Edition.

The Rape of the Lock (two-canto version, The Rape of the Locke, 1712; revised version in five cantos, 1714) is perhaps Pope's most popular poem. It is a mock-heroic epic, written to make fun of a high society quarrel between Arabella Fermor (the "Belinda" of the poem) and Lord Petre, who had snipped a lock of hair from her head without her permission. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 700 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (863 × 739 pixel, file size: 253 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 700 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (863 × 739 pixel, file size: 253 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... George Vertue (1684-1756) was a British engraver and antiquary, whose notebooks on British art of the first half of the 18th century are a valuable source for the period. ... The New Star, Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for The Rape of the Lock The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope, first published in 1712 in two cantos, and then reissued in 1714 in a much-expanded 5-canto version. ... A canto is a significant section of a long poem or the highest part in a piece of choral music. ... Generally, mock-heroic is a satirical piece or parody that mocks common Romantic or modern stereotypes of heroes. ...


In 1714, the political situation worsened with the death of Queen Anne and the disputed succession between the Hanoverians and the Jacobites, leading to the attempted Jacobite invasion of 1715. Though Pope as a Catholic might be expected to have supported the Jacobites, according to Maynard Mack, "where Pope himself stood on these matters can probably never be confidently known". These events led to an immediate downturn in the fortunes of the Tories, and Pope's friend, Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke fled to France. The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) were a German royal dynasty which succeeded the House of Stuart as kings of Great Britain in 1714. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Baron Saint John Of Lydiard Tregoze and Battersea, (September 16, 1678 – December 12, 1751), was an English statesman and philosopher. ...


The climax of Pope's early career was the publication of his Works in 1717. As well as the poems mentioned above, the volume included the first appearance of Eloisa to Abelard and Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady; and several shorter works, of which perhaps the best are the epistles to Martha Blount. Eloisa to Abelard In these deep solitudes and awful cells, Where heavnly-pensive contemplation dwells, And ever-musing melancholy reigns; What means this tumult in a vestals veins? Why rove my thoughts beyond this last retreat? Why feels my heart its long-forgotten heat? Yet, yet I love... The Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady is a poem in heroic couplets by Alexander Pope, first published in his Works of 1717. ...


The middle years: Homer and Shakespeare

A likeness of Pope derived from a portrait by William Hoare
A likeness of Pope derived from a portrait by William Hoare

Pope had been fascinated by Homer since childhood. In 1713, he announced his plans to publish a translation of Homer's Iliad. The work would be available by subscription, with one volume appearing every year over the course of six years. Pope secured a revolutionary deal with the publisher Bernard Lintot, which brought him two hundred guineas a volume. 1881 Young Persons Cyclopedia of Persons and Places This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1881 Young Persons Cyclopedia of Persons and Places This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... William Hoare ( 1707 - 1792) was an English painter, noted for his pastels. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Barnaby Bernard Lintot (Lintott before 1724, usually referred to as Bernard and very rarely as Barnaby) (December 1, 1675 - February 9, 1736), English publisher, was born at Southwater, Sussex, and started business as a publisher in London about 1698. ...


The commercial success of his translation made Pope the first English poet who could live off the sales of his work alone, "indebted to no prince or peer alive", as he put it. His translation of the Iliad duly appeared between 1715 and 1720. It was later acclaimed by Samuel Johnson as "a performance which no age or nation could hope to equal" (although the classical scholar Richard Bentley wrote: "It is a pretty poem, Mr. Pope, but you must not call it Homer."). The money he made allowed Pope to move to a villa at Twickenham in 1719, where he created a famous grotto and gardens. The grotto he decorated with alabaster, marbles, ores such as mundic, crystals: Cornish diamonds, stalactites, spars, snakestones and spongestone. Here and there he placed mirrors (very expensive embellishments for those times). He also installed a camera obscura to delight his visitors, of whom there were many. The serendipitous discovery of a spring during its excavations, enabled the subterranean retreat to fill with the relaxing sound of trickling waters, which quietly echoes around its exotic chambers. Pope was said to have remarked that: “Were it to have nymphs as well – it would be complete in everything.“ Although house and gardens have long since been demolished or destroyed, much of this grotto still survives. It is opened to the public once a year. [3] For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Richard Bentley (January 27, 1662 – July 14, 1742) was an English theologian, Classics scholar and critic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Mundic was used from the 1690s to describe a copper ore, which began to be smelted at Bristol and elsewhere in southwestern Britain. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... A stalactice hanging above subterranean water. ... SPARS was the United States Coast Guard Womens Reserve created in 1942 by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... hagstone, location: Dänholm, Germany, Baltic Sea Adder stone is a type of stone, usually glassy, with a naturally-occurring hole through it. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Look up Serendipity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ...


Encouraged by the very favourable reception of the Iliad, Pope translated the Odyssey. The translation appeared in 1725–1726, but this time, confronted with the arduousness of the task, he enlisted the help of William Broome and Elijah Fenton. Pope attempted to conceal the extent of the collaboration (he himself translated only twelve books, Broome eight and Fenton four), but the secret leaked out. It did some damage to Pope's reputation for a time, but not to his profits. Beginning of the Odyssey For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... // Scot James Thomson moves to London, where he continues writing poetry and becomes a playwright, living first in East Barnet and later Richmond in 1736[1]. Alexander Popes translation of Homers Odyssey, Books I-III (with William Broome and Elijah Fenton), Books IV-V to follow in 1726... // Henry Carey, Namby Pamby, including fragments of many still-popular nursery rhymes, such as London Bridge is broken down Thomson, Winter Poetry List of years in poetry List of years in literature [1] A Timeline of English Poetry Web page of the Representative Poetry Online Web site, University of Toronto... William Broome (1689 - 1745) was an English poet and translator. ... Elijah Fenton (1683 - 1730) was a poet, biographer and translator. ...


In this period Pope also brought out an edition of Shakespeare, which silently "regularised" his metre and rewrote his verse in several places. Lewis Theobald and other scholars attacked Pope's edition, incurring Pope's wrath and inspiring the first version of his satire The Dunciad (1728), the first of the moral and satiric poems of his last period. Alexander Pope became a freemason and member of the Premier Grand Lodge of England[4] Shakespeare redirects here. ... Lewis Theobald (1688 - 1744), British textual editor and author, was a landmark figure both in the history of Shakespearean editing and in literary satire. ... Alexander Pope The Dunciad is a landmark literary satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times. ... // John Gay, Beggars Opera Alexander Pope, The Dunciad, Books I-III, followed by Book IV (The New Dunciad) in 1742, and completed in 1743 James Thomson, Spring Lady Dorothea Du Bois (Ireland); Thomas Warton the younger January 28 — Esther Johnson known as Stella, inspiration of Jonathan Swift (born 1681). ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... The Premier Grand Lodge of England was founded on 24 June 1717 and it existed until 1813 when it united with the Antient Grand Lodge of England to create the United Grand Lodge of England. ...

Alexander Pope, by Jean-Baptiste van Loo, ca 1742 (Lewis Walpole Library)
Alexander Pope, by Jean-Baptiste van Loo, ca 1742 (Lewis Walpole Library)

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Triumph of Galatea Jean-Baptiste van Loo (14 January 1684 – 19 December 1745) was a French subject and portrait painter. ... The Lewis Walpole Library in Farmington, Connecticut possesses important collections of eighteenth-century English literary manuscripts and books, including the preeminent gathering of Horace Walpoles papers and effects from his estate at Strawberry Hill. ...

Later career: "An Essay on Man" and satires

Though the Dunciad was first published anonymously in Dublin, its authorship was not in doubt. As well as Theobald, it pilloried a host of other "hacks", "scribblers" and "dunces". Mack called its publication "in many ways the greatest act of folly in Pope's life". Though a masterpiece, "it bore bitter fruit. It brought the poet in his own time the hostility of its victims and their sympathizers, who pursued him implacably from then on with a few damaging truths and a host of slanders and lies...". The threats were physical too. According to his sister, Pope would never go for a walk without the company of his Great Dane, Bounce, and a pair of loaded pistols in his pocket. For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The Great Dane is a breed of dog known for its giant size and gentle personality. ...


In 1731, Pope published his "Epistle to Burlington", on the subject of architecture, the first of four poems which would later be grouped under the title Moral Essays (1731-35). In the epistle, Pope ridiculed the bad taste of the aristocrat "Timon". Pope's enemies claimed he was attacking the Duke of Chandos and his estate, "Cannons". Though the charge was untrue, it did Pope a great deal of damage. This article is about building architecture. ... We dont have an article called Moral Essays Start this article Search for Moral Essays in. ...


Around this time, Pope began to grow discontented with the ministry of Robert Walpole and drew closer to the opposition led by Bolingbroke, who had returned to England in 1725. Inspired by Bolingbroke's philosophical ideas, Pope wrote An Essay on Man (1733-4). He published the first part anonymously, in a cunning and successful ploy to win praise from his fiercest critics and enemies. Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (commonly known as Robert Walpole, or Sir Robert Walpole) KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... An Essay on Man is a poem written by Alexander Pope in 1734. ...


The Imitations of Horace followed (1733-38). These were written in the popular Augustan form of the "imitation" of a classical poet, not so much a translation of his works as an updating with contemporary references. Pope used the model of Horace to satirise life under George II, especially what he regarded as the widespread corruption tainting the country under Walpole's influence and the poor quality of the court's artistic taste. Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... George II may refer to: George II of Württemberg-Mömpelgard (1626–1699). ...


Pope also added a wholly original poem, An Epistle to Doctor Arbuthnot, as an introduction to the "Imitations". It reviews his own literary career and includes the famous portraits of Lord Hervey ("Sporus") and Addison ("Atticus"). In 1738 he wrote the Universal Prayer.[5] The Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot is a poem written by Alexander Pope and completed in the summer of 1734. ... John Hervey, Baron Hervey (October 13, 1696 - August 5, 1743), English statesman and writer, was the eldest son of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, by his second marriage. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ...


After 1738, Pope wrote little. He toyed with the idea of composing a patriotic epic in blank verse called Brutus, but only the opening lines survive. His major work in these years was revising and expanding his masterpiece The Dunciad. Book Four appeared in 1742, and a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, Pope replaced the "hero", Lewis Theobald, with the poet laureate Colley Cibber as "king of dunces". By now Pope's health, which had never been good, was failing, and he died in his villa surrounded by friends on May 30, 1744. On the previous day, May 29, 1744, Pope called for a priest and received the Last Rites of the Catholic Church. He lies buried in the nave of the Church of St Mary the Virgin in Twickenham. Alexander Pope The Dunciad is a landmark literary satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times. ... Colley Cibber, actor, playwright, Poet Laureate, first British actor-manager, and head Dunce of Alexander Popes Dunciad. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... The Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Protestant churches. ... Twickenham is a suburb in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London. ...


Literary legacy

The death of Alexander Pope from Museus, a threnody by William Mason. Diana holds the dying Pope, and John Milton, Edmund Spenser, and Geoffrey Chaucer prepare to welcome him to heaven.

The poetry of Alexander Pope holds an acknowledged place in the canon of English literature, although his work has gone in and out of fashion. One edition of the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations includes no fewer than 212 quotations from Pope. Download high resolution version (1128x768, 833 KB)The death of Alexander Pope, from Museus, a thernody on Pope by William Mason, 1747. ... Download high resolution version (1128x768, 833 KB)The death of Alexander Pope, from Museus, a thernody on Pope by William Mason, 1747. ... Look up Threnody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... William Mason (1725 – 1797) was an English poet, editor and gardener. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Chaucer redirects here. ...


Some quotations from Pope's work have passed so deeply into the English language that they are often taken as proverbial by those who do not know their source: "A little learning is a dang'rous thing" (from the Essay on Criticism); "To err is human, to forgive, divine" (ibid.); "For fools rush in where angels fear to tread" (ibid); "Hope springs eternal in the human breast" and "The proper study of mankind is man" (Essay on Man). This would have greatly pleased Pope, who wrote: Alexander Pope An Essay on Criticism was the first major poem written by the British writer Alexander Pope. ... Alexander Pope Alexander Pope ( May 21, 1688 – May 30, 1744) is considered one of the greatest English poets of the eighteenth century. ...

True wit is nature to advantage dress’d;
What oft was thought, but ne’er so well express’d.

Pope dominated his age to an extent few writers before or since have matched. After his death, it was almost inevitable a reaction would set in against his poetry, especially with the first stirrings of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century. Romantics redirects here. ...


In An Essay on the Genius and Writings of Pope (1756 and 1782), Joseph Warton denied Pope was a "true poet", merely a "man of wit" and a "man of sense". In his Lives of the Poets Doctor Johnson countered: "...It is surely superfluous to answer the question that has once been asked, whether Pope was a poet, otherwise than by asking in return, if Pope be not a poet, where is poetry to be found?". But he was fighting a losing battle against changing taste. Joseph Warton (April, 1722 - February 23, 1800) was an English academic and literary critic. ... Samuel Johnson circa 1772, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. ...


The Romantics had little time for Pope, with the notable exception of Lord Byron, who acclaimed him as “the great moral poet of all times, of all climes, of all feelings, and all stages of existence”. Keats dismissed the style of writers who wrote in heroic couplets, saying: Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ...

They rode upon a rocking horse
And called it Pegasus.

In the Victorian era, Matthew Arnold dismissed Pope and Dryden as "classics of our prose". The 19th century considered his diction artificial, his versification too regular, and his satires insufficiently humane. The third charge has been disputed by various 20th century critics including William Empson, and the first does not apply at all to his best work. That Pope was constrained by the demands of "acceptable" diction and prosody is undeniable, but the elegance and flexibility with which Pope used this technique shows that great poetry could be written with these constraints. His expression is concise and forceful, conveying emotion as well as reason and wit. Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... William Empson Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, reckoned by some to be the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson and William Hazlitt and fitting heir to their mode of witty, fiercely heterodox and imaginatively rich criticism. ...


In his time Pope was famous for his witty satires and aggressive, bitter quarrels with other writers. When his edition of William Shakespeare was attacked, he answered with the savage burlesque The Dunciad (1728), which was widened in 1742. It ridiculed bad writers, scientists, and critics: "While pensive poets painful vigils keep, / Sleepless themselves to give their readers sleep." With the growth of Romanticism Pope's poetry was increasingly seen as outdated and the 'Age of Pope' ended. It was not until the 1930s that any serious attempts were made to rediscover the poet's work. Alexander Pope The Dunciad is a landmark literary satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times. ...


Works

Pope's house at Twickenham, showing the grotto. From a watercolour produced soon after his death.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1972x1479, 2721 KB)Alexander Popes grotto at Twickenham. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1972x1479, 2721 KB)Alexander Popes grotto at Twickenham. ... Twickenham is a suburb in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... An Essay on Criticism was the first major poem written by the British writer Alexander Pope. ... The New Star, Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for The Rape of the Lock The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope, first published in 1712 in two cantos, and then reissued in 1714 in a much-expanded 5-canto version. ... Eloisa to Abelard In these deep solitudes and awful cells, Where heavnly-pensive contemplation dwells, And ever-musing melancholy reigns; What means this tumult in a vestals veins? Why rove my thoughts beyond this last retreat? Why feels my heart its long-forgotten heat? Yet, yet I love... The Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady is a poem in heroic couplets by Alexander Pope, first published in his Works of 1717. ... Alexander Pope The Dunciad is a landmark literary satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times. ... Alexander Pope Alexander Pope ( May 21, 1688 – May 30, 1744) is considered one of the greatest English poets of the eighteenth century. ... The Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot is a poem written by Alexander Pope and completed in the summer of 1734. ... The phrase likely originated from Lucians The Fly, An appreciation[1] where the last sentence reads Who breaks a butterfly upon a wheel? is a quotation – sometimes misquoted with on in place of upon – from Alexander Popes Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot of January 1735. ...

References

  1. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 5th ed. OUP 1999
  2. ^ http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poet/263.html
  3. ^ Twickenham Museum: Alexandra Pope's Grotto Accessed 2007-08-09
  4. ^ Famous British Freemasons
  5. ^ The Universal Prayer
  • Maynard Mack, Alexander Pope: A Life (Yale, 1985, the definitive biography)

See also

  • Spalding Gentlemen’s Society

The Spalding Gentlemen’s Society is one of the learned societies of the United Kingdom. ...

External links

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