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Encyclopedia > Alexander III of Russia
Александр III Александрович
Emperor Alexander III
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Painting by Ivan Kramskoi, c. 1886
Reign 13 March 18811 November 1894
Born 10 March 1845(1845-03-10)
St. Petersburg
Died 1 November 1894 (aged 49)
Livadiya, Crimea
Predecessor Alexander II
Successor Nicholas II
Consort Dagmar of Denmark
Issue Nicholas II
Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich
Grand Duke George Alexandrovich
Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna
Royal House House of Romanov
Father Alexander II
Mother Marie of Hesse and by Rhine

Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 18451 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 13 March 1881 until his death in 1894. Ivan Kramskoi (1837-1887) oil on canvas painting Portrait of Alexander III (1845-1894), the Russian Tsar. ... Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi (1837 - 1887) was a Russian painter and the art critic. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Livadiya is a resort located on the Black Sea near Yalta, Ukraine. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian of Glucksburg. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch as a young man in the early 1890s Grand Duke George Alexandrovich Romanov, (In Russian Великий Князь Георгий Александрович Романов), (May 6, 1871 in Tsarskoe Selo - August 9, 1899 in Abbas Tuman, Caucasus) was the third son of Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Xenia of Russia (April 6, 1875 – April 20, 1960) was a member of the Russian Imperial Family. ... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (St. ... The flag of the House of Romanov Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (Russian: ; Olga Alexandrovna Romanova) (June 13, 1882–November 24, 1960) was the last Grand Duchess of Imperial Russia under the reign of her elder brother, Czar Nicholas II. Her father was the reformer of 19th century Russia... The House of Romanov or Romanese (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Early life

Alexander was born at St. Petersburg, the second son of Tsar Alexander II by his wife Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse) . In disposition, he bore little resemblance to his soft-hearted, liberal father, and still less to his refined, philosophic, sentimental, chivalrous, yet cunning great-uncle Alexander I, who coveted the title of "the first gentleman of Europe." Although an enthusiastic amateur musician and patron of the ballet, he was seen as lacking refinement and elegance. Indeed, he rather relished the idea of being of the same rough texture as the great majority of his subjects. His straightforward, abrupt manner savoured sometimes of gruffness, while his direct, unadorned method of expressing himself harmonized well with his rough-hewn, immobile features and somewhat sluggish movements. His education was not such as to soften these peculiarities. He was also noted for his immense physical strength. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (8 August 1824 - 8 June 1880) was a princess of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and, as Maria Alexandrovna (in Russian Мария Александровна), Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Perhaps an account from the memoirs of the artist Alexander Benois best describes an impression of Alexander III: Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois (May 4, 1870, St Petersburg - February 9, 1960, Paris) was probably the most important member of the artistic Benois family. ...

After a performance of the ballet 'Tsar Kandavl' at the Mariinsky Theatre, I first caught sight of the Emperor. I was struck by the size of the man, and although cumbersome and heavy, he was still a mighty figure. There was indeed something of the muzhik [Russian peasant] about him. The look of his bright eyes made quite an impression on me. As he passed where I was standing, he raised his head for a second, and to this day I can remember what I felt as our eyes met. It was a look as cold as steel, in which there was something threatening, even frightening, and it struck me like a blow. The Tsar's gaze! The look of a man who stood above all others, but who carried a monstrous burden and who every minute had to fear for his life and the lives of those closest to him. In later years I came into contact with the Emperor on several occasions, and I felt not the slightest bit timid. In more ordinary cases Tsar Alexander III could be at once kind, simple, and even almost... homely.

Olga Preobrajenskaya as Queen Nisia in the Pas de Venus from the Petipa/Pugni Tsar Kandavl, St. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the...

Rise to Power

During the first twenty years of his life, Alexander had little prospect of succeeding to the throne, because he had an elder brother, Nicholas, who seemed of robust constitution. Even when this elder brother first showed symptoms of delicate health, the notion that he might die young was never seriously taken; Nicholas was betrothed to the charming Princess Dagmar of Denmark. Under these circumstances, the greatest solicitude was devoted to the education of Nicholas as tsarevich, whereas Alexander received only the perfunctory and inadequate training of an ordinary grand-duke of that period, which did not go much beyond secondary instruction, with practical acquaintance in French, English and German, and a certain amount of military drill. Nicholas (Nikolai) Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: ) (September 20, 1843 - April 24, 1865) was Tsarevich of Imperial Russia from March 2, 1855 until his death. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian of Glucksburg. ...


Education

Alexander became heir apparent by the sudden death of his elder brother in 1865. It was then that he began to study the principles of law and administration under Konstantin Pobedonostsev, who was then a professor of civil law at Moscow State University and who later (in 1880) became chief procurator of the Holy Synod. Pobedonostsev awakened in his pupil very little love for abstract studies or prolonged intellectual exertion, but he influenced the character of Alexander's reign by instilling into the young man's mind the belief that zeal for Russian Orthodox thought was an essential factor of Russian patriotism and that this was to be specially cultivated by every right-minded tsar. Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (Константин Иванович Победоносцев in Russian) (1827 - 1907) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and thinker. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Procurator (Russian: , prokuror), an office initially created by Peter The Great of Russia in an effort to bring the Russian Orthodox Church more under his control. ... In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...

Portrait by the artist Georges Becker of the coronation of Tsar Alexander III and Empress Maria Fyodorovna, which took place on May 15/28, 1883 at the Uspensky Sobor Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. On the left of the dais can be seen his young son and heir, the Tsarevich Nicholas, and behind Nicholas can be seen a young Grand Duke George
Portrait by the artist Georges Becker of the coronation of Tsar Alexander III and Empress Maria Fyodorovna, which took place on May 15/28, 1883 at the Uspensky Sobor Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. On the left of the dais can be seen his young son and heir, the Tsarevich Nicholas, and behind Nicholas can be seen a young Grand Duke George

On his deathbed, Alexander's elder brother Nicholas is said to have expressed the wish that his affianced bride, Princess Dagmar of Denmark, should marry his successor. This wish was swiftly realized, when on 9 November 1866, Alexander wed the princess of Denmark. The union proved a most happy one and remained unclouded to the end. Unlike that of his parents, there was no adultery in the marriage. During those years when he was heir-apparent—1865 to 1881—Alexander did not play a prominent part in public affairs, but he allowed it to become known that he had certain ideas of his own which did not coincide with the principles of the existing government. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2032x1384, 846 KB) Portrait by Georges Becker of the coronation of Tsar Alexander III and Empress Mariia Fyodorovna at the Upensky Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, 1883. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2032x1384, 846 KB) Portrait by Georges Becker of the coronation of Tsar Alexander III and Empress Mariia Fyodorovna at the Upensky Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin, 1883. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian of Glucksburg. ... Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow, in winter The Cathedral of the Dormition or Cathedral of the Assumption (in Russian, Uspensky Sobor (Успенский Собор)) is the name of several cathedrals in the world. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch as a young man in the early 1890s Grand Duke George Alexandrovich Romanov, (In Russian Великий Князь Георгий Александрович Романов), (May 6, 1871 in Tsarskoe Selo - August 9, 1899 in Abbas Tuman, Caucasus) was the third son of Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Foreign Relations

Alexander deprecated what he considered undue foreign influence in general, and German influence in particular, so the adoption of genuine national principles was off in all spheres of official activity, with a view to realizing his ideal of a homogeneous Russia—homogeneous in language, administration and religion. With such ideas and aspirations he could hardly remain permanently in cordial agreement with his father, who, though a good patriot according to his lights, had strong German sympathies, often used the German language in his private relations, occasionally ridiculed the exaggerations and eccentricities of the Slavophiles and based his foreign policy on the Prussian alliance. A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ...


The antagonism first appeared publicly during the Franco-Prussian War, when the Tsar supported the cabinet of Berlin and the tsarevich did not conceal his sympathies from the French. It reappeared in an intermittent fashion during the years 1875–1879, when the Eastern question produced so much excitement in all ranks of Russian society. At first the tsarevich was more Slavophile than the government, but his phlegmatic nature preserved him from many of the exaggerations indulged in by others, and any of the prevalent popular illusions he may have imbibed were soon dispelled by personal observation in Bulgaria, where he commanded the left wing of the invading army. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Eastern Question, in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). ... Phlegmatic is a temperament in the theory of the four humours. ...


Never consulted on political questions, he confined himself to his military duties and fulfilled them in a conscientious and unobtrusive manner. After many mistakes and disappointments, the army reached Constantinople and the Treaty of San Stefano was signed, but much that had been obtained by that important document had to be sacrificed at the Congress of Berlin. Prince Bismarck failed to do what was confidently expected of him by the Russian Tsar. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... Bismarck redirects here. ...

Portrait by Nikolay Shilder of Tsar Alexander III
Portrait by Nikolay Shilder of Tsar Alexander III

In return for the Russian support, which had enabled him to create the German empire,[citation needed] it was thought that he would help Russia to solve the Eastern question in accordance with her own interests, but to the surprise and indignation of the cabinet of St Petersburg he confined himself to acting the part of "honest broker" at the congress, and shortly afterwards he ostentatiously contracted an alliance with Austria for the express purpose of counteracting Russian designs in Eastern Europe. The tsarevich could point to these results as confirming the views he had expressed during the Franco-Prussian War, and he drew from them the practical conclusion that for Russia the best thing to do was to recover as quickly as possible from her temporary exhaustion and to prepare for future contingencies by a radical scheme of military and naval reorganization. In accordance with this conviction, he suggested that certain reforms should be introduced. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1788, 359 KB) [edit] Summary en:Nikolay Shilder Alexander III From http://lj. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1788, 359 KB) [edit] Summary en:Nikolay Shilder Alexander III From http://lj. ... The Temptation by Nikolay Shilder Nikolay Gustavovich Shilder (also: Nikolai Schilder, Russian: ; 1828 - 25 March 1898 [O.S. 13 March], Saint-Petersburg) was a Russian painter. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR...


Anti-reforms

During the campaign in Bulgaria he had found by painful experience that grave disorders and gross corruption existed in the military administration, and after his return to St Petersburg he had discovered that similar abuses existed in the naval department. For these abuses, several high-placed personages—among others two of the grand-dukes—were believed to be responsible, and he called his father's attention to the subject. His representations were not favourably received. Alexander II had lost much of the reforming zeal which distinguished the first decade of his reign, and had no longer the energy required to undertake the task suggested to him. The consequence was that the relations between father and son became more strained. The latter must have felt that there would be no important reforms until he himself succeeded to the direction of affairs. That change was much nearer at hand than was commonly supposed. On 13 March 1881 Alexander II was assassinated by a band of Nihilists, Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and the autocratic power passed to the hands of his son. is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nihilist can stand for Philosophic Position. ... Narodnaya Volya (Народная воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ...


In the last years of his reign, Alexander II had been much exercised by the spread of Nihilist doctrines and the increasing number of anarchist conspiracies, and for some time he had hesitated between strengthening the hands of the executive and making concessions to the widespread political aspirations of the educated classes. Finally he decided in favour of the latter course, and on the very day of his death he signed an ukaz, creating a number of consultative commissions which might have been easily transformed into an assembly of notables.


Following advice of his political mentor Konstantin Pobedonostsev, Alexander III determined to adopt the opposite policy. He at once canceled the ukaz before it was published, and in the manifesto announcing his accession to the throne he let it be very clearly understood that he had no intention of limiting or weakening the autocratic power which he had inherited from his ancestors. Nor did he afterwards show any inclination to change his mind. Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (Константин Иванович Победоносцев in Russian) (1827 - 1907) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and thinker. ...

Alexander and his wife Empress Maria Fyodorovna vacationing in Copenhagen in 1893.
Alexander and his wife Empress Maria Fyodorovna vacationing in Copenhagen in 1893.

All the internal reforms which he initiated were intended to correct what he considered as the too liberal tendencies of the previous reign, so that he left behind him the reputation of a sovereign of the retrograde type. In his opinion Russia was to be saved from anarchical disorders and revolutionary agitation, not by the parliamentary institutions and so-called liberalism of western Europe, but by the three principles which the elder generation of the Slavophils systematically recommended—nationality, Eastern Orthodoxy and autocracy. His political ideal was a nation containing only one nationality, one language, one religion and one form of administration; and he did his utmost to prepare for the realization of this ideal by imposing the Russian language and Russian schools on his German, Polish and other non-Russian subjects (with the exception of the Finns), by fostering Eastern Orthodoxy at the expense of other confessions, by persecuting the Jews and by destroying the remnants of German, Polish and Swedish institutions in the outlying provinces. These policies were implemented by "May Laws" that banned Jews from rural areas and shtetls even within the Pale of Settlement. Image File history File links Alexander-Maria. ... Image File history File links Alexander-Maria. ... Maria Feodorovna Romanova, born Princess Dagmar of Denmark (November 26, 1847–October 13, 1928) was Empress Consort of Russia. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... A shtetl (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט, town, pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutiveStädtle, little town) was typically a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: , chertA osEdlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to live near the border with central Europe. ...


In the other provinces he sought to counteract what he considered the excessive liberalism of his father's reign. For this purpose he removed what little power had by zemstvo, an elective local administration resembling the county and parish councils in England, had and placed the autonomous administration of the peasant communes under the supervision of landed proprietors appointed by the government. These came to be known as land captains, who were much feared and resented amongst the peasant communities throughout Russia. At the same time he sought to strengthen and centralize the Imperial administration, and to bring it more under his personal control. Zemstvo was a form of local government instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. ... Main articles: Local government in the United Kingdom, Parish and Civil parish In England parish councils were formed in 1894 to take over local oversight of social welfare and civic duties in towns and villages. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In foreign affairs he was emphatically a man of peace, but not at all a partisan of the doctrine of peace at any price, and he followed the principle that the best means of averting war is to be well prepared for it. Though indignant at the conduct of Prince Bismarck towards Russia, he avoided an open rupture with Germany, and even revived for a time the Three Emperors' Alliance.


It was only in the last years of his reign, when Mikhail Katkov had acquired a certain influence over him, that he adopted towards the cabinet of Berlin a more hostile attitude, and even then he confined himself to keeping a large quantity of troops near the German frontier, and establishing cordial relations with France. With regard to Bulgaria he exercised similar self-control. The efforts of Prince Alexander and afterwards of Stamboloff to destroy Russian influence in the principality excited his indignation, but he persistently vetoed all proposals to intervene by force of arms. Mikhail Nikiforovich Katkov (1818-1887) was a conservative Russian journalist influential during the reign of Alexander III. On finishing his course at the Moscow University Katkov devoted himself to literature and philosophy, and showed so little individuality that during the reign of Nicholas I he never once came into disagreeable... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


In 1887, once again the Peoples Will planned the murder of Tsar Alexander III. Among the conspirators captured were one Aleksandr Ulyanov. Ulyanov was sentenced to death and hanged on May 5, 1887. Alexander Ulyanov was the brother of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, who would later take the pseudonym V.I. Lenin. Alexander Ulyanov Mugshot Aleksandr Ilyich Ulyanov (Александр Ильич Ульянов in Russian) (1866-May 8, 1887) was a Russian revolutionary, one of the leaders of Pervomartovtsi, older brother of V.I. Lenin. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lenin redirects here. ...


In Central Asian affairs he followed the traditional policy of gradually extending Russian domination without provoking a conflict with the United Kingdom, and he never allowed the bellicose partisans of a forward policy to get out of hand. As a whole his reign cannot be regarded as one of the eventful periods of Russian history; but it must be admitted that under his hard, unsympathetic rule the country made considerable progress. He died of nephritis at the Livadia Palace on 1 November 1894 and was buried at the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg. Alexander III was succeeded by his eldest son Nicholas II of Russia. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. ... Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney. ... Livadiya palace used to rival the Vorontsov Castle in Alupka as the most luxurious residence in Crimea. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Nicholas II redirects here. ...


Emperor Alexander and his Danish-born wife regularly spent their summers in their Langinkoski manor near Kotka on the Finnish coast, where their children were immersed in a Scandinavian lifestyle of relative modesty. Langinkoski is a rapid on the Kymi river in Kotka, Finland. ... The centre of Kotka Kotka (Finnish word for Eagle) is a town and municipality of Finland. ...


Tsar Alexander's memorial is located in the city of Irkutsk at the embankment of the Angara river. Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, situated 5,185 kilometers (3,222 mi) by rail from Moscow. ... Angara (Ангара́) is a river, 1840 km (1150 m. ...


Ancestors

Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolaj I Pavlovič), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796 – March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (21 January 1732, Stuttgart-23 December 1797, Hohenheim), the fourth son of Duke Karl Alexander and Maria Augusta Anna of Thurn and Taxis (11 August 1706 - 1 February 1756). ... Roslins portrait of Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, with the Pavlovsk Palace in the background. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (October 16, 1751 – February 25, 1805) was Queen of Prussia as the second wife of Frederick William II of Prussia. ... Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Palace of Peterhoff Alexandra Feodorovna, born Charlotte, Princess of Prusia, July 13, 1798 - November 1, 1860) was Empress consort of Russia . ... Charles II in 1800 Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German: ) (October 10, 1741 - November 6, 1816) was first duke, then grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ... Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (December 15, 1719 – May 13, 1790) was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg. ... Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse (14 June 1753, Prenzlau – 6 April 1830, Darmstadt) was Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (as Louis X) and later the first Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Louis II (26 December 1777, Darmstadt – 16 June 1848, Darmstadt) was Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 1830 until his death. ... Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (8 August 1824 - 8 June 1880) was a princess of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and, as Maria Alexandrovna (in Russian Мария Александровна), Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Grand Duke Karl Friedrich of Baden, painting by Johann Ludwig Kisling, 1806/1807 Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden (November 22, 1728 in Karlsruhe – June 10, 1811 in Karlsruhe) was the son of Hereditary Prince Friedrich of Baden and Anna of Nassau-Dietz-Orange (October 13, 1710 – September 17, 1777... Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden (February 14, 1755 in Karlsruhe--December 16, 1801 in Arboga, Sweden) was heir-apparent of the Margraviate of Baden. ... Princess Wilhelmina of Baden Wilhelmine of Baden (September 21, 1788 – January 27, 1836) was Grand Duchess of Hesse and the Rhine. ... Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (December 15, 1719 – May 13, 1790) was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Issue

Alexander III with wife and their children
Alexander III with wife and their children

Alexander III had six children of his marriage with Princess Dagmar of Denmark, also known as Marie Feodorovna. Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian of Glucksburg. ...


(NB. all dates prior to 1918 are in Old Style Calendar) Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ...

Name Birth Death Notes
Tsar Nicholas II May 6, 1868 July 17, 1918 married 1894, Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine; had issue
Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich June 7, 1869 May 2, 1870  died of meningitis, photographed posthumously [1]
Grand Duke George Alexandrovich May 6, 1871 August 9, 1899  died of tuberculosis; no issue
Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna April 6, 1875 April 20, 1960 married 1894, Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich Romanov; had issue
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich November 22, 1878 c.June 12, 1918 married 1912, Natalya Sergeyevna Wulffert; had issue
Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna June 13, 1882 24 November 1960 married Peter Friedrich Georg, Duke of Oldenburg

Nicholas II redirects here. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Alexandra and her daughters, Olga, Tatiana, Anastasia, and Maria, 1913 Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (German: ) or Saint Alexandra, 6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918, under the title Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (Russian: ), was Empress consort of the Russian Empire and the wife of Nicholas II of Russia, the... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch as a young man in the early 1890s Grand Duke George Alexandrovich Romanov, (In Russian Великий Князь Георгий Александрович Романов), (May 6, 1871 in Tsarskoe Selo - August 9, 1899 in Abbas Tuman, Caucasus) was the third son of Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Grand Duchess Xenia of Russia (April 6, 1875 – April 20, 1960) was a member of the Russian Imperial Family. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Mihailovich of Russia (13 April 1866 - 26 February 1933) was Grand Duke and bother-in-law of Emperor Nicholas II, influential in the soon-to-be-doomed Russian monarchy. ... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (St. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... World War I postcard showing Princess Brasova. ... The flag of the House of Romanov Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (Russian: ; Olga Alexandrovna Romanova) (June 13, 1882–November 24, 1960) was the last Grand Duchess of Imperial Russia under the reign of her elder brother, Czar Nicholas II. Her father was the reformer of 19th century Russia... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • Tsars of Russia family tree

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Bibliography

  1. John F. Hutchinson, Late Imperial Russia: 1890-1917

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alexander III of Russia
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 10 March 1845 Died: 1 November 1894
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alexander II
Emperor of Russia
March 13, 1881November 1, 1894
Succeeded by
Nicholas II
Persondata
NAME Alexander III
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Emperor of Russia
DATE OF BIRTH 10 March 1845(1845-03-10)
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH 1 November 1894
PLACE OF DEATH
Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexander III (of Russia) - MSN Encarta (122 words)
Alexander III (of Russia) (1845-1894), emperor of Russia (1881-1894), who ended the liberal reforms implemented by his father, Alexander II.
In reaction to the assassination of his father, Alexander restored much of the absolutism of the reign of Nicholas I and sternly repressed all revolutionary agitation.
Alexander was succeeded by his son, Nicholas II, who was the last of the Russian tsars.
::Russia of Alexander III:: (788 words)
Russia had a society that was nearly bereft of a typical middle class.
Russia pre-1880 was primarily an agricultural nation with all the social conservatism and superstitions this brought.
Alexander III had an uncompromising view as to the powers that he believed he had as of right of his position.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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