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Encyclopedia > Alexander Litvinenko poisoning

On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federation's Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. He died three weeks later, becoming the first known victim of lethal polonium-210-induced acute radiation syndrome. Litvinenko's allegations about the misdeeds of the FSB and his public accusations that the Russian government was behind his unusual malady resulted in worldwide media coverage. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... FSB The FSB (Federal Security Service) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) is a domestic state security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor of the Soviet Cheka, NKVD, and KGB. Its headquarters are in Lubyanka Square, Moscow. ... Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Radiation Hazard symbol. ... Since gaining its independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, Russia (formally, the Russian Federation) has faced serious challenges in its efforts to forge a political system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet rule. ...


British authorities are investigating his death and it was reported on December 1 that scientists at the Atomic Weapons Establishment had traced the source of the polonium to a nuclear power plant in Russia.[1] On December 3, reports stated that Britain has demanded the right to speak to at least five Russians implicated in Litvinenko's death, and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov asserted that Moscow was willing to answer "concrete questions."[2] Russian Prosecutor-General Yuri Chaika said on Tuesday, December 5 that any Russian citizen who may be charged in the poisoning will be tried in Russia, not Britain.[3] Moreover, Chaika stated that Russian prosecutors would present any questions to Russian citizens in the presence of the UK detectives.[4] is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AWE plc logo The Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston (formerly the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston) is situated in the UK, just 7 miles north of Basingstoke and approximately 14 miles south-west of Reading, Berkshire, near a village called Aldermaston, bordering with Tadley. ... A nuclear power station. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page lists foreign ministers of Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation: // Heads of Posolsky Prikaz, 1549-1699 Ivan Viskovatyi 1549-70 Brothers Vasily and Andrey Shchelkalov 1570-1601 Ivan Gramotin 1605-06, 1610-12, 1618-26, 1634-35 Pyotr Tretyakov 1608-10, 1613-18 Almaz Ivanov 1635-67... Sergey Lavrov. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Yury Yakovlevich Chaika is the current Prosecutor General of Russia. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 26 January 2007 The Guardian reported that the British government was preparing an extradition request asking that Andrei Lugovoi be returned to the United Kingdom to stand trial for Litvinenko's murder.[5] is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ...


On 22 May 2007 Sir Ken Macdonald QC (Director of Public Prosecutions of England and Wales) announced that Britain would seek extradition of Lugovoi and attempt to charge him with murdering Litvinenko, and on 28 May the Foreign Office formally submitted an extradition request to the Russian Government. [6] Russia has stated that they will not allow the extradition of any Russian citizens [7], as the Constitution of Russia explicitly forbids the extradition of Russian citizens to foreign countries (Art. 61).[8] However Article 63[8] stated that, The extradition of people accused of a crime, and also the handover of convicts for serving sentences in other States shall be carried out on the basis of the federal law or the international agreement of the Russian Federation. Evidently this is legal matter. is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Sir Ken Macdonald QC is Director of Public Prosecutions of England and Wales [1]. In that office he is ex officio head of the Crown Prosecution Service. ... The Director of Public Prosecutions is the officer charged with the prosecution of criminal offences in several criminal jurisdictions around the world. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... Politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic following the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. ...

Contents

Illness and poisoning

On November 1, 2006, Litvinenko suddenly fell ill. Earlier that day he had met with two former KGB agents, Andrei Lugovoi and Dmitri Kovtun. Lugovoi is a former bodyguard of Russian ex-Prime Minister Yegor Gaidar (also reportedly poisoned in November 2006) and former chief of security for the Russian TV channel ORT. Kovtun is now a businessman. Litvinenko had also had lunch at Itsu, a sushi restaurant on Piccadilly in London, with an Italian acquaintance, Mario Scaramella, to whom he reportedly made the allegations regarding Romano Prodi.[9] Scaramella, attached to the Mitrokhin Commission investigating KGB penetration of Italian politics, claimed to have information on the death of Anna Politkovskaya, 48, a journalist who was killed at her Moscow apartment in October 2006. He passed Litvinenko papers supposedly concerning her fate. On November 20, it was reported that Scaramella had gone into hiding and was in fear for his life.[10] November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ... Dmitry Kovtun is a Russian businessman and ex-KGB agent who met the poisoned ex-spy Alexander Litvinenko several times in London, the last time hours before Litvinenko fell ill. ... The Prime Minister of Russia is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... Yegor Timurovich Gaidar () (born March 19, 1956) is a Russian economist and politician, and was the acting Prime Minister of Russia from June 15, 1992 to December 14, 1992. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Channel One (Russian: , Pervy Kanal) is one of Russias most poorly rated TV channels with the smallest reception area. ... Itsu is a small British chain of sushi restaurants and sushi shops. ... Many types of sushi ready to be eaten. ... Piccadilly is a major London street, running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east. ... Mario Scaramella in an Italian lawyer and security consultant who came to international prominence in connection to the Alexander Litvinenko poisoning. ...   (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew The Mitrokhin Archive refers to the collected notes taken by Vasily Mitrokhin over 30 years. ... Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... October 2006 is the tenth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Oleg Gordievsky, a long-time acquaintance of Litvinenko and another former KGB colonel who had defected to the UK, told the BBC he believed Litvinenko was poisoned at the flat of an old Russian friend, with whom he had tea before going to the sushi restaurant. Gaidar himself was struck by a sudden unexplained illness on November 24.[11] Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Litvinenko's poisoning is now attributed to the radionuclide polonium-210 after the Health Protection Agency found significant amounts of this rare and toxic element in his body. The poisoning was widely covered in the British media beginning 18 November 2006, though it had been covered in other countries for several days before.[12] A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized of excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The Health Protection Agency (HPA), originally established as a special health authority (SpHA) in 2003, is an independent national organisation charged with protecting the health and well-being of the United Kingdom citizens from infectious diseases and in preventing harm and reducing impacts when hazards involving chemicals, poisons or radiation... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Thallium - initial hypothesis

Scotland Yard initially investigated claims that Litvinenko was poisoned with thallium. It was reported that early tests appeared to confirm the presence of the poison.[13][14] Among the distinctive effects of thallium poisoning are hair loss and damage to peripheral nerves,[15] and a photograph of Litvinenko in hospital, released to the media on his behalf,[16] indeed showed his hair to have fallen out. Litvinenko attributed his initial survival to his cardiovascular fitness and swift medical treatment. It was later suggested a radioactive isotope of thallium might have been used to poison Litvinenko.[17] Dr. Amit Nathwani, one of Litvinenko's physicians, said "His symptoms are slightly odd for thallium poisoning, and the chemical levels of thallium we were able to detect are not the kind of levels you'd see in toxicity."[18] Litvinenko's condition deteriorated, and he was moved into intensive care on November 20. Hours before his death, three unidentified circular-shaped objects were found in his stomach via an X-ray scan.[19] It is thought these objects were almost certainly shadows caused by the presence of Prussian blue, the treatment he had been given for thallium poisoning.[15][20] New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 204. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ...


Subsequently it was reported that traces of thallium are commonly found with polonium: "A tiny amount of thallium, a common impurity in polonium and a poison in its own right, was also found (in Litvinenko's body fluids). Polonium is typically made by bombarding bismuth-209, a heavy metal similar to antimony, with neutrons to make bismuth-210, which rapidly decays into polonium-210. But bismuth can also decay into thallium-206 (206Tl) — which is why polonium might have traces of thallium as well."[21] But 206Tl has a half life of minutes so it is unlikely that any would have been present by the time it was brought into the UK. It is more likely that stable lead would be found as an impurity in the polonium used. Bodily fluids are fluids, which are generally excreted or secreted from the human body. ...


On February 22 2007, two American women who were at a family wedding in Moscow were taken ill with thallium poisoning.[22] is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...


Death and last statement

On November 22, Litvinenko's medical staff at University College Hospital reported he had suffered a "major setback" due to either heart failure or an overnight heart attack; he died the following day. Scotland Yard reported that "Inquiries continue into the circumstances surrounding how Mr Litvinenko, 43 years, of North London, became unwell."[23] November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... University College Hospital is a teaching hospital in London, part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and associated with University College London. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ...


On November 25, an article attributed to Litvinenko was published by the Mail on Sunday Online entitled Why I believe Putin wanted me dead.[24] is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ...


Litvinenko's postmortem took place on December 1. It has been stated that three physicians attended, including one chosen by the family. Walter Litvinenko has stated he was told by the doctors that Litvinenko's body had five times the level of polonium-210 that would be considered lethal.[25][26] This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to Akhmed Zakayev, the Qur'an was read to him a day prior to his death.[27] Litvinenko's funeral reading took place on December 7 at the Central London mosque, after which his body was buried at Highgate Cemetery in north London.[28] Vanessa Redgrave and Akhmed Zakayev Akhmed Zakayev (Ахмед Закаев; born April 26, 1956) is the Foreign Minister of Chechen republic government-in-exile, appointed by the President Aslan Maskhadov shortly after his 1997 election, and again in 2006 by Abdul Halim Sadulayev. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Investigations

Greater London's Metropolitan Police Service Terrorism Unit has been investigating the poisoning and death. The head of the Counter-Terrorism Unit, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, stated the police "will trace possible witnesses, examine Mr. Litvinenko's movements at relevant times, including when he first became ill and identify people he may have met. There will also be an extensive examination of CCTV footage."[29] The United Kingdom Government COBRA committee met to discuss the investigation.[30] Richard Kolko from the United States FBI stated "when requested by other nations, we provide assistance" - referring to the FBI now joining the investigation for their expertise on radioactive weapons.[31][32] The Metropolitan Police announced on 6 December 2006 that it was treating Litvinenko's death as murder.[33] Interpol has also joined the investigation, providing "speedy exchange of information" between British, Russian and German police.[34] Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Seal of the Counter Terrorist Unit This article is about the fictional organization Counter Terrorist Unit. For the list of Counter-terrorist Units by country, see Counter-terrorism. ... The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (usually just referred to as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner or, more colloquially, as the Met Commissioner) is the head of the Metropolitan Police Service in London. ... COBRA (for Cabinet Office Briefing Room A) is a name used to describe ad-hoc committees within the UK government for responding to emergencies. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


It was known that Litvinenko had travelled by bus to the Millennium Hotel in Grosvenor Square, he had a bus ticket in his pocket from that day. The bus contained no signs of radioactivity - but large amounts had been detected at the hotel, leading police to believe that this was where the poisoning had taken place.[35] Polonium was subsequently found in a fourth-floor room and in a cup in the Pine Bar at the hotel.[36]


On November 29, 2006, British Airways announced that three of its passenger jets had been linked to the investigation of Litvinenko's death and two were found by British authorities to contain trace amounts of a radioactive substance.[37][38] British Airways later published a list of 221 flights of the contaminated aircraft, involving around 33,000 passengers, and advised those potentially affected to contact the UK Department for Health help. On December 5 they issued an email to all of their customers, informing them that the aircraft had all been declared safe by the UK's Health Protection Agency and would be entering back into service. November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... Many governments, both national and more local, have a Department of Health. This article is about the British one. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Flights cited as being of particular interest included flights BA875 and BA873 from Moscow to Heathrow on October 25 and October 31, as well as flights BA872 and BA874 from Heathrow to Moscow on October 28 and November 3.[39] A further two aircraft in Russia are now being investigated.[40] Andrei Lugovoi has said he flew from London to Moscow on a November 3 flight. He stated he arrived in London on October 31 to attend the football match between Arsenal and CSKA Moscow on November 1.[41]When the news broke that a radioactive substance had been used to murder the ex-spy, a team of scientists rushed to find out how far the contamination had spread. It led them on a trail involving hundreds of people and dozens of locations it was reported on June 5, 2007.[42] October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in Holloway, north London. ... PFC CSKA Moscow (Russian: or Professional Football Club - Central Sports Club of Army (Moscow)) is the football section of the CSKA sports club of Moscow, Russia. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Polonium-210

See also: Polonium

Shortly after his death, the UK's Health Protection Agency HPA stated that tests had established that Litvinenko had significant amounts of the radioactive isotope polonium-210 (Chemical symbol: 210Po) in his body. This was most likely either inhaled or ingested. Traces of it were found at several London locations: in his Muswell Hill home, at the Millenium Hotel in Grosvenor Square, and at the sushi restaurant where he had met Scaramella on November 1, and where he regularly held meetings, including an October 16 meeting with two Russians. Traces were also found in a former Russian oligarch Boris Berezovsky's offices and his residence in Mayfair.[43] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... The Health Protection Agency (HPA), originally established as a special health authority (SpHA) in 2003, is an independent national organisation charged with protecting the health and well-being of the United Kingdom citizens from infectious diseases and in preventing harm and reducing impacts when hazards involving chemicals, poisons or radiation... Muswell Hill is a suburb of north London in the London Borough of Haringey, situated 6. ... The north side of Grosvenor Square in the 18th or early 19th century. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... Business oligarch is a synonym of business magnate. The inclusion of the word oligarch describes the significant influence such wealthy people may have on the life of a state. ... Boris Abramovich Berezovsky (Бори́с Абра́мович Березо́вский) a. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ...


The effect on Litvinenko appears consistent with a radiation dose of approximately 2 GBq (50 mCi) which corresponds to about 10 micrograms of 210Po. That is 200 times the median lethal dose of around 238 μCi or 50 nanograms in the case of ingestion.[21] However a lower activity was estimated by a different worker.[44] The becquerel (symbol Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity, defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


British and US government sources both said the use of 210Po as a poison has never been documented before,[45] and this was probably the first time a person has been tested for the presence of 210Po in his or her body. According to Maxim Shingarkin, an expert on radiation safety, the theory of Litvinenko's exposure to 210Po at the sushi bar or at the hotel's restaurant is not viable, given the nature of 210Po. If it is uncontained — mixed into food or a drink — 210Po will quickly transform into its aerosol form, effectively contaminating an enclosed space. Had this been the case, the other customers and the staff of the sushi bar and the restaurant would be severely affected as well. Since all the locations where the presence of 210Po was detected display only trace amounts, originating from Litvinenko himself, his initial exposure to the substance may have occurred elsewhere.[46] Since this original assessment, however, a highly contaminated tea cup has been identified in the Pines Bar of the Millenium Hotel, and police are now convinced that the poison was in Litvinenko's tea cup.[citation needed] This article describes the government of the United States. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ...


The HPA is investigating[47] the risk to people who had contact with Litvinenko and confirmed that, as a precautionary measure, some people had been referred to a specialist clinic for possible radiological exposure assessment.[48] The HPA is also seeking to analyze impurities in the polonium that may act as a "fingerprint" to identify its source.[49] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


Irène Joliot-Curie was the first person to die because of exposure to polonium. Her parents Marie and Pierre Curie were first to discover and name this new element in 1898.[50] Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie, (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... Madame Curie redirects here. ... // Pierre Curie (Paris, France, May 15, 1859 – April 19, 1906, Paris) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ...


Sources of polonium

The use of polonium in the poisoning has been seen as proof of involvement of a state actor,[51] as more than microscopic amounts of polonium can only be produced in nuclear reactors.[52] Most polonium produced in Russia, however, is distributed by western commercial distributors.[1] Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


Reports now state that scientists of the UK's Atomic Weapons Establishment have confirmed the polonium was manufactured and the source is likely to originate from a Russian nuclear reactor.[1][21][27] This of course does not exclude the possibility that the polonium that killed Litvinenko was imported by a licensed commercial distributor, but no one—including the Russian government—has proposed that this is likely, particularly in regard to the radiation detected on the British Airways passenger jets travelling between Moscow and London. AWE plc logo The Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston (formerly the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston) is situated in the UK, just 7 miles north of Basingstoke and approximately 14 miles south-west of Reading, Berkshire, near a village called Aldermaston, bordering with Tadley. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ...


It is said the FSB had access to radioactive material in order to trace Russian mafia money.[53] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Polonium-210 production

Most of the world's polonium-210 (210Po) is produced in Russia in Chernobyl-type RBMK reactors. About 100 grams (450,000 Ci) are produced by Russia annually. According to a claim by Sergei Kiriyenko, the head of Russia's state atomic energy agency, RosAtom, all of it goes to U.S. companies through a single authorized supplier.[1] Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Pripyat, Ukraine. ... RBMK is an acronym for the Russian reaktor bolshoy moshchnosti kanalniy (Russian: Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный) which means reactor (of) high power (of the) channel (type), and describes a now obsolete class of graphite-moderated nuclear power reactor which was built only in the Soviet Union. ... Sergei Vladilenovich Kiriyenko (Russian: ) (b. ... The Federal Atomic Energy Agency (FAEA) (Russian: ), often abbreviated as RosAtom () or MinAtom (), is the federal agency of Russia, the regulatory body of the Russian nuclear complex. ...


Polonium-210 is a synthetic element that has a half-life of 138 days as it gradually transforms into lead. This means that after four months approximately half the polonium has been transformed, and it drops to about one eighth of its original potency a year after it was first produced. It is thus virtually impossible that the polonium came from a pre-1991 Soviet-era source, and it is unlikely to have been in storage for more than a year. The chemical elements labelled as synthetic are unstable, with a half-life so short (ranging from a fraction of millisecond to a few million years) relative to the age of the Earth that any atoms of that element that may have been present when the Earth formed have long since... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Commercial products containing polonium

No credible nuclear authority has asserted that a commercial product is a likely source for the poisoning of Litvinenko. However, potentially lethal amounts of polonium are present in anti-static brushes sold to photographers.[54] Many of the devices are available by mail order. General Electric markets a static eliminator module with 500 microcuries (20 MBq), roughly 2.5 times the lethal dose of 210Po if 100%-ingested, for US$71.[55] If these were used to collect the amount of polonium likely used in the poisoning—and one could devise a method of separating the polonium from its protective casing—it would take 100 modules for US$7100. That such a thing could be done is extremely difficult according to the manufacturers and would be highly dangerous to anyone attempting to do so. In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need (Kotler et al. ... Mail order is a term which describes the buying of goods or services by mail delivery. ... This article is about the American company. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the forces exerted by a static (i. ...


Tiny amounts of such radioisotopes are sometimes used in the laboratory and for teaching purposes — typically of the order of 4–40 kBq (0.1–1.0 μCi), in the form of sealed sources, with the Po deposited on a substrate or in a resin or polymer matrix—are often exempt from licencing by NRC and similar authorities as they are not considered hazardous. Small amounts of 210Po are available to the public in the United States by mail order from a company called United Nuclear as 'needle sources' for laboratory experimentation. It would require about 15,000 210Po of these sources at a total cost of about $1 million to obtain a toxic quantity of Polonium. They typically sell between 4 and 8 sources per year.[56][57] Robert Scott Lazar (born 26 January 1959) is a highly controversial figure in discussions about UFOs. ...


According to some estimates,[58], the cost of the quantity of pure Polonium-210 used to kill Litvinenko would be around £20 million (US$ 39 million),[59] which would make it the most expensive murder in history[citation needed]. However, this estimation seems to be based on retail prices of commercially available demonstration radiation sources.


Speculation on why Polonium-210 was chosen

Filmmaker and friend of Litvinenko, Andrei Nekrasov, has suggested that the poison was "sadistically designed to trigger a slow, tortuous and spectacular demise". [60] Russian expert Paul Joyal suggested that “A message has been communicated to anyone who wants to speak out against the Kremlin. (...) If you do, no matter who you are, where you are, we will find you, and we will silence you, in the most horrible way possible”.[61] Andrei Nekrasov (Андрей Некрасов) is a Russian film and TV director from Saint Petersburg. ... Paul M. Joyal (born c. ...


Oleg Gordievsky, the most senior KGB agent ever to defect to Britain, said they wanted to "demonstrate something new".[62] Another suggestion by Gordievsky, is that the poisoners were unaware that technology existed to detect traces left by polonium-210: "Did you know that polonium-210 leaves traces? I didn’t. And no one did. (...) what they didn’t know was that this equipment, this technology exists in the West – they didn’t know that, and that was where they miscalculated."[63] Philip Walker, professor of physics at the University of Surrey made a similar comment: "This seems to have been a substance carefully chosen for its ability to be hard to detect in a person who has ingested it."[64] Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ... The University of Surrey is a public university in Guildford, England. ...


Another reason for choosing polonium-210 may have been to suggest the likely involvement of the Russian government, to prevent its further convergence to the West. The theory was voiced by prominent writer and journalist Yulia Latynina, who works for Novaya Gazeta, a newspaper that normally tends to be very critical about Russian governmental policies.[65] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ...


Theories

Russian Government involvement theory

The circumstances surrounding Litvinenko's death led to the assumption that he was killed by a Russian secret service. [attribution needed]Viktor Ilyukhin, a deputy chairman of the Russian Parliament’s security committee for the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, said that he "can’t exclude that possibility". He said: "That former KGB officer had been irritating the Russian authorities for a long time and possibly knew some state secrets. So when our special services got the chance to operate not only inside but outside the country, they decided to get rid of him."[66] He apparently referred to a recent Russian counter-terrorism law that gives the President the right to order such actions.[67][68] Moreover, it has been reported in the Chechen State Press that an investigator of the Russian apartment bombings, Mikhail Trepashkin wrote in a letter from prison that an FSB team had organised in 2002 to kill Litvinenko. He also reported FSB plans to kill relatives of Litvinenko in Moscow in 2002, although these have not been carried out.[69][70] Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ... Communist Party supporters attend a May Day rally in Moscow The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации = КПРФ; translit. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The Russian apartment bombings were a series of bombings in Russia that killed nearly 300 people and led the country into the Second Chechen War. ... Mikhail Trepashkin, a Moscow attorney and former FSB agent, was invited by MP Sergei Yushenkov to assist in an independent investigation of the Russian apartment bombings in September 1999 – the atrocities that provoked the war in Chechnya and skyrocketed Vladimir Putin to presidency. ...


Leonid Nevzlin, a former Yukos oil company shareholder and Russian exile currently living in Israel, told the Associated Press in late November that Litvinenko had given him a document related to a dossier on criminal charges made by Russian prosecutors against people connected to Yukos. Nevzlin, who is charged by Russian prosecutors with having organized killings, fraud and tax evasion, claimed Litvinenko's inquiries may have provided a motive for his poisoning.[71] Leonid Nevzlin is a former Russian oligarch and the former CEO of the Russian oil company Yukos. ... Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the tax regime to ones own advantage, in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Akhmed Zakayev suggested that radioactive polonium has been previously tested on Chechen children.[72] The mass poisoning of Chechen school children by the unknown substance with prolonged action has been described by Anna Politkovskaya in three articles published in Novaya Gazeta in 2006.[73] Vanessa Redgrave and Akhmed Zakayev Akhmed Zakayev (Ахмед Закаев; born April 26, 1956) is the Foreign Minister of Chechen republic government-in-exile, appointed by the President Aslan Maskhadov shortly after his 1997 election, and again in 2006 by Abdul Halim Sadulayev. ... Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ...


State Duma member, Sergei Abeltsev's comment of 24 November 2006 implies that Litvinenko was killed for his anti-Russian Government activities:[74] For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Sergei Nikolaevich Abeltsev (Russian: Сергей Николаевич Абельцев; born May 16, 1961) is a member of the State Duma of Russia. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

The deserved punishment reached the traitor. I am sure his terrible death will be a warning to all the traitors that in Russia the treason is not to be forgiven. I would recommend to citizen Berezovsky to avoid any food at the commemoration for his accomplice Litvinenko.

Litvinenko's widow Marina Litvinenko told Mail on Sunday that she believed the Russian authorities could have been behind the murder, although she didn't think president Putin himself was directly involved. Furthermore, she said she would not cooperate with the Russian investigators:[75] The Daily Mail and its Sunday edition the Mail on Sunday are British newspapers, first published in 1896. ...

I can't believe that they will tell the truth. I can't believe if they ask about evidence they will use it in the proper way.

Russian Government response

The state controlled press in Russia has offered a number of alternatives to Litvinenko's demise.[76] As one example, Russian state television has taken the view that if Litvinenko knew any important secrets, he would already have made them public during his six-year-long stay in the United Kingdom. According to this view, he was not an important person and not worth a loud political scandal. Also a suspicious simultaneousness between the deaths of the so-called oppositionals and big international summits with Russian participation was noted, along with the question who could be interested in worsening Russia's and Putin's image in front of them.[77] A political scandal is a scandal in which politicians engage in various illegal or unethical practices. ...


Vladimir Putin's aide Sergei Yastrzhembsky commented: Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of Russia. ...

The excessive number of calculated coincidences between the deaths of people, who defined themselves as the opposition to the Russian authorities, and major international events involving Vladimir Putin is a source of concern. I am far from believing in the conspiracy theory, but, in this case, I think that we are witnessing a well-rehearsed plan of the consistent discrediting of the Russian Federation and its chief. In such cases, the famed "qui bono"[sic] question has to be asked.[78]

Dmitry Peskov, a Kremlin spokesperson, dismissed the idea of Putin's involvement as "pure nonsense".[79] The involvement of Moscow was denied by SVR representative Sergei Ivanov who said: Cui bono (Good for whom, or Who obtains a benefit) is a latin adage used in criminal investigation. ... Look up sic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dmitry Sergeyevich Peskov (Russian Дмитрий Сергеевич Песков; (born October 17, 1967) is the current First Deputy Press Attaché for the President of Russia, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin. ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ... Sergei Ivanov at a press conference following the meeting of the NATO-Russia Council, Colorado Springs - 9 October 2003 June 6, 2002 Sergei Borisovich Ivanov (Серге́й Бори́сович Ивано́в in Russian) (born January 31, 1953, Leningrad) is a first deputy prime minister of Russia and former minister of defense (March 2001-February 2007). ...

From the logical viewpoint and from the 'Who benefits?' viewpoint, I can't see any reasons for the speculation actively being disseminated by the western press alleging this might be the long arms of the KGB or the FSB, There should definitely be a careful and objective investigation. I am sure that it will be conducted and Russia is willing to render any assistance.[80]

The main explanation put forward by the Russian Government appears to be that the deaths of Litvinenko and Politkovskaya were intended to embarrass President Putin. Federation Council of Russia Speaker Sergey Mironov said that "reports about Anna Politkovskaya and Litvinenko's deaths were released when Putin was meeting with EU leaders in Finland. I don't think the coincidence was accidental".[81] However, Mironov went on to say, "It would be premature to make any conclusions about Litvinenko's death. We must wait until the investigation produces specific results."[81] Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... Federation Council of Russia (Russian: ; Sovet Federatsii) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. ... Sergey Mironov Sergey Mironov (Russian: Сергей Миронов )(b. ...


British novelist Rupert Allason said he would be most surprised if the FSB had tried to kill Mr Litvinenko because it would fly in the face of 65 years of Soviet or Russian practice, as "[n]either the FSB nor the KGB has ever killed a defector on foreign soil and their predecessors, even under Stalin, did so only once in the case of Walter Krivitsky in Washington in 1941."[82] Despite some reports that a recent Russian counter-terrorism law gives the President the right to order such actions,[83] in fact the law in question refers only to "terrorists and their bases" abroad. Rupert William Simon Allason (born 8 November 1951) is a military historian and former politician in the United Kingdom. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[2] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ...


Before polonium-210 was identified as the poison, Vladimir Putin made the comment that

as far as I understand in the medical statement of British physicians, it doesn't say that this was a result of violence, this is not a violent death, so there is no ground for speculations of this kind.[84][85][86]

He also called Litvinenko's letter "a provocation".


Since few people had any doubts about this being a case of poisoning, some commentaries that discussed Putin's "curious" comment interpreted it as a give-away of his involvement.[87][88]


It has now been stated that the Russian government may consider using UK libel laws to silence journalists speculating about the Russian government's involvement.[89]


Russian cooperation and extradition

Prosecutor-General Yuri Chaika said, "we will do everything to provide legal assistance to our colleagues", referring to Scotland Yard detectives. However, Chaika went on to say that "the person who is accused will be convicted by a Russian court". It is reported that Andrei Lugovoi will not be interviewed now as the Russian authorities have refused access to him because of reported illness. However, Lugovoi's lawyer states that Lugovoi is fit to be interviewed and it is not true he is ill.[90] Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ...


Possibly related events

The UK envoy in Russia, Tony Brenton, has been under harassment by a pro-government youth group called Nashi. It has also been reported that BBC Russian services have gone off air after "technical difficulties."[91] Nashi is a Russian anti-fascist youth movement, formed officially by Vasilii Yakemenko (leader of the pro-Putin Walking together youth movement) on 1st March 2005. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...


Andrey Limarev, a former FSB agent and a colleague of Litvinenko, has disappeared in the French Alps on December 12, 2006 after stating that he "would be next". It is believed that Limarav was a potential witness to the investigations.[92] is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


On March 2, 2007 Paul Joyal, a former director of security for the U.S. Senate intelligence committee, who the previous weekend alleged on national tele­vision that the Kremlin was involved in the poisoning of Litvinenko, was shot near his Maryland home and was reported to be in critical condition in hospital. An FBI spokesman, said the agency was "assisting" the police investigation into the shooting; it is unusual for the FBI to get involved in a local shooting incident. A person familiar with the situation said NBC had hired bodyguards for some of the journalists involved in the programme.[93] is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Paul M. Joyal (born c. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... In medicine, critical condition is the worst physical state a patient can be in and still be alive. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... NBC (a former acronym for National Broadcasting Company) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ...


Berezovsky theory

It has been claimed that the death of Litvinenko was connected to Boris Berezovsky.[94][95] Former FSB chief Nikolay Kovalev, for whom Litvinenko worked, said that the incident "looks like [the] hand of Berezovsky. I am sure that no kind of intelligence services participated."[96] Boris Abramovich Berezovsky (Бори́с Абра́мович Березо́вский) a. ... Nikolai Dmitrievich Kovalev (Russian: ) (born 1949) was the former Director of the FSB from July 1996 to July 1998, and was succeeded by Vladimir Putin. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization devoted to gathering of information by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ...


Another exiled Russian agent, Evgeni Limarev, has confirmed that there may have been a falling out between Berezovsky and Litvinenko and also that the British (MI6) and American secret agents had told Litvinenko that his life was in danger because of his ties with Berezovsky.[97] The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


On the other hand, the FSB has previously accused Berezovsky of various murders, including that of Sergei Yushenkov, who worked with Berezovsky in founding the political party, Liberal Russia, and was assassinated shortly after the party was registered and Berezovsky was expelled (another co-founder of this party Vladimir Golovlev was murdered a few months earlier). Four people were put on trial and convicted of the murder, among them Mikhail Kodanev, a co-chairman of Liberal Russia. Yushenkov's death and the conviction and jailing of the co-chairman of Liberal Russia for his murder is widely perceived to have been part of a policy of eliminating the political threat posed by Berezovsky to the establishment. Therefore the accusations from the FSB of Berezovsky's involvement warrant careful consideration. Sergei Yushenkov (Сергей Юшенков) (1950-2003) was a liberal Russian politician well known for his uncompromising struggle for democracy, rapid free market economic reforms, and higher human rights standards in Russia. ...


Litvinenko himself said, in an article published after his death, that while he was employed by the FSB he was requested as part of a team to assassinate Berezovsky but refused, and instead went straight to him with the information.[98] Traces of polonium-210 were found in an office belonging to Berezovsky.[43] General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Yukos theory

It has been suggested that Litvinenko was killed because of his research into the Russian Government's campaign against the management of the Russian oil company Yukos and its renationalisation. According to The Times, the police investigation is looking at Litvinenko's journey to Israel prior to his illness and death, where it is alleged that he gave information regarding Yukos to Leonid Nevzlin, the former deputy head of Yukos, who fled to Tel Aviv, including material relating to the deaths of former Yukos workers and information relating to the imprisonment of Mikhail Khodorkovsky.[99] It is believed that these documents have been handed over to the British investigators.[100][101] Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ... See also The New York Times, The Times of India, or The Irish Times. ... Leonid Nevzlin is a former Russian oligarch and the former CEO of the Russian oil company Yukos. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The quality of this article or section may be compromised by peacock terms. You can help Wikipedia by removing peacock terms. ...


Yuri Shvets a former KGB agent has contacted police in London and detectives have flown out to Washington to interview him. He told the Observer that Litvinenko claimed before his death that he had prepared a dossier on the Russian Government's relationship with Yukos.[102] Yuri B. Shvets (b. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Ex-FSB members theory

According to the Guardian: "British officials say the perpetrators were probably former Russian security agents, or members of a criminal gang linked to them. They also say that only a "state" institution would have access to polonium-210. They insist there is no evidence of the involvement of the Russian government."[103] The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


"Scaramella showed Litvinenko a "hit-list" of people allegedly targeted for assassination by the Russian intelligence services and a shadowy group of KGB veterans called Dignity and Honour, which is run by a Colonel Velentin Velichko."[104] Scaramella was, however, doubtful as to the authenticity of the emails he had received: "The problem for me was these mails were so full of details, so specific that they didn't seem genuine."[105] Moreover, according to Scaramella, Litvinenko was also skeptical: "Alex laughed it off. He didn't have faith in the person who sent the message and said the whole thing was incredible. He said it was not realistic at all."[106]


The Russian intelligence services are highly bureaucratic and legalistic. "There isn't a great deal of room for personal initiative, everything has to be officially authorised and signed off. And this murder would have been a highly complex operation involving many people not one or two acting in isolation."[104]


Opponents in 2008 election theory

Some believe that the public assassination of Litvinenko shows the growing fight between Kremlin clans is "spinning out of control" ahead of the 2008 Russian presidential elections, in which Putin said he would not run for a third term.[107] ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


Suicide theory

Some observers have suggested the death was suicide; the finding of radioactive material at several locations, including Litvinenko's house has led to some suggesting that Litvinenko killed himself to discredit the Russian government.[108] These theories have now been discounted by the investigating police, without further elaboration.


Blackmail plot theory

In The Observer, a Russian student, Julia Svetlichnaja, said that Litvinenko openly told her that he was intending to blackmail senior Russian officials and businessmen. She also said that she had become increasingly concerned about his numerous emails alleging a great variety of plots, particularly noting his claim that Putin was a paedophile.[109] The Observer claimed his "access to such documents could have made him an enemy of both big business interests and the Kremlin".[102] However, Soviet dissident Vladimir Bukovsky, a friend of Aleksander Litvinenko, has argued that blackmailing people was against Litvinenko's nature.[110] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Big business is usually used as a pejorative reference to the significant economic and political power which large and powerful corporations (especially multinational corporations), are capable of wielding. ... Vladimir Bukovsky early photo Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky (Russian: ; b. ...


Following this, the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten suggested that Svetlichnaja may have been part of a plot to discredit Litvinenko by making him appear to be an odd individual with many unfounded stories. Aftenposten based their allegations against Svetlichnaja on the word of an 'unnamed British professor of Russian'.[111] Svetlichnaja has claimed the professor was actually "veteran Cold War propagandist" Martin Dewhirst.[112] Dewhirst is a longtime lecturer at the University of Glasgow and collaborator with the CIA-funded Radio Free Europe. [113] Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... Cover of Radio Liberty booklet The Most Important Job in the World Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ...


Aftenposten suggested that Svetlichnaja was operating under a front company as non-official cover for the Russian government in order to ensure Litvinenko was made to be seen as a paranoid individual. The newspaper made a call to speak to the director of the company Russian Investors to which Svetlichnaja was allegedly connected. The director, Alexei Yashechkin, said "it was probably someone of a similar name" and became increasingly hesitant on the phone before hanging up.[114] [115] Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... see Front organization ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After these allegations Svetlichnaja appeared in person to defend herself at a press conference at the University of Westminster on 8 December 2006, which she held together with fellow student James Heartfield who had accompanied her as she met Litvinenko.[116] Aftenposten's reporter said that she was "cut off and verbally attacked" as she attempted to ask questions about Svetlichnaja's role at the company Russian Investors,[117] though Svetlichnaja has denied that she refused to speak to the reporter.[118] James Heartfield is a lecturer and writer. ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ...


Suggestions similar to those made by Aftenposten also appeared in The Sunday Times, but following a libel suit, Times Newspapers published an apology in which they said they were "happy to make it clear that Ms Svetlichnaja has never worked for a state-owned Russian company" and accepted that "she was not part of any Kremlin-inspired campaign to discredit Mr Litvinenko".[119] [120] Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ...


Litvinenko-Shvets report

In an interview with the BBC broadcast on 16 December 2006, Yuri Shvets said that he and Litvinenko had compiled a report investigating the activities of senior Kremlin officials on behalf of a British company looking to invest "dozens of millions of dollars" in a project in Russia.[121] Shvets said the dossier was so incriminating about one senior Kremlin official, who was not named, it was likely that Litvinenko was murdered in revenge. He alleged that Litvinenko had shown the dossier to another business associate, Andrei Lugovoi, who had worked for the KGB and later the FSB. Shvets alleged that Lugovoi is still an FSB informant and he had passed the dossier to members of the spy service. Shvets says he was interviewed about his allegations by Scotland Yard detectives investigating Litvinenko's murder. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Yuri B. Shvets (b. ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ...


Bungling smugglers theory

According to this theory,[122] Litvinenko was part of a polonium smuggling ring.


Lugovoi or Kovtun came to London on three separate occasions with a consignment of polonium and met with Litvinenko, each time contaminating the hotel rooms to a certain extent, the first occasion being on October 16 2006.[123] Litvinenko himself was contaminated with polonium on more than one occasion.[124] On the final occasion, the container in which the polonium was being transported broke open, and the polonium fell on the floor of a hotel room (probably at the Millennium hotel), leaving contamination there.[125] The polonium was picked up off the floor and put into a teacup until a better container could be obtained, at which point Litvinenko and Kovtun were contaminated. This also left strong contamination in the teacup, which remained despite the cup having been washed several times by hotel staff. Upon leaving the room, someone turned off the light, leaving polonium on the switch. Then, to avoid being linked to the contaminated teacup in the hotel room, Litvinenko and the others left the teacup in the Pine Bar, among other dirty cups.[125] Kovtun is currently under investigation by German detectives for suspected plutonium smuggling into Germany in October.[34] General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A skirmish with smugglers from Finland at the Russian border, 1853, by Vasily Hudiakov. ...


It is reported that MI6 had learnt that Al Qaida had offered millions of dollars to anyone that could supply them with polonium. By an interception of a phone call in Peshawar, GCHQ learnt information that Al Qaida were actively seeking polonium. This has now been passed to investigators to find out whether Litvinenko was in any way connected with attempting to supply polonium.[126] The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Peshāwar (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (previously named the Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS)) is the main British intelligence service providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). ...


Suspects

Igor the Assassin 
The code-name for a former KGB assassin. He is said[attribution needed] to be a former Spetznaz officer born in 1960 who is a Judo master and walks with a slight limp. He speaks perfect English and Portuguese. He may be the same person who served Litvinenko tea in the London hotel room.[citation needed]
Andrei Lugovoi 
A former Federal Security Service of Russia (FSB) operative and millionaire who met with Litvinenko on the day he fell ill (1 November). He had visited London at least three times in the month before Litvinenko's death and met with the victim four times. Traces of polonium-210 have been discovered in all three hotels where Lugovoi stayed after flying to London on October 16, and in the Pescatori restaurant in Dover Street, Mayfair, where Mr Lugovoi is understood to have dined before 1 November; and aboard two aircraft on which he had travelled.[127][128]He has declined to say whether he had been contaminated with polonium-210.[129]
Dmitry Kovtun 
A Russian businessman and ex-KGB agent who met Litvinenko in London first in mid-October and then on 1 November, the day Litvinenko fell ill. On 7 December Kovtun was hospitalized, with some sources initially reporting him to be in coma.[130] On 9 December, German police find traces of radiation at Hamburg flat used by Kovtun.[131] The following day, 10 December, German investigators identified the detected material as polonium-210 and clarified that the substance was found where Kovtun had slept the night before departing for London. British police also report having detected polonium on the plane in which Kovtun travelled from Moscow.[132] Three other points in Hamburg were identified as contaminated with the same substance.[133] On 12 December Kovtun told Russia's Channel One TV that his "health was improving".[34]
There are two conflicting theories about Dmitry Kovtun. One theory is, he may be the murderer or one of the murderers of Alexander Litvinenko, and may have made mistakes in handling the substance used, Polonium-210. The other theory is, that he is a victim just like Alexander Litvinenko; however, given how quickly Litvinenko fell ill once poisoned, it is improbable that Kovtun was poisoned without consequence for such a long period that he was able to travel so much and leave so many traces in his wake[citation needed].
Kovtun is currently under investigation by German detectives for suspected plutonium smuggling into Germany in October.[34]
Vyacheslav Sokolenko 
A business partner of Andrei Lugovoi.[134]
Vladislav 
The Times of London stated that the police have identified the man they believe may have poisoned Litvinenko with a fatal polonium dose in a cup of tea on the fourth-floor room at the Millennium Hotel to discuss a business deal with Dmitry Kovtun and Andrei Lugovoi before going to the bar. These three men were joined in the room later by the mystery figure who was introduced as Vladislav, a man, who could help Litvinenko win a lucrative contract with a Moscow-based private security firm.[135]
Vladislav is said to have arrived in London from Hamburg on November 1 on the same flight as Dmitry Kovtun. His image is recorded by security cameras at Heathrow airport on arrival. He is described as being in his early 30s, tall, strong, with short black hair and Central Asian features. Oleg Gordievsky, an ex-KGB agent said that this man was believed to have used a Lithuanian or Slovak passport, and he left the country using another EU passport.
Leonid Nevzlin 
A businessman living in Israel, he has been accused of links to several murders in Russia and was one of the key figures in the Yukos oil company. [136]

Igor the Assassin is the code-name for a former KGB assassin believed to have been the murderer of Alexander Litvinenko. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Spetsnaz soldier training Spetsnaz (Войска специального назначения - спецназ/Voiska spetsialnogo naznacheniya - spetsnaz, /Specnaz/ in SAMPA) is a general term... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Judo ), meaning gentle way, is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō) and combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ... Emblem of FSB The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organization in Russia, and is the domestic successor organization to the KGB. Its name is an acronym from the Russian Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции) (Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoi Federatsii). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Dmitry Kovtun is a Russian businessman reportedly being treated in Russia for Polonium 210 poisoning. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A skirmish with smugglers from Finland at the Russian border, 1853, by Vasily Hudiakov. ... Alexander Litvinenko Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ; 4 December 1962[1] or 30 October 1962[2] – 23 November 2006) was an ex-FSB lieutenant-colonel. ... Dmitry Kovtun is a Russian businessman reportedly being treated in Russia for Polonium 210 poisoning. ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Dmitry Kovtun is a Russian businessman reportedly being treated in Russia for Polonium 210 poisoning. ... Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ... Leonid Nevzlin is a former Russian oligarch and the former CEO of the Russian oil company Yukos. ... Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ...

Other persons related to the case

Yegor Gaidar 
The sudden illness of Yegor Gaidar in Ireland on November 24, the day of Litvinenko's death, has been linked to his visit to the restaurant where polonium was present and is being investigated as part of the overall investigation in the UK and Ireland.[137] However, other observers noted he was probably poisoned after drinking a strange-tasting cup of tea. Gaidar was taken to hospital; doctors said his condition is not life-threatening and that he will recover.[138][139] This incident was similar to the poisoning of Anna Politkovskaya on a flight to Beslan. After poisoning, Gaidar claimed that it was enemies of Kremlin who tried to poison him. He gave reasoning that Kremlin was a least interested organization to kill him. He also published his thoughts in Financial Times.
Mario Scaramella 
The United Kingdom's Health Protection Agency (HPA) announced that significant quantities of polonium-210 had been found in Mario Scaramella although his health was found to be normal. He has been admitted to hospital for tests and monitoring.[140] Doctors say that Scaramella was exposed to a much lower level of polonium-210 than Litvinenko had been exposed to, and that preliminary tests found "no evidence of radiation toxicity".[141] According to the 6 pm channel 4 (9 December 2006) news the intake of polonium he suffered will only result in a dose of 1 mSv. This will lead to a 1 in 20000 chance of cancer. According to The Independent, Scaramella alleged that Litvinenko was involved in smuggling radioactive material to Zurich in 2000.[142]
Boris Volodarsky, a KGB defector residing in London, stated that Evgeni Limarev, another former KGB officer residing in France, continued collaboration with FSB, infiltrated Litvinenko's and Scaramella's circles of trust and misinformed the latter.[143][144]
Marina Litvinenko 
UK reports state Litvinenko's widow tested positive for polonium, though she is not seriously ill. The Ashdown Park hotel in Sussex has been evacuated as a precaution, possibly to do with Scaramella's previous visit there.[145] According to the 6 pm channel 4 (9 December 2006) news the intake of polonium she suffered will only result in a dose of 100 mSv. This will lead to a 1 in 200 chance of cancer.
Akhmed Zakayev 
The forensic investigation also includes the silver Mercedes by Litvinenko's home believed to be owned by his close friend and neighbour Akhmed Zakayev, the foreign minister of the rebel government in exile from Chechnya.[146][147][148] Reports now state that traces of radioactive material were found in the vehicle.[149]
British Police 
Two London Metropolitan police officers tested positive for 210Po poisoning.[150]
Bar staff 
Some of the bar staff at the hotel where the polonium contaminated teacup was found were found to have suffered an intake of polonium (dose in the range of 10s of mSv).

Yegor Timurovich Gaidar () (born March 19, 1956) is a Russian economist and politician, and was the acting Prime Minister of Russia from June 15, 1992 to December 14, 1992. ... Yegor Timurovich Gaidar () (born March 19, 1956) is a Russian economist and politician, and was the acting Prime Minister of Russia from June 15, 1992 to December 14, 1992. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... Map of North Ossetia Beslan (Russian: ; Ossetic: Беслӕн) is a town located in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia and is the administrative center of Pravoberezhny District. ... Mario Scaramella in an Italian lawyer and security consultant who came to international prominence in connection to the Alexander Litvinenko poisoning. ... The Health Protection Agency (HPA), originally established as a special health authority (SpHA) in 2003, is an independent national organisation charged with protecting the health and well-being of the United Kingdom citizens from infectious diseases and in preventing harm and reducing impacts when hazards involving chemicals, poisons or radiation... Mario Scaramella in an Italian lawyer and security consultant who came to international prominence in connection to the Alexander Litvinenko poisoning. ... Channel 4 is a public-service British television station, broadcast to all areas of the United Kingdom (and also the Republic of Ireland), which began transmissions in 1982. ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... Channel 4 is a public-service British television station, broadcast to all areas of the United Kingdom (and also the Republic of Ireland), which began transmissions in 1982. ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Vanessa Redgrave and Akhmed Zakayev Akhmed Zakayev (Ахмед Закаев; born April 26, 1956) is the Foreign Minister of Chechen republic government-in-exile, appointed by the President Aslan Maskhadov shortly after his 1997 election, and again in 2006 by Abdul Halim Sadulayev. ... The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ... Vanessa Redgrave and Akhmed Zakayev Akhmed Zakayev (Ахмед Закаев; born April 26, 1956) is the Foreign Minister of Chechen republic government-in-exile, appointed by the President Aslan Maskhadov shortly after his 1997 election, and again in 2006 by Abdul Halim Sadulayev. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... A teacup on a saucer A tea bowl without a handle A teacup is a small cup with a handle, generally a small one that may be grasped with the thumb and one or two fingers. ...

Chronology

Background history

June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of Russia. ... FSB The FSB (Federal Security Service) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) is a domestic state security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor of the Soviet Cheka, NKVD, and KGB. Its headquarters are in Lubyanka Square, Moscow. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Organized crime. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... The Russian apartment bombings were a series of bombings in Russia that killed nearly 300 people and led the country into the Second Chechen War. ... Bloc voting (or block voting) (also called Plurality-at-large) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single constituency. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of Russia. ... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: ) (February 1, 1931 – April 23, 2007[1]) was the first president of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on March 26, 2000. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин in Cyrillic lettering) (born October 7, 1952) has been the President of Russia since the year 2000. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidential elections were held in the Russian Federation on March 14, 2004. ... Ivan Petrovich Rybkin (b. ...

2006

October 2006

is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dmitry Kovtun is a Russian businessman reportedly being treated in Russia for Polonium 210 poisoning. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Aeroflot — Russian Airlines (MICEX:AFLT RTS:AFLT) (Russian: Аэрофлот — Российские авиалинии), Aeroflot — Rossiiskie Avialinii, or Aeroflot (Аэрофлот; literally air fleet), is the Russian national airline and the biggest carrier in Russia. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

November 2006

  • November 1: Just after 3 p.m., at the Itsu sushi restaurant on Picadilly, Litvinenko meets the Italian security expert Mario Scaramella, who hands alleged evidence to him concerning the murder of Politkovskaya. Around 4:15 p.m., he comes to the office of Boris Berezovsky to copy the papers Scaramella had given him and hand them to Berezovsky. Around 5 p.m. he meets with the former KGB agents Andrei Lugovoi, Dmitry Kovtun and Vyacheslav Sokolenko in the Millenium Hotel in London. He later becomes ill.[155][156]
  • November 3: Litvinenko is brought into Barnet General Hospital.
  • November 11: Litvinenko tells the BBC he was poisoned and is in very bad condition.
  • November 17: Litvinenko is moved to University College Hospital and placed under armed guard.
  • November 19: Reports emerge that Litvinenko has been poisoned with thallium, a chemical element used in the past as a rat poison.
  • November 20: Litvinenko is moved to the Intensive Care Unit. The police take statements from people with close relation to Litvinenko. A Kremlin speaker denies the Russian government is involved in the poisoning.
  • November 22: The hospital announces that Litvinenko's condition has worsened substantially.
  • November 23: 9:21 PM: Litvinenko dies.
  • November 24: Litvinenko's dictated deathbed statement is published. He accuses President Vladimir Putin of being responsible for his death. The Kremlin rejects the accusation. The HPA announces that significant amounts of Polonium-210 have been found in Litvinenko's body. Traces of the same substance are also found at Litvinenko's house in North London, at Itsu and at the Millenium Hotel.
  • November 24: Sergei Abeltsev, State Duma member from the LDPR, in his Duma address he commented on the death of Litvinenko with the following words: The deserved punishment reached the traitor. I am sure his terrible death will be a warning to all the traitors that in Russia the treason is not to be forgiven. I would recommend to citizen Berezovsky to avoid any food at the commemoration for his crime accomplice Litvinenko[74]
  • November 24: The British police state they are investigating the death as a possible poisoning.
  • November 28: Scotland Yard announces that traces of Polonium-210 have been found in seven different places in London. Among them, an office of the Russian billionaire Boris Berezovsky, an avowed opponent of Putin.
  • November 29: The HPA announces screening of the nurses and physicians who treated Litvinenko. The authorities find traces of a radioactive substance on board British Airways planes.
  • November 30: Polonium-210 traces are found on a number of other planes, most of them going to Moscow.

November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Itsu is a small British chain of sushi restaurants and sushi shops. ... Mario Scaramella in an Italian lawyer and security consultant who came to international prominence in connection to the Alexander Litvinenko poisoning. ... Andrei Lugovoi (Lugovoy) (Russian: ) (Born 1966 in Azerbaijan) is a former KGB operative [1] and millionaire who met with Alexander Litvinenko on the day Litvinenko fell ill (1 November 2006). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Barnet General Hospital is a hospital in Barnet, Greater London (Middlesex), run by Barnet and Chase Farm NHS Hospitals Trust as part of the UK National Health Service. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... University College Hospital is a teaching hospital in London, part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, and associated with University College London. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... A rat in urban environment Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An intensive care unit An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU) is a specialised facility in a hospital that provides intensive care medicine. ... Moscow Kremlin in the 19th century. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... The Health Protection Agency (HPA), originally established as a special health authority (SpHA) in 2003, is an independent national organisation charged with protecting the health and well-being of the United Kingdom citizens from infectious diseases and in preventing harm and reducing impacts when hazards involving chemicals, poisons or radiation... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ... Itsu is a small British chain of sushi restaurants and sushi shops. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sergei Nikolaevich Abeltsev (Russian: Сергей Николаевич Абельцев; born May 16, 1961) is a member of the State Duma of Russia. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... The Liberal Democratic Party of Russia is an extreme right-wing political party in Russia. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Police Constable of West Yorkshire Police on patrol The United Kingdom (UK) does not have one single police service serving the general public; with the exception of various special police forces and of Northern Ireland (which has one unified force, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)), police forces... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, it blowwsssss often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ... This is a partial list of places in London, England. ... Boris Abramovich Berezovsky (Бори́с Абра́мович Березо́вский) a. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...

December 2006

  • December 1: An autopsy is performed on the body of Litvinenko. Toxicology results from Mr Litvinenko's post-mortem examination revealed two "spikes" of radiation poisoning, suggesting he received two separate doses.[157] Scaramella tests positive for Polonium-210 and is admitted into a hospital. Litvinenko's widow also tests positive for Polonium-210, but was not sent to the hospital for treatment.
  • December 2: Scotland Yard's counter-terrorist unit have questioned Yuri Shvets, a former KGB spy who emigrated to the United States in 1993. He was questioned as a witness in Washington in the presence of FBI officers. Shvets claimed that he has a "lead that can explain what happened".
  • December 6: Scotland Yard announced that it is treating his death as a murder.[33]
  • December 7: Confused reports state that Dmitry Kovtun was hospitalized, the reason has not yet been made clear.
  • December 7: Russian Office of the Prosecutor General has opened a criminal case over poisoning of Litvinenko and Kovtun by the articles "Murder committed in a way endangering the general public" (убийство, совершенное общеопасным способом) and "Attempted murder of two or more persons committed in a way endangering the general public".[158]
  • December 8: Kovtun is reported to be in coma.[130]
  • December 9: German police find traces of radiation at Hamburg flat used by Kovtun.[131]
  • December 9: UK police identify a single cup at the Pines Bar in the Millennium Hotel in Mayfair which was almost certainly the one used to administer the poison.[159]
  • December 11: Andrei Lugovoi is interrogated in Moscow by UK Scotland Yard and General Procurator's office of the Russian Federation. He refuses to reveal any information concerning the interrogation.[160]
  • December 12: Dmitry Kovtun tells a Russian TV station that his "health [is] improving".[34]
  • December 24: Mario Scaramella was arrested in Naples on his return from London, on apparently unrelated charges.[161]
  • December 27: Prosecutor General of Russia Yury Chaika accused Leonid Nevzlin, a former Vice President of Yukos, exiled in Israel and wanted by Russian authorities for a long time, of involvement in the poisoning, a charge dismissed by the latter as a nonsense. [1]

is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yuri B. Shvets (b. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of the Prosecutor General of Russia The Prosecutor General of Russia (also Attorney General of Russia, Russian: ) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known as the Office of the Prosecutor General of Russian Federation (Генеральная прокуратура Российской Федерации). The Office of the Prosecutor General is entrusted with: prosecution in... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Yury Yakovlevich Chaika is the current Prosecutor General of Russia. ... Leonid Nevzlin is a former Russian oligarch and the former CEO of the Russian oil company Yukos. ... Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС) is a petroleum company in Russia which, until recently, was controlled by Russian billionaire Mikhail Khodorkovsky and a number of prominent Russian businessmen. ...

2007

February 2007

  • February 5: Boris Berezovsky told the BBC that on his deathbed, Litvinenko said that Lugovoi was responsible for his poisoning.[162]
  • February 6: The text of a letter written by Litvinenko's widow on 31 January to Putin, demanding that Putin work with British authorities on solving the case, was released. [163]

is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Boris Abramovich Berezovsky (Бори́с Абра́мович Березо́вский) a. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

May 2007

  • May 21: Sir Ken Macdonald QC (Director of Public Prosecutions of England and Wales ) say that Lugovoi, should face trial for the "grave crime" of murdering Litvinenko.
  • May 22: Macdonald announces that Britain will seek extradition of Lugovoi and attempt to charge him with murdering Litvinenko. The Russian government states that they will not allow the extradition of any Russian citizens. [7]
  • May 28: The British Foreign Office formally submits a request to the Russian Government for the extradition of Lugovoi to the UK to face criminal charges. [6]
    • The Constitution of Russia forbids extradition of Russian citizens to foreign countries (Article 61), so the request can not be fulfilled.[8] However Article 63[8] reads:

      2. In the Russian Federation it shall not be allowed to extradite to other States those people who are persecuted for political convictions, as well as for actions (or inaction) not recognized as a crime in the Russian Federation. The extradition of people accused of a crime, and also the handover of convicts for serving sentences in other States shall be carried out on the basis of the federal law or the international agreement of the Russian Federation. May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Ken Macdonald QC is Director of Public Prosecutions of England and Wales [1]. In that office he is ex officio head of the Crown Prosecution Service. ... The Director of Public Prosecutions is the officer charged with the prosecution of criminal offences in several criminal jurisdictions around the world. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... Politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993 replacing the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic following the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993. ...

Therefore Russian citizen can be extradited in the case foreign law agencies provide necessary evidence. If fact extradiction requests had been granted in the past (For example in 2002 Murad Garabayev has been handed to Turkmenistan[164] ) It is not clear how to reconcile Article 61 with Article 63.

  • May 31: Lugovoi held a news conference at which he accused MI6 of attempting to recruit him and blamed either MI6, the Russian mafia, or fugitive Kremlin opponent Boris Berezovsky for the killing. [165]

May 31 is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ...

July 2007

  • July 16: The British Foreign Office confirms that, as a result of Russia's refusal to extradite Lugovoi, four Russian diplomats are to be expelled from the Russian Embassy in London. [166]
  • July 17: The Russia's deputy foreign minister, Mr Alexander Grushko, threatens to expel 80 UK diplomats.[167]
  • July 19: The Russian Foreign ministry spokesman, Mikhail Kamynin, declared the expulsion of 4 UK diplomats from the British Embassy in Moscow.[167]

is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Comparisons to other deaths

Deaths from ingesting radioactive materials

According to the IAEA in 1960 a person ingested 74 MBq of radium (assumed to be 226Ra) and this person died four years later.[168] Harold McCluskey survived 11 years (eventually dying from cardiorespiratory failure) after an intake of at least 37 MBq of 241Am (He was exposed in 1976). It is estimated that he suffered doses of 18 Gy to his bone mass, 520 Gy to the bone surface, 8 Gy to the liver and 1.6 Gy to the lungs; it is also claimed that a post mortem examination revealed no signs of cancer in his body. The October 1983 issue of the journal Health Physics was dedicated to McCluskey, and subsequent papers about him appeared in the September 1995 issue.[169] IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harold R. McCluskey was a chemical operator at the Hanford nuclear weapons plant located in Washington state who is known for having survived exposure to the highest dose of radiation in 1976. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... An autopsy (also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy or obduction) is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination performed on a corpse after death, to evaluate disease or injury that may be present and to determine the cause and manner of a persons death. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Suspicious deaths of people involved in Russian politics

See also: List of journalists killed in Russia

Comparisons have been made to the alleged 2004 poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko, the alleged 2003 poisoning of Yuri Shchekochikhin and the fatal 1978 poisoning of the journalist Georgi Markov by the Bulgarian Committee for State Security. The incident with Litvinenko has also attracted comparisons to the poisoning by radioactive thallium of KGB defector Nikolay Khokhlov and journalist Shchekochikhin of Novaya Gazeta (the Novaya Gazeta interview with the former, coincidentally, prepared by Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya, who was later found shot to death in her apartment building).[170] Like Litvinenko, Shchekochikhin had investigated the Russian apartment bombings (he was a member of the Kovalev Commission that hired Litvinenko's friend Mikhail Trepashkin as a legal counsel). This is list of journalists who have been recently killed in Russia, compiled by Russian-based Glasnost Defence Foundation. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yuri Petrovich Shchekochikhin (Ю́рий Петро́вич Щекочи́хин) (June 9, 1950, Kirovabad - July 3, 2003, Moscow) was a Russian journalist, writer, and liberal lawmaker. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Georgi Ivanov Markov Georgi Ivanov Markov (Bulgarian: ) (March 1, 1929 - September 11, 1978) was a Bulgarian dissident. ... The Committee for State Security (Bulgarian: , Komitet za darzhavna sigurnost; abbreviated КДС, CSS), popularly known as State Security (Държавна сигурност, Darzhavna sigurnost; abbreivtated ДС) was the name of the Bulgarian secret service during the Communist rule of Bulgaria and the Cold War (until 1989). ... Nikolai Khoklov (1922-) was a KGB officer and hitman who defected to the United States in 1953. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (Russian: ; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was Russian journalist and human rights activist well known for her opposition to the Chechen conflict and the Putin administration. ... A red brick apartment block in central London, England, on the north bank of the Thames An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... Sergei Kovalev Sergei Adamovich Kovalev (Russian: ) (born March 2, 1930) is a notable dissident and political prisoner in the former Soviet Union, and a human rights activist and politician in post-Soviet Russia. ... Mikhail Trepashkin, a Moscow attorney and former FSB agent, was invited by MP Sergei Yushenkov to assist in an independent investigation of the Russian apartment bombings in September 1999 – the atrocities that provoked the war in Chechnya and skyrocketed Vladimir Putin to presidency. ... A lawyer, according to Blacks Law Dictionary, is a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person licensed to practice law. ...


Former KGB officer Oleg Gordievsky believes the murders of Zelimkhan Yandarbiev, Shchekochikhin, and Politkovskaya and the incident with Litvinenko show that FSB has returned to the practice of political assassinations,[171] which were conducted in the past by Thirteenth KGB Department.[172] A comparison was also made with Roman Tsepov[173] who was responsible for personal protection of Anatoly Sobchak and Putin, and who died in Russia in 2004 from poisoning by an unknown radioactive substance.[174] Officers of FSB "special forces" liked to use Litvinenko photos for the target practice in shooting galleries, according to Russian journalist Yulia Latynina.[175] Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ... Zelimkhan Abdumuslimovich Yanderbiyev or Yandarbiyev (Russian: Зелимхан Абдумуслимович Яндарбиев) (September 12, 1952 – February 13, 2004) was an acting president of the breakaway Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (1996-1997). ... Emblem of FSB The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organization in Russia, and is the domestic successor organization to the KGB. Its name is an acronym from the Russian Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции) (Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoi Federatsii). ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Roman Igorevich Tsepov (Russian Роман Игоревич Цепов, (July 22, 1962, Kolpino, Leningrad Oblast, USSR – September 24, 2004, Saint-Petersburg) — prominent Saint Petersburg businessmen. ... Official photography of Anatoly Sobchack as Mayor of Saint Petersburg Anatoly Alexandrovich Sobchak (Russian: , August 10, 1937 - February 20, 2000) was a Russian politician, co-author of Constitution of the Russian Federation, first democratically-elected Mayor of Saint-Petersburg and mentor of Vladimir Putin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


References in popular culture

  • Thriller writers Frederick Forsyth and Andy McNab claimed that the killing of Alexander Litvinenko is a classic case of fact being stranger than fiction and that they would be fighting a losing battle if they offered a Litvinenko-style story to a publisher.[181]

Channel 4 is a public-service British television station, broadcast to all areas of the United Kingdom (and also the Republic of Ireland), which began transmissions in 1982. ... Peter Kosminsky is an English Director, Actor and Producer. ... Johnny Depp (born John Christopher Depp II[2] on June 9, 1963, in Owensboro, Kentucky) is an Academy Award-nominated and SAG Awards-winning American actor and for his performances in the films Nightmare on Elm Street (1984), Edward Scissorhands (1990), Whats Eating Gilbert Grape (1993), Ed Wood (1994... Not to be confused with a BBC news magazine program of the same name. ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television. ... Frederick Forsyth. ... Andy McNab DCM MM (born December 28, 1959) is a British former soldier turned novelist. ...

See also

// Poison laboratory of the Soviet secret services, also known as Laboratory 1, Laboratory 12 and The Chamber, was a covert poison research and development facility of the Soviet secret police agencies. ... Active Measures (Russian: Активные мероприятия) are a form of political warfare conducted by the Soviet secret police services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB, GRU, FSB, and SVR) to influence a course of world events [1], in addition to collecting intelligence. ... Extrajudicial punishment is physical punishment without the permission of a court or legal authority, and as such, constitutes a violation of basic human rights (such as those to due process and humane treatment). ... This is a list of criminal (or arguably, allegedly, or potentially criminal) acts involving radioactive substances. ... The definitions of state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism, and state terrorism are controversial. ... Emblem of FSB The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organization in Russia, and is the domestic successor organization to the KGB. Its name is an acronym from the Russian Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции) (Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoi Federatsii). ... Russia depicted as a bear and Britain as a lion eying off an Afghan in the Great Game Ivan IV demonstrates his treasures to the ambassador of Queen Elizabeth Painting by A. Litovchenko from 1875. ...

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The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jamestown Foundation (founded 1984) is an American think tank whose mission is to inform and educate policy makers about events and trends which are current strategic importance to the United States. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... The microgram (symbol µg, sometimes mcg) is an SI unit of mass. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also The New York Times, The Times of India, or The Irish Times. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to 2007. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... FAZ may be an abbreviation for: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, a German newspaper Financial Autonomous Zone, an economic proposal Forces Armées Zaïroises, the former regular army of Zaire (see Military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) Faz can also refer to: Irving Fazola, a Jazz musician Faz (Star... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Since gaining its independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, Russia (formally, the Russian Federation) has faced serious challenges in its efforts to forge a political system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet rule. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sky News is a 24-hour British domestic and international television news and sports-news channel that started broadcasting on 16 February 1989 as part of the then four-channel Sky Television service. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... December 4th redirects here. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ITAR-TASS headquarters in Moscow The Information Telegraph Agency of Russia (ITAR-TASS; Russian: ) is the major news agency of the Russian Federation. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zee News is an Indian Hindi News Channel run by Zee Network. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Interfax is a Russian non-governmental press agency based in Moscow. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Cornell Daily Sun is an independent daily newspaper published in Ithaca, New York by students at Cornell University. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also The New York Times, The Times of India, or The Irish Times. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kommersant (Cyrillic: Коммерса́нтъ) (which literally translates as The Businessman) is a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Russia. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... See also The New York Times, The Times of India, or The Irish Times. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 4th redirects here. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the St. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 4th redirects here. ... Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... December 4th redirects here. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group, Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aftenposten is Norways second largest newspaper with a circulation of 256,600 copies for the morning edition, 155,400 copies for the separate evening edition and 232,900 copies for the Sunday edition in 2003. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Press Gazette, formerly known as UK Press Gazette (UKPG), was for 41 years a British media trade magazine dedicated to journalism and the press. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yahoo! Inc. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also The New York Times, The Times of India, or The Irish Times. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... It has been suggested that Irish Times Trust be merged into this article or section. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Newsru [1] is an online Russian news web site. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Channel 4 is a public-service British television station, broadcast to all areas of the United Kingdom (and also the Republic of Ireland), which began transmissions in 1982. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia since 1992. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... Yahoo! Inc. ... AP may refer to: Andhra Pradesh, A state in the Republic of India Associated Press, an American news agency AP, the United States postal abbreviation for U.S. military personnel in the Pacific Ocean region AP, the U.S. Navy hull classification symbol for transport support ships A&P, the... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RIA (Russian Information Agency) Novosti is a Russian press agency based in Moscow. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (71st in leap years). ... RIA (Russian Information Agency) Novosti is a Russian press agency based in Moscow. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Vanderbilt University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in Nashville, Tennessee. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Maurice Andrew (born 23 July 1941) is a British historian and professor with a special interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... Gardners Books is the largest book wholesaler in the United Kingdom. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington-based think tank whose stated mission is to inform and educate policy makers about events and trends which it regards as being of current strategic importance to the United States. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Novaya Gazeta (Russian: ) is a Russian newspaper. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 2 is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Litvinenko Justice Foundation on Litvinenko.org.uk
  • A review of the technical issues associated with the 210Po poisoning.
  • Downloadable Word document of Alexander Litvinenko's book, "Blowing Up Russia"
  • 60 Minutes & The Second Assassination Of Alexander Litvinenko at LitvinenkoMurder.org
  • The Litvinenko affair: Murder most opaque - The Economist
  • From Russia with lies in Salon.com
  • The Litvinenko Chronicles
  • Terror99 Information on the Russian apartment bombings and books by Alexander Litvinenko
  • Alexander Litvinenko at the Frontline Club accusing Vladimir Putin of the assassination of journalist Anna Politkovskaya (In Russian and English)
  • The article by film-maker Andrei Nekrasov in The Times
  • Watch the Andrei Nekrasov film "Disbelief (Loose change in Russia 1999)" which recounts the book "Blowing up Russia: Terror from within" by Alexander Litvinenko
  • UKIP MEP Gerard Batten reveals some information given to him by Alexander Litvinenko
  • "The Oligarchs"; Former Knesset Member Uri Avnery on how Berezovsky et. al. amassed their wealth
  • Transcript of interview with Boris Berezovsky conducted on behalf of Russian General Prosecutor's Office
  • Transcript of interview with Ahmed Zakayev conducted on behalf of Russian General Prosecutor's Office
  • The Litvinenko Justice Foundation
  • "The Moscow plot"; Excerpt from the book "The Litvinenko File" by former BBC journalist Martin Sixsmith
  • "The Laboratory 12 poison plot"; Another excerpt from the same book
  • An excerpt from the book "Death of a Dissident: The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the KGB" by Alex Goldfarb and Marina Litvinenko
  • Another excerpt from the same book
  • Sir Tony Brenton: “Crisis” the wrong term to describe current British-Russian rift

 
 

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