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Encyclopedia > Alexander II of Russia
Tsar Alexander II
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reign March 3, 1855-March 1, 1881
Coronation September 7, 1856
Born April 29, 1818(1818-04-29)
Moscow
Died March 13, 1881 (aged 62)
St. Petersburg
Predecessor Nicholas I
Successor Alexander III
Consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
Issue Grand Duchess Alexandra Alexandrovna
Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich
Tsar Alexander III (Alexandrovich)
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna
Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich
Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich
Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich
Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich
Royal House House of Romanov
Father Nicholas I
Mother Charlotte of Prussia

Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 181813 March 1881 in St. Petersburg) was the Tsar (or Emperor) of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the Grand Duke of Finland and King of Poland until 1867 when it was annexed into the Russian Empire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Alexandra Alexandrovna Romanov, Grand Duchess of Russia (August 30, 1842 - July 10, 1849) was born at Tsarskoe Selo to Alexander II of Russia and Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke of Russia (Russian: ) (20 September [O.S. 8 September] 1843 — 24 April [O.S. 12 April] 1865) was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Imperial Russia, from March 2, 1855 until his death in 1865. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Maria Alexandrovna of Russia Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (17 October 1853–24 October 1920), later the Duchess of Edinburgh and then the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was a daughter of Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress consort Marie of Hesse. ... Velikiy Knjaz Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, in Russian Владимир Александрович / Влади́мирович (22 April 1847 - 17 February 1909). ... His Royal Highness, The Grand Duke Alexis Alexandrovitch Romanov of the Royal Romanov Family of the Great Empire of Russia (14 January 1850- 14 November 1908) was the sixth child and the fourth son of Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov (April 29, 1857 - February 4, 1905, Old Style) was the seventh child and fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress-consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia (Павел Александрович) (October 3, 1860 N.S.–January 24, 1919 N.S.) was the eighth child of Tsar Alexander II of Russia by his first wife Maria Alexandrovna of Hesse. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Princess Charlotte of Prussia (Frederica Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina, July 13, 1798-November 1, 1860) was, as Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress consort of Russia as the wife Nicholas I of Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in 1818, he was the eldest son of Tsar Nicholas I and Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential; until the time of his accession in 1855, few imagined that he would be known to posterity as a leader able to implement the most challenging reforms undertaken in Russia since the reign of Peter the Great. Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Princess Charlotte of Prussia (Frederica Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina, July 13, 1798-November 1, 1860) was, as Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress consort of Russia as the wife Nicholas I of Russia. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ...


In the period of over thirty-six years during which he was heir apparent, the atmosphere of St Petersburg was unfavourable to the development of any intellectual or political innovation. Government was based on principles under which all freedom of thought and all private initiative were, as far as possible, suppressed vigorously. Personal and official censorship was rife; criticism of the authorities was regarded as a serious offence. This was also regarded as one of the reasons which led to his assassination. Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


Under supervision of the liberal poet Vasily Zhukovsky, Alexander received the education commonly given to young Russians of good family at that time: a smattering of a great many subjects, and exposure to the chief modern European languages. He took little personal interest in military affairs. To the disappointment of his father, who was passionate about the military, he showed no love of soldiering. Alexander gave evidence of a kind disposition and a tender-heartedness which were considered out of place in one destined to become a military autocrat. On the publication of Pushkins first major work in 1820, Zhukovsky presented the younger poet with this famous portrait of himself, over the inscription: To the victorious disciple from his vanquished tutor. Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky (29 Jan/9 Feb 1783, Mishenskoe near Tula - 12/24 Apr 1852, Baden-Baden... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ...


Tsar

Alexander succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855. The first year of his reign was devoted to the prosecution of the Crimean War, and after the fall of Sevastopol to negotiations for peace, led by his trusted counselor, Prince Gorchakov. Then he began a period of radical reforms, encouraged by public opinion but carried out with autocratic power. All who had any pretensions to enlightenment declared loudly that the country had been exhausted and humiliated by the war, and that the only way of restoring it to its proper position in Europe was to develop its natural resources and thoroughly to reform all branches of the administration. The government therefore found in the educated classes a new-born public spirit, anxious to assist it in any work of reform that it might think fit to undertake. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Pushkins portrait of Alexander Gorchakov Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (1798-1883) was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. ...

Painting by Mihály Zichy of the coronation of Tsar Alexander II and the Empress Maria Alexandrovna, which took place on August 26/September 7, 1856 at the Dormition Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. The painting depicts the moment of the coronation in which the Tsar crowns his Empress

Fortunately for Russia the autocratic power was now in the hands of a man who was impressionable enough to be deeply influenced by the spirit of the time, and who had sufficient prudence and practicality to prevent his being carried away by the prevailing excitement into the dangerous region of Utopian dreaming. Unlike some of his predecessors, he had no grand, original schemes of his own to impose by force on unwilling subjects, and no pet projects to lead his judgment astray. He looked instinctively with a suspicious, critical eye upon the panaceas which more imaginative and less cautious people recommended. These character traits, together with the peculiar circumstances in which he was placed, determined the part he would play in bringing to fruition the reform aspirations of the educated classes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (8 August 1824 - 8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Maria Alexandrovna (in Russian Марија Александровна), Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow, in winter The Cathedral of the Dormition or Cathedral of the Assumption (in Russian, Uspensky Sobor (Успенский Собор)) is the name of several cathedrals in the world. ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basils Cathedral (often mistaken by westerners as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ...


However, the growth of a revolutionary movement to the "left" of the educated classes led to an abrupt end to Alexander's changes when he was assassinated by a bomb in 1881. It is interesting to note that after Alexander became tsar in 1855, he maintained a generally liberal course at the helm while providing a target for numerous assassination attempts (1866, 1873, 1880). For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Emancipation of the serfs

Though he carefully guarded his autocratic rights and privileges, and obstinately resisted all efforts to push him farther than he felt inclined to go, Alexander for several years acted somewhat like a constitutional sovereign of the continental type. Soon after the conclusion of peace, important changes were made in legislation concerning industry and commerce, and the new freedom thus afforded produced a large number of limited liability companies. Plans were formed for building a great network of railways — partly for the purpose of developing the natural resources of the country, and partly for the purpose of increasing its power for defence and attack. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about a U.S.-specific corporate form; for a general discussion of entities with limited liability, see corporation. ...


Then it was found that further progress was blocked by a formidable obstacle: the existence of serfdom. Alexander showed that, unlike his father, he meant to grapple boldly with this difficult and dangerous problem. Taking advantage of a petition presented by the Polish landed proprietors of the Lithuanian provinces, and hoping that their relations with the serfs might be regulated in a more satisfactory way (meaning in a way more satisfactory for the proprietors), he authorized the formation of committees "for ameliorating the condition of the peasants," and laid down the principles on which the amelioration was to be effected. “Serf” redirects here. ... Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ...

Tsar Alexander II and his wife, Empress Maria, with their son, the future Tsar Alexander III
Tsar Alexander II and his wife, Empress Maria, with their son, the future Tsar Alexander III

This step was followed by one still more significant. Without consulting his ordinary advisers, Alexander ordered the Minister of the Interior to send a circular to the provincial governors of European Russia, containing a copy of the instructions forwarded to the governor-general of Lithuania, praising the supposed generous, patriotic intentions of the Lithuanian landed proprietors, and suggesting that perhaps the landed proprietors of other provinces might express a similar desire. The hint was taken: in all provinces where serfdom existed, emancipation committees were formed. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Alexander III (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ...


The deliberations at once raised a host of important, thorny questions. The emancipation was not merely a humanitarian question capable of being solved instantaneously by imperial ukase. It contained very complicated problems, deeply affecting the economic, social and political future of the nation. Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ...


Alexander had little of the special knowledge required for dealing successfully with such problems, and he had to restrict himself to choosing between the different measures recommended to him. The main point at issue was whether the serfs should become agricultural labourers dependent economically and administratively on the landlords, or whether they should be transformed into a class of independent communal proprietors. The emperor gave his support to the latter project, and the Russian peasantry became one of the last groups of peasants in Europe to shake off serfdom.


The architects of the emancipation manifesto were Alexander's brother Konstantin, Yakov Rostovtsev, and Nikolay Milyutin. On March 3, 1861, the sixth anniversary of his accession, the emancipation law was signed and published. Grand Duke Konstantin of Russia. ... Iakov Ivanovich Rostovtsev (9 January 1804 (O.S. 28 December 1803) – 18 February [O.S. 6 February] 1860) was a leading figure in the formulation of statutes which effectively emancipated the Russian serfs. ... Nikolay Alekseyevich Milyutin (1818—1872) was a Russian statesman remembered as the chief architect of the great liberal reforms undertaken during Alexander IIs reign, including the emancipation of the serfs and the establishment of zemstvo. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Other reforms

Other reforms followed: army and navy re-organization (1874); a new judicial administration based on the French model (1864); a new penal code and a greatly simplified system of civil and criminal procedure; an elaborate scheme of local self-government (Zemstvo) for the rural districts (1864) and the large towns (1870), with elective assemblies possessing a restricted right of taxation, and a new rural and municipal police under the direction of the Minister of the Interior. Alexander II would be the second monarch to abolish capital punishment, a penalty which is still legal (although not practiced) in Russia. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... During the judicial reform of Emperor Alexander II, a completely new court system and a completely new order of legal proceedings were established in Imperial Russia The judicial reform of Alexander II is generally considered one of the most successful and the most consistent (along with the military reform) of... Zemstvo was a form of local government instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in Russia. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


However, the workers wanted better working conditions; national minorities wanted freedom. When radicals began to resort to the formation of secret societies and to revolutionary agitation, Alexander II felt constrained to adopt severe repressive measures. For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ...


Alexander II resolved to try the effect of some moderate liberal reforms in an attempt to quell the revolutionary agitation, and for this purpose he instituted a ukase for creating special commissions, composed of high officials and private personages who should prepare reforms in various branches of the administration. Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ...


Marriages and children

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
an intimate glimpse into the family life of Alexander II (1871)

During his bachelor days, Alexander made a state visit to England in 1838. Just a year older than the young Queen Victoria, Alexander took a liking to his distant cousin. The fondness however, was short-lived. While Victoria married her German cousin, Prince Albert in February 1840, Alexander became a husband the next year. On April 16, 1841 he married Princess Marie of Hesse in St Petersburg, thereafter known as Maria Alexandrovna. The Tsesarevitch claimed to be deeply in love with young princess and vowed to marry no one else. Marie was the legal daughter of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine and Princess Wilhelmina of Baden, although there was a question of whether the Grand Duke or her mother's lover, Baron August von Senarclens de Grancy, was her actual father. Alexander was aware of the question of her paternity. The marriage produced six sons and two daughters: Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Prince Albert piercing Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence Prince Albert of Monaco Prince Albert, Saskatchewan Prince Albert National Park, Canada Prince Albert in a Can This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (26 December 1777 – 16 June 1848) ruled over the Grand Duchy of Hesse from 1830 until his death. ... Wilhelmine of Baden (September 10, 1788--January 27, 1836) was Grand Duchess of Hesse and the Rhine. ... Baron August Ludwig von Senarclens de Grancy (19 August 1794 - 3 October 1871) was born at Schloss Etoy, the son of Baron Cesar August von Senarclens. ... Paternity is the social and legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child. ...

Name Birth Death Notes
Grand Duchess Alexandra Alexandrovna August 30, 1842 July 10, 1849
Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich September 20, 1843 April 24, 1865 engaged to Dagmar of Denmark
Tsar Alexander III March 10, 1845 November 1, 1894 married 1866, Dagmar of Denmark; had issue
Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich April 22, 1847 February 17, 1909 married 1874, Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; had issue
Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich January 14, 1850 November 14, 1908 married 1867/1870, Alexandra Vasilievna Zhukovskaya; had issue
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna October 17, 1853 October 20, 1920 married 1874, Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh; had issue
Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich April 29, 1857 February 4, 1905 married 1884, Elizabeth of Hesse;  
Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich October 3, 1860 January 24, 1919 married 1889, Alexandra of Greece and Denmark; had issue - second marriage 1902, Olga Karnovich; had issue

Alexander had many mistresses during his marriage and fathered 7 known illegitimate children. These included Antoinette Bayer (20 June 1856-24 January 1948) with his mistress Wilhelmine Bayer; Michael-Bogdan Oginski (10 October 1848-25 March 1909) with mistress Countess Olga Kalinovskya (1818-1854); and Joseph Raboxicz. Alexandra Alexandrovna Romanov, Grand Duchess of Russia (August 30, 1842 - July 10, 1849) was born at Tsarskoe Selo to Alexander II of Russia and Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke of Russia (Russian: ) (20 September [O.S. 8 September] 1843 — 24 April [O.S. 12 April] 1865) was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Imperial Russia, from March 2, 1855 until his death in 1865. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian of Glucksburg. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 - October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian of Glucksburg. ... Velikiy Knjaz Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, in Russian Владимир Александрович / Влади́мирович (22 April 1847 - 17 February 1909). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia or Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1890-1958) Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia, known as Miechen or Maria Pavlovna the Elder (May 14, 1854 - September 6, 1920) was born Marie Alexandrine Elisabeth Eleonore of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of... His Royal Highness, The Grand Duke Alexis Alexandrovitch Romanov of the Royal Romanov Family of the Great Empire of Russia (14 January 1850- 14 November 1908) was the sixth child and the fourth son of Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maria Alexandrovna of Russia Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (17 October 1853–24 October 1920), later the Duchess of Edinburgh and then the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was a daughter of Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress consort Marie of Hesse. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Edinburgh (6 August 1844- 30 July 1900), was the second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov (April 29, 1857 - February 4, 1905, Old Style) was the seventh child and fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress-consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... HIH The Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna (Russian: ), (1 November 1864 - 18 July 1918) was a German princess of the Grand Ducal House of Hesse and was the wife of the Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, the fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and Princess Marie of Hesse... His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia (Павел Александрович) (October 3, 1860 N.S.–January 24, 1919 N.S.) was the eighth child of Tsar Alexander II of Russia by his first wife Maria Alexandrovna of Hesse. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Alexandra Georgievna of Russia (Александра Георгиевна), née Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Greece and Denmark (August 30, 1870–September 24, 1891) was daughter of George I of Greece and Olga, Queen of Greece herself daughter of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich of Russia. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Her Serenity Princess Olga Valerianovna Paley (Олга Валериановна Палей) (December 2, 1866–November 2, 1929), was the second wife of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


On July 6, 1880, less than a month after Tsarina Maria's death on June 8, Alexander formed a morganatic marriage with his mistress Princess Catherine Dolgoruki, with whom he already had four children. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... Princess Yekaterina Mikhailovna Dolgorukaya (In Russian Княжна Екатерина Михаиловна Долгорукая) (14 November 1847 - 15 February 1922) Catherine was the daughter of Prince Mikhail Dolgoruky and Vera Visnevskaya. ...

is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Count of Merenberg (German: Graf von Merenberg) is Nassauer the title bestowed upon the wife and the male-line descendants of the morganatic marriage (1868) of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau-Weilburg (1832-1905) and Natalia Alexandrovna Pushkina (1836-1913). ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Suppression of national movements

At the beginning of his reign, Alexander expressed the famous statement "No dreams" addressed for Poles, populating Congress Poland, Western Ukraine, Lithuania, Livonia and Belarus. The result was the January Uprising of 1863-4 that was suppressed after eighteen months of fighting. Thousands of Poles were executed, tens of thousands were deported to Siberia. The price for suppression was Russian support for Prussian-united Germany. Twenty years later, Germany became the major enemy of Russia on continent. Map of Congress Poland. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


All territories of the former Poland-Lithuania were excluded from liberal policies introduced by Alexander. The martial law in Lithuania, introduced in 1863, lasted for the next 50 years. Native languages, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belarusian were completely banned from printed texts, see, e.g., Ems Ukase. The Polish language was banned in both oral and written form from all provinces except Congress Kingdom, where it was allowed in private conversations only. The Commonwealth around 1619 Official languages Polish, Latin Established church Roman Catholic Capital Cracow (until 1596) Warsaw (from 1596) Largest City Gdańsk, later Warsaw Head of state King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania Area about 1 million km² Population about 11 million Existed 1569 - 1795 The Polish... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ems Ukase or Ems Ukaz, named after the city of Bad Ems, Germany, where it was promulgated, was a secret ukase of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... The term Congress Poland is an unofficial name of the Kingdom of Poland, a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ...


Rewarding loyalty and encouraging Finnish nationalism

The monument to Alexander II "The Liberator" at the Senate Square in Helsinki was erected in 1894. The date "1863" refers to the reopening of the Diet of Finland
The monument to Alexander II "The Liberator" at the Senate Square in Helsinki was erected in 1894. The date "1863" refers to the reopening of the Diet of Finland

In 1863 Alexander II re-established the Diet of Finland and initiated several reforms increasing Finland's autonomy from Russia including establishment of own currency, the Markka. Liberation of enterprise lead to increased foreign investment and industrial development. And finally the elevation of Finnish from a language of the common people to a national language equal to Swedish opened opportunities for a larger proportion of the society. Alexander II is still regarded as "The Good Tsar" in Finland. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1133 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander II of Russia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1133 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander II of Russia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Helsinki Senate Square The Senate Square (in Finnish Senaatintori) is a square in the center of Helsinki, presenting unique architecture allegory of political, religious, scientific and commercial powers. ... The Porvoo Diet is opened by Alexander I The Diet of Finland (Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Lantdagar), was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the heir of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Porvoo Diet is opened by Alexander I The Diet of Finland (Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Lantdagar), was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the heir of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999 (in practice on January 1, 2002), when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ...


Alexander's attitude towards Finland could be seen as genuine belief in reforms in that reforms were easier to test in a small, homogeneous country than the whole of Russia. The benevolent treatment of Finland may also be seen as a reward for the loyalty of its relatively western oriented population during the Crimean war and during the Polish uprising. Encouraging Finnish nationalism and language can also be seen as an attempt to weaken the strong ties with Sweden. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Assassination attempts

In 1866 there was an attempt on his life in Petersburg by Dmitry Karakozov. To commemorate his narrow escape from death (that he referred to only as "the event of April 4, 1866"), a number of churches and chapels were built in many Russian cities. Several places in the United States of America have the name Petersburg: Petersburg, Alaska Petersburg, Illinois Petersburg, Indiana Petersburg, Iowa Petersburg, Michigan Petersburg, Nebraska Petersburg, Ohio Petersburg, Virginia Petersburg, West Virginia Slight variations appear in the names of: Petersburgh, New York Saint Petersburg, Russia Saint Petersburg, Florida Petersburg was the... Dmitry Vladimirovich Karakozov (Дмитрий Владимирович Каракозов in Russian) (10. ...


On the morning of April 20, 1879, Alexander II was walking towards the Square of the Guards Staff and faced Alexander Soloviev, a 33 year-old former student. Having seen a revolver in his hands, the Tsar ran away; Soloviev fired five times but missed. He was sentenced to death and hanged on May 28. is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alexander Soloviev (Александр Соловьёв), (born 1846, hanged 1879), was a former student who, on April 20th, 1879, attempted (unsuccessfully) assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia with a revolver. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The student acted on his own, but other revolutionaries were keen to kill Alexander. In December 1879, the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), a radical revolutionary group which hoped to ignite a social revolution, organised an explosion on the railway from Livadia to Moscow, but they missed the Tsar's train. Subsequently, on the evening of February 5, 1880 the same revolutionaries set off a charge under the dining room of the Winter Palace, right in the resting room of the guards a story below. Being late for supper, the Tsar was not harmed, although 67 other people were killed or wounded. The dining room floor was also heavily damaged. Narodnaya Volya (Народная воля in Russian, known as People’s Will in English) was a Russian revolutionary organization in the early 1880s. ... The term social revolution may have different connotations depending on the speaker. ... Livadiya is a suburban district of Yalta, Crimea. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ...


Assassination

After the last assassination attempt, Count Loris-Melikov was appointed the head of the Supreme Executive Commission and given extraordinary powers to fight the revolutionaries. Loris-Melikov's proposals called for some form of parliamentary body, and the Emperor seemed to agree; these plans were never realized as on March 13 (March 1 Old Style Date), 1881 Alexander fell victim to an assassination plot. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1664x2496, 2060 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander II of Russia ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1664x2496, 2060 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander II of Russia ... The new Monument to Alexander II in front of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow The Monument to Alexander II, officially called the Monument to Emperor Alexander II, the Liberator Tsar, is a memorial of Emperor Alexander II of Russia, situated in the immediate surroundings of the Cathedral... View of the cathedral in 1905 The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Russian: Храм Христа Спасителя) is the largest Orthodox church in the world. ... Michael Tarielovich, Count Loris-Melikov (1825? - 1888), Russian statesman, son of an Armenian merchant, was born at Tiflis in 1825 or 1826, and educated in St Petersburg, first in the Lazarev School of Oriental Languages, and afterwards in the Guards Cadet Institute. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


As he had done every Sunday for a score of years, the tsar went to the Manege to review the Life Guards of the Reserve Infantry and the Life Guards of the Sapper Battalion regiments. He traveled both to and from the Menege in a closed carriage accompanied by six Cossacks with a seventh sitting on the coachman's left. The tsar's carriage was followed by two sleighs carrying, among other, the chief of police and the chief of the tsar's guards. The route, as always, was via the Catherine Canal and over the Pevchesky Bridge. This article needs cleanup. ...


The street was flanked by narrow sidewalks on both the right and left side. A short young man wearing a heavy black overcoat edged towards the imperial carriage making its way down the street. He was carrying a small white package wrapped in a handkerchief. The youth was Nikolai Rysakov, Rysakov, Nikolai (Рысаков, Николай Иванович in Russian)(1861 - 1881), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya. ...

"After a moment's hesitation I threw the bomb. I sent it under the horses' hooves in the supposition that it would blow up under the carriage...The explosion knocked me into the fence."[1]

The explosion, while killing one of the Cossacks and seriously wounding the driver and people on the sidewalk, several critically, had only damaged the carriage. The tsar emerged shaken but unhurt. Rysakov was captured almost immediately. Police Chief Dvorzhitsky heard Rysakov shout out to someone in the gathering crowd. Realizing there was another (if not more than one) bomber near by he urged the tsar to leave the area at once. Alexander agreed to do so but only after he had been shown the site of the explosion. Completely surrounded by the guards and the Cossacks, the tsar made his way over the hole in the street. It was then a young man, Ignacy Hryniewiecki, standing by the canal fence, raised up both arms and threw something at the tsar's feet. Dvorzhitsky was later to write: Ignacy Hryniewiecki (Игнатий Гриневицкий in Russian, or Ignatiy Grinevitskiy) (August of 1855, or fall of 1856 - 1881), Polish-Russian revolutionary, murderer of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. ...

The Church of the Savior on Blood commemorates the spot where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated
The Church of the Savior on Blood commemorates the spot where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated

"I was deafened by the new explosion, burned, wounded and thrown to the ground. Suddenly, amid the smoke and snowy fog, I heard His Majesty's weak voice cry, 'Help!' Gathering what strength I had, I jumped up and rushed to the tsar. His Majesty was half-lying, half-sitting, leaning on his right arm. Thinking he was merely wounded heavily, I tried to lift him but the tsar's legs were shattered, and the blood poured out of them. Twenty people, with wounds of varying degree, lay on the sidewalk and on the street. Some managed to stand, others to crawl, still others tried to get out from beneath bodies that had fallen on them. Through the snow, debris, and blood you could see fragments of clothing, epaulets, sabers, and bloody chunks of human flesh."[2] personal collection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... personal collection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Church as seen from Griboedov Canal. ...

Later it was learned there was a third bomber in the crowd. Ivan Emelyanov stood ready, clutching a briefcase containing a bomb that would be used if the other two bombs, and bombers, failed.


Alexander was carried by sleigh to the Winter Palace, up the marble staircase, a trail of blood in his wake, and in to his study where, twenty-five years before almost to the date, he had signed the Emancipation Edict freeing the serfs. Alexander with both legs destroyed, was bleeding to death. Members of the Romanov family came rushing to the scene. One of them was the quiet, sensitive thirteen year old boy named Nicky, elder son of the heir-apparent Alexander; the boy would grow up to be tsar in his own right, Nicholas II. Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ...


The dying tsar was given Communion and Extreme Unction. There was nothing to do now but wait. When asked how long it would be, the attending physician Dr. S.P. Borkin replied, "Up to fifteen minutes"[3] At 3:30 that day the standard of Alexander II was lowered for the last time.


The assassination also caused a great setback for the reform movement. One of Alexander II's last ideas was to draft up plans for an elected parliament, or Duma, which were completed the day before he died but not yet released to the Russian people. The first action Alexander III took after his coronation was to tear up those plans. A Duma would not come into fruition until 1905, by Alexander II's grandson, Nicholas II, who commissioned the Duma following heavy pressure on the monarchy by the Russian Revolution of 1905. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


A second consequence of the assassination was anti-Jewish pogroms and legislation, deriving in part from the fact that one of those implicated in the assassination, Gesya Gelfman, was of Jewish origin. The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Gesya Mironovna Gelfman (Гельфман, Геся Мироновна in Russian) (between 1852 and 1855 — 2. ...


A third consequence of the assassination was that supression of civil liberties in Russia and police brutality burst back with a full force after experiencing some restraint under the reign of Alexander II. Alexander II's murder and subsequent death was witnessed firsthand by his son, Alexander III, and his grandson, Nicholas II, both future Tsars, who vowed not to have the same fate befall them. Both used the Okhrana to arrest protestors and uproot suspected rebel groups, creating further supression of personal freedom for the Russian people.
January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Ancestors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Peter III of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Anna Petrovna of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Paul I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Catherine II of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Johanna Elisabeth, Princess of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Nicholas I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Maria Augusta Anna of Thurn and Taxis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Sophie Dorothea of Württemburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Friedrich Wilhelm, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Sophie Dorothea Marie, Princess of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Alexander II of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Prince Augustus William of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Frederick William II of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Louise Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Frederick William III of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Karoline of Zweibrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Charlotte of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Friederike Caroline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Maria of Leiningen-Dagsburg
 
 
 
 
 
 

Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (German: ), (1700-1739) was the son of Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Hedvig Sophia of Sweden. ... Grand Duke Peter, 1753, by Alexei Antropov Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Федорович or Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Portrait by Ivan Nikitin Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia (Russian: ; 27 January 1708, Moscow – 4 March 1728, Kiel) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Catherine I of Russia. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Karl I Alexander, Duke of Württemberg (24 May 1684 - 12 March 1737) was the eldest son of Friedrich Karl, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental and Eleanore Juliane, Princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach . ... Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (21 January 1732, Stuttgart-23 December 1797, Hohenheim), the fourth son of Duke Karl Alexander and Maria Augusta Anna of Thurn and Taxis (11 August 1706 - 1 February 1756). ... Roslins portrait of Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, with the Pavlovsk Palace in the background. ... Princess Sophia Dorothea with her husband Friedrich Wilhelm, by Antoine Pesne Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia (German:Sophia Dorothea Marie von Preußen) (born Berlin, 25 January 1719; died Schwedt, 13 November 1765) was the ninth child and fifth daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of... Augustus William (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722, Berlin – 12 June 1758, Oranienburg), Prince of Prussia, was the second son of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Louise Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1722-1780) was daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (December 15, 1719 – May 13, 1790) was a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg. ... Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (October 16, 1751 – February 25, 1805) was Queen of Prussia as the second wife of Frederick William II of Prussia. ... Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Palace of Peterhoff Alexandra Feodorovna, born Charlotte, Princess of Prusia, July 13, 1798 - November 1, 1860) was Empress consort of Russia . ... Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Strelitz, February 23, 1708 - Mirow, June 5, 1752) was the second son of the Prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and father of Queen Charlotte of England. ... Charles II in 1800 Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German: ) (October 10, 1741 - November 6, 1816) was first duke, then grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... Princess Elizabeth Albertine Princess of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Duchess in Saxony (4 August 1713 - 29 June 1761) was a member of the reigning family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz during the 18th century. ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ...

Gallery

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 495 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1445 × 1750 pixel, file size: 499 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Potrait by unknown of Tsar Alexander II, circa 1865. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 3832 KB) Monument to the Tsar Liberator, Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The Monument to the Tsar Liberator in front of the Radisson SAS hotel. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... In Bulgarian historiography, the term Liberation of Bulgaria is used to denote the events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 that led to the establishment of a Bulgarian state with the Treaty of San Stefano of 3 March 1878. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (974x715, 269 KB) 19th-century postcard representing a monument to Alexander II in Chestochowa, Poland. ... Medieval Jasna Góra Monastery The Jasna Góra Monastery (Polish: Jasna Góra, Hungarian: Fényes Hegy, Latin: Clarus Mons, English: Bright Hill) is a Pauline Fathers monastery in the City of CzÄ™stochowa, Poland. ...

References

  1. ^ Radzinsky, Edvard, Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar,(Freepress 2005) p. 413
  2. ^ Ibid.p.415
  3. ^ Ibid. 419
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Moss, Walter G., Alexander II and His Times: A Narrative History of Russia in the Age of Alexander II, Tolstoy, and Dostoevsky. London: Anthem Press, 2002 (available online)
  • Radzinsky, Edvard, Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar. New York: The Free Press, 2005

Edvard Radzinsky (Russian: ) (b. ... In the modern age, the free press has taken on multiple meanings. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alexander II of Russia
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Alexander II Nikolaevitch
Alexander II of Russia
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 17 April 1818 Died: 13 March 1881
Russian royalty
Preceded by
Nicholas I
Emperor of Russia
March 2, 1855March 13, 1881
Succeeded by
Alexander III
Persondata
NAME Alexander II
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Nikolaevich, Aleksandr II
SHORT DESCRIPTION Emperor of Russia
DATE OF BIRTH April 17, 1818(1818-04-17)
PLACE OF BIRTH Moscow
DATE OF DEATH March 13, 1881
PLACE OF DEATH St. Petersburg

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexander II of Russia - LoveToKnow 1911 (2287 words)
(1818-1881), emperor of Russia, eldest son of Nicholas I., was born on the 29th of April 18 i 8.
Fortunately for Russia the autocratic power was now in the hands of a man who was impressionable enough to be deeply influenced by the spirit of the time, and who had sufficient prudence and practical common-sense to prevent his being carried away by the prevailing excitement into the dangerous region of Utopian dreaming.
Russia required, it was said, not classical scholars, but practical, scientific men, capable of developing her natural resources.
Alexander II of Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1978 words)
Born in 1818, he was the eldest son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Alexander II resolved to try the effect of some moderate liberal reforms in an attempt to quell the revolutionary agitation, and for this purpose he instituted a ukase for creating special commissions, composed of high officials and private personages who should prepare reforms in various branches of the administration.
On the morning of April 20, 1879, Alexander II was walking towards the Square of the Guards Staff and faced Alexander Soloviev, a 33 year-old former student.
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