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Encyclopedia > Alexander Leighton
Alexander Leighton
Born 1587
Scotland, possibly near Montrose
Died 1644 or 1649
Occupation Physician, pamphleteer
Spouse Married twice
Children Robert Leighton, Sapphira, Elisha (later Sir Ellis Leighton)

Alexander Leighton (born 1587 Scotland, died either 1644 or 1649) was a Scottish medical doctor and puritan preacher and pamphleteer, who is best known for his 1630 pamphlet that attacked the Anglican church, and led to his torture by King Charles I. 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Montrose is the name of several places in the world. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... A pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who creates or distributes pamphlets in order to get people to vote for their favourite politician or to articulate a particular political ideology. ... Robert Leighton (1611-1684), son of Dr. Alexander Leighton, was a Scottish prelate. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Laudian reform of the Church of England. ... Preacher is a colloquial term for a clergyman, in particular a local priest, pastor or Minister; one who preaches. ... A pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who creates or distributes pamphlets in order to get people to vote for their favourite politician or to articulate a particular political ideology. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The word torture is commonly used to mean the infliction of pain to break the will of the victim(s). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...

Contents

Early life

Leighton was born in 1587. The Dictionary of National Biography states that he was descended from an ancient family possessed of the estate of Ulysham (Ulishaven) near Montrose in Scotland.[1] 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ... Montrose is the name of several places in the world. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


Whilst his own father was a Roman Catholic, Leighton himself became a Presbyterian and a strong opponent of Catholicism.[2] The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


Medical career

Leighton studied at the University of St Andrews (MA) and Leiden University (MD), where he studied under Professor van Herne.[3] He worked as a medical doctor, but records show that he was prohibited from practice twice: firstly in 1619, and then again in 1626. It is unknown to what extent, if any, these judgements were influenced by his religious views, though they predated the publication (in 1628) of the pamphlet for which he was tortured. St Marys College Bute Medical School Postgraduate Students Affiliations 1994 Group Website www. ... A Master of Arts in Scotland is an undergraduate academic degree in humanities and social sciences awarded by the five ancient universities. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D., from the Latin Medicinæ Doctor) is an academic degree. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ...


On 17 September 1619, Leighton was summoned to a censorial hearing, which took place on the 24 September 1619.[3] The charge was that he had caused the death of a patient, along with other crimes which were taken into account. He was found guilty and barred from further practice. The entry reads: September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ...

L [Leighton], a Scot & a clergyman, had been at Leyden . He claimed to have read all of Galen, especially DE MEDENDI METHODO, but was ignorant on Book IX, phlebotomy, & on temperament. He confessed to practice on one Eglesfield's servant (charged by Pattison), but claimed it was cordial alkermes 7 j water & did not cause death. Blamed surgeon Chapman. Promised not to practise further. He also confessed to making up medicines, but denied taking certain fees (e.g. from Mr Mounson). Many other crimes were taken into account.[3] Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late 19th century, involving the withdrawal of often considerable quantities of blood from a patient in the belief that this would cure or prevent illness and disease. ... In psychology, temperament is the innate aspect of an individuals personality, such as introversion or extroversion. ...

He was found guilty and prohibited from practice for a second time on 7 July 1626, when he "confessed to having practiced for 11 years".[3] On the 5 January 1627, he was arrested for debt. He wished to be licensed and was asked what he would pay as a fine for previous practice. He reluctantly agreed to pay twenty shillings. After this, he moved to Holland for a period between one and three years, during which he published his controversial manuscript. July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Before decimalisation in 1971, a shilling had a value of 12d (old pence), and was equal to 1/20th of a pound: there were 240 (old) pence to the pound. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ...


Religious controversy

Leighton published his controversial pamphlet Zion's plea against Prelacy: An Appeal to Parliament in 1628 in Holland. In this publication, he criticised the church, and in particular the Bishops who then ruled the Church of Scotland, condemning them as "antiChristian and satanic". He was sentenced by Archbishop William Laud's High Commission Court to public whipping, to having the letters 'SS' branded on him (for 'Sower of Sedition'), and having his ears cut off. Medical records say that, "since he had been censured by the Star Chamber on religious grounds (& had had his ears cropped)", that he should now be 'infamis' in his profession, and he was permanently banned from further practice.[3] Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Star Chamber was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that began sessions in 1487 and ended them in 1641 when the court itself was abolished. ... The Star Chamber was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that began sessions in 1487 and ended them in 1641 when the court itself was abolished. ... Infamy, from INFAMIA, the Latin antonym of Fama (fame), means: -a negative reputation (but high profile, in modern speech often considered as a form of celebrity), as in crime, immorality, cruelty . ...


The Star Chamber was used by Charles I as a substitute for Parliament during the eleven years of Personal Rule. He made extensive use of this court to prosecute dissenters, including the Puritans (such as Leighton) using especially brutal punishments. It is the opinion of some that Leighton's persecution and punishment "form one of the most disgraceful incidents of the reign of King Charles I".[4] The Personal Rule refers to the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament. ...


Once the warrant for his arrest was issued by the High Commission Court, Leighton was taken to William Laud's house and then to Newgate prison without any trial. He was put in irons in solitary confinement in an unheated and uncovered cell for fifteen weeks, in which the rain and snow could beat in upon him.[5] None of his friends nor even his wife were permitted to see him during this time. According to four doctors, Leighton was so sick that he was unable to attend his supposed sentencing. Durant noted that Leighton also "was tied to a stake and received thirty-six stripes with a heavy cord upon his naked back; he was placed in the pillory for two hours in November's frost and snow; he was branded in the face, had his nose split and his ears cut off, and was condemned to life imprisonment" (Age of Reason Begins, pp. 189-190).[5] He was only released from jail when his son Robert was ordained as a Minister at Newbattle.[6] Old Newgate Prison, which was replaced in the 18th century. ...


In the end, the Star Chamber's sentence was not carried out in full[1]. The Long Parliament released him from prison in 1640, when they cancelled his fine, and paid him 6000 pounds for his suffering. In 1642, Leighton was appointed Keeper of Lambeth House, which had been converted into a prison. The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ...


Date of death

His date of death is disputed. Some sources believe him to have died in 1649[1], though some sources name the date as 1644[7] [8]. // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...


Family

Leighton was twice married. His first wife and mother of his six children was Scottish. His second wife was the daughter of Sir William Musgrave of Cumberland. Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ...


Leighton had four sons — Robert, Elisha, James, and Caleb — and two daughters — Sapphira and Elizabeth. James, Caleb and Elizabeth did not survive to maturity.[1] His son Robert Leighton became Bishop of Dunblane, Archbishop of Glasgow and Principal of the University of Edinburgh. His son Elisha (later Sir Ellis Leighton) (???-1684) was secretary to John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton when he was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1670 and British Ambassador to France in 1675. Elisha died on 9 January 1684 and his will mentions a daughter Mary. Leighton's daughter Sapphira (sometimes known as Susan) (1623-1704) married Edward Lightmaker of Broadhurst Manor, Sussex.[7] Robert Leighton (1611-1684), son of Dr. Alexander Leighton, was a Scottish prelate. ... Two bishops assist at the Exhumation of Saint Hubert, who was a bishop too, at the église Saint-Pierre in Liège. ... Dunblane (Gaelic: Dùn Bhlàthain) is a small town north of Stirling in the Stirling council area in Scotland. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton (1602 – August 28, 1678) was the fifth and youngest son of Sir Maurice Berkeley. ... The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (also known as the Viceroy or in the Middle Ages as the Lord Deputy) was the head of Englands (pre-1707) or Britains (post 1707) administration in Ireland. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Traditionally, the Embassy to France was the most prestigious posting in the British foreign service, although in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, diplomatic representation was often lacking due to wars between the two countries. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Sussex is a traditional county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ...


See also

Robert Leighton (1611-1684), son of Dr. Alexander Leighton, was a Scottish prelate. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Garland Branch (1980). The Leighton Connection (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  2. ^ Clan Stirling Online (2002). Robert Leighton - Bishop of Dunblane 1661-1670 (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  3. ^ a b c d e British History Online (2007). 'LEIGHTON, Alexander', Physicians and Irregular Medical Practitioners in London 1550-1640: Database (2004) (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  4. ^ NNDB biography - Robert Leighton
  5. ^ a b catholicapologetics.net (2007). Did the High Commission Court Have Any Influence on the KJV? (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  6. ^ Newbattle Focus (2007). A brief biography of Robert Leighton (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  7. ^ a b Julie (family history site) (2002). Osborne (family history) (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  8. ^ Google Answers (2003). London writers circa 1600 AD (html). Retrieved on 2007-01-06.

2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clan Stirling crest Clan Stirling is a Lowland Scottish clan. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • British History Online
  • Google Answers
  • National Portrait Gallery

 
 

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