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Encyclopedia > Alexander I of Russia
Emperor Alexander I
Александр I Павлович
Aleksandr I Pavlovich
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reign March 23, 1801December 1, 1825
Coronation March 23, 1801
Titles Grand Duke of Finland
King of Poland
Born December 23, 1777(1777-12-23)
St Petersburg
Died December 1, 1825 (aged 47)
Taganrog
Buried Unknown (believed interred at Peter and Paul Fortress, his tomb was found to be empty)
Predecessor Paul I
Successor Nicholas I
Consort Louise of Baden
Issue Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna
Grand Duchess Elizabeth Alexandrovna
Zenaida Naryshkina
Sophia Naryshkina
Emanuel Naryshkin
Royal House House of Romanov
Father Paul I
Mother Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg

Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 439 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (751 × 1026 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Empress Elisabeth Alexeievna of Russia (in Russian, Elisaveta Alexeievna), born Louise Marie Auguste, Princess of Baden of the House of Zähringen (24 January 1779 - 4 May (O.S.) = 16 May (N.S.), 1826) was a daughter of Prince Karl Ludwig of Baden and Amalia of Hesse-Darmstadt. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, by Swedish artist Alexander Roslin. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ...


He was born in Saint Petersburg[1] to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I, and Maria Feodorovna, daughter of the Duke of Württemberg. Alexander succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered, and ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. In the first half of his ruling Alexander tried to introduce liberal reforms, while in the second half he turned to a much more arbitrary manner of conduct, which led to the abolishing of many early reforms. In foreign policy Alexander gained certain success, having won several campaigns. In particular under his rule Russia acquired Finland and part of Poland. The strange contradictions of his character make Alexander one of the most interesting Tsars. Adding to this, his death was shrouded in mystery, and location of his body remains unknown. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, by Swedish artist Alexander Roslin. ... Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (21 January 1732, Stuttgart-23 December 1797, Hohenheim), the fourth son of Duke Karl Alexander and Maria Augusta Anna of Thurn and Taxis (11 August 1706 - 1 February 1756). ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...

Contents

Early life

Soon after his birth on December 23, 1777, Alexander was taken from his father, Paul I of Russia, by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, who utterly disliked Paul and did not want him to have any influence on the education of the future emperor. Some sources allege that she created the plan to remove Paul from succession altogether. Both sides tried to use Alexander for their own purposes and he was torn emotionally between his grandmother and his father, the heir to the throne. This taught Alexander very early on how to manipulate those who loved him, and he became a natural chameleon, changing his views and personality depending on whom he was with at the time. Reared in the free-thinking atmosphere of the court of Catherine, he had imbibed the principles of Rousseau's gospel of humanity from his Swiss tutor, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, and the traditions of Russian autocracy from his military governor, Nikolay Saltykov. Andrey Afanasyevich Samborsky, whom his grandmother chose for his religious upbringing, was an atypical, unbearded Orthodox priest, who had long lived in England and taught Alexander (and his younger brother Constantine) excellent English. Young Alexander sympathised with French and Polish revolutionaries, however, his father seems to have taught him to combine a theoretical love of mankind with a practical contempt for men. These contradictory tendencies remained with him through life and are observed in his dualism in domestic and military policy. is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... La Harpe Frédéric-César de La Harpe (born 6 April 1754 in Rolle, Switzerland, died 30 March 1838 in Lausanne), Swiss politician. ... Count Nikolay Ivanovich Saltykov (31 October, 1736 - ) was a Russian Field Marshal and imperial courtier. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising 1794 The KoÅ›ciuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ... This article is about modern humans. ... In government, domestic policy is the counterpart of foreign policy; it consists of all government policy decisions, programs, and actions that primarily deal with internal matters, as opposed to relations with other nation-states. ...


On October 9, 1793 when Alexander was still 15 years old, he married 14 year old Louise of Baden. Meanwhile, the death of Catherine in November 1796 before she could appoint Alexander as her successor, brought his father, Paul I, to the throne. Paul's attempts at reform were met with hostility and many of his closest advisers as well as Alexander were against his proposed changes. Paul I was murdered in March, 1801. is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Empress Elisabeth Alexeievna of Russia (in Russian, Elisaveta Alexeievna), born Louise Marie Auguste, Princess of Baden of the House of Zähringen (24 January 1779 - 4 May (O.S.) = 16 May (N.S.), 1826) was a daughter of Prince Karl Ludwig of Baden and Amalia of Hesse-Darmstadt. ...


Succession to the throne

Alexander I succeeded to the throne on 23 March 1801, and was crowned in the Kremlin on September 15 of that year. Historians still debate about Alexander’s role in this murder. The most common opinion is that he was in favour of taking the throne but insisted that his father should not be killed. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... This article is about Russian citadels. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ...


At first, indeed, this exercised little influence on the Emperor's life. The young czar was determined to reform the outdated, centralised systems of government that Russia relied upon. While retaining for a time the old ministers who had served and overthrown the Emperor Paul, one of the first acts of his reign was to appoint the Private Committee, also called ironically the "Comité de salut public", comprising young and enthusiastic friends of his own - Victor Kochubey, Nikolay Novosiltsev, Pavel Stroganov and Adam Jerzy Czartoryski - to draw up a scheme of internal reform, which was supposed to result in an establishing of constitutional monarchy in accordance with teachings of the Age of Enlightenment. Also Alexander wanted to resolve another crucial issue in Russia - the future of the serfs, although this was not achieved until 1861. Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... Privy Committee (Негласный комитет in Russian) was an unofficial consultative body during the reign of Alexander I in Russia. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... Count Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey Russian: (1768-1834) is Russian statesman and a close aide of Alexander I of Russia. ... Count Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltsev (Russian: ) (1761-1836) is Russian statesman and a close aide to Alexander I of Russia. ... Count Pavel Alexandrovich Stroganov (Russian: ) (June 7, 1774 - June 10, 1817) was Russian military commander and statesman, Lieutenant General, Adjutant General to Alexander I of Russia. ... Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, in English: Adam George Czartoryski (January 14, 1770 — July 15, 1861), Polish szlachcic, statesman and author, son of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and Izabela Fleming (it is rumoured he was a fruit of her liaison with Russian ambassador to Poland Nikolai Repnin[1]). He was known... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... The Enlightenment, also known as The Age of Enlightenment French: ; German: ; Spanish: ;Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ...


In the very beginning of Alexander's rule several notable steps were made, including establishing freedom for publishing houses, the winding down of activities in the intelligence services and prohibition of torture. Several years later the liberal Mikhail Speransky became one of the Tsar's closest advisors, and drew up many plans for elaborate reforms. Their aims, inspired by their admiration for English institutions, far outstripped the possibilities of the time, and even after they had been raised to regular ministerial positions little of their programme could come to pass. Russia was not ready for a more liberal society; and Alexander, the disciple of the progressive teacher Laharpe, was—as he himself said—but "a happy accident" on the throne of the tsars. He spoke, indeed, bitterly of "the state of barbarism in which the country had been left by the traffic in men." 1. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky (1772-1839) was probably the greatest of Russian reformers in the period between Peter the Great and Alexander the Liberator. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Barbarism may refer to: Barbarism (derived from barbarian), the condition to which a society or civilization may be reduced after a societal collapse, relative to an earlier period of cultural or technological advancement; the term may also be used pejoratively to describe another society or civilization which is deemed inferior...


Legal reform

Bust of Alexander I, by Thorvaldsen.
Bust of Alexander I, by Thorvaldsen.

The codification of the laws initiated in 1801 was never carried out during his reign; nothing was done to improve the intolerable status of the Russian peasantry; the constitution drawn up by Mikhail Speransky, and passed by the emperor, remained unsigned. Finally elaborate intrigues against Speransky initiated by his political rivals led to the loss of support of Alexander and subsequent removal in March 1812. Image File history File links Bust of Alexander I of Russia, by Thorvaldsen, from the Hermitage Museum (1820s). ... Image File history File links Bust of Alexander I of Russia, by Thorvaldsen, from the Hermitage Museum (1820s). ... Bertel Thorvaldsen, portrait by Karl Begas, c. ... Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky (1772-1839) was probably the greatest of Russian reformers in the period between Peter the Great and Alexander the Liberator. ...


Alexander, in fact, who, without being consciously tyrannical, possessed in full measure the tyrant's characteristic distrust of men of ability and independent judgement, lacked also the first requisite for a reforming sovereign: confidence in his people; and it was this want that vitiated such reforms as were actually realised. He experimented in the outlying provinces of his Empire; and the Russians noted with open murmurs that, not content with governing through foreign instruments, he was conferring on Poland, Finland and the Baltic provinces benefits denied to themselves. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... The Baltic Provinces were the provinces of the Russian Empire on the territory which is now Baltic States. ...


Social reforms

In Russia, too, certain reforms were carried out, but they could not survive the suspicious interference of the autocrat and his officials. The State Council under the Governing Senate, endowed for the first time with certain theoretical powers, became slavish instruments of the Tsar and his favourites of the moment. The early Russian system of government instated by Peter the Great, which consisted of various state committees, each named College with subordinate departments named Prikaz, was largely outdateby by 1800s. ... Count Mikhail Mikhailovich Speransky (1772-1839) was probably the greatest of Russian reformers in the period between Peter the Great and Alexander the Liberator. ... The State Council (Государственный Совет) was the supreme state advisory body to Tsar in Imperial Russia. ... The Governing Senate (Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of Russian Monarchs, instated by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very...


The elaborate system of education, culminating in the reconstituted, or newly founded, universities of Dorpat (Tartu), Vilna (Vilnius), Kazan and Kharkov, was strangled in the supposed interests of "order" and of the Russian Orthodox Church; while the military settlements which Alexander proclaimed as a blessing to both soldiers and state were forced on the unwilling peasantry and army with pitiless cruelty. Though they were supposed to improve living conditions of soldiers, the economic effect in fact was poor and harsh military discipline caused frequent unrest. For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Image of Tartu street Tartu (German, Polish Dorpat, Russian Юpьeв Yuryev) is the second largest city of Estonia, with its population of 101,246 (the Population Census data is from 2000) in an area of 38. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Military settlements (Russian: Военные поселения) represented a special organization of the Russian military forces in 1810-1857, which allowed the combination of military service and agricultural employment. ...


After becoming a Christian the Emperor gave great support to the Bible Society, which provided bibles for the poor. The Emperor saw it as a great blessing to the people but the Roman Catholic Archbishop and the Orthodox Metropolitans regarded it as a work of the Devil. They were forced to serve on its committee side by side with Protestant pastors; even though they regarded any tampering with the letter of the traditional documents of the Church as mortal sin. Catholic Church redirects here. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A pastor is an... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... According to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, a mortal sin is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ...


Influence on European politics

Views held by his contemporaries

Autocrat and "Jacobin", man of the world and mystic, he appeared to his contemporaries as a riddle which each read according to his own temperament. Napoleon I thought him a "shifty Byzantine", and called him the Talma of the North, as ready to play any conspicuous part. To Metternich he was a madman to be humoured. Castlereagh, writing of him to Lord Liverpool, gives him credit for "grand qualities", but adds that he is "suspicious and undecided". Alexander's grandiose imagination was, however, more strongly attracted by the great questions of European politics than by attempts at domestic reform which, on the whole, wounded his pride by proving to him the narrow limits of absolute power. In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Byzantine Empire acquired a negative reputation among historians of the 18th and 19th century not only for the complexity of the organization of its ministries and the elaborateness of its court ceremonies (from this came the term still in modern use, Byzantine, often used pejoratively to describe any work... François Joseph Talma (January 15, 1763 - 1826) was a French actor. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era. ... Lord Castlereagh Foreign Secretary 1812–1822 Robert Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Londonderry, KG, GCH, PC (18 June 1769 in Dublin – 12 August 1822 at Loring Hall, Kent), known until 1821 by his courtesy title of Viscount Castlereagh, was an Anglo-Irish politician born in Dublin who represented the United Kingdom...


Alliances with other powers

Upon his accession, Alexander reversed the policy of his father, Paul, denounced the League of Neutrals, and made peace with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (April 1801). At the same time he opened negotiations with Francis II of the Holy Roman Empire. Soon afterwards at Memel he entered into a close alliance with Prussia, not as he boasted from motives of policy, but in the spirit of true chivalry, out of friendship for the young King Frederick William III and his beautiful wife Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Prussia (German: König von Preußen); they were members of the Hohenzollern family. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ...


The development of this alliance was interrupted by the short-lived peace of October 1801; and for a while it seemed as though France and Russia might come to an understanding. Carried away by the enthusiasm of Laharpe, who had returned to Russia from Paris, Alexander began openly to proclaim his admiration for French institutions and for the person of Napoléon Bonaparte. Soon, however, came a change. Laharpe, after a new visit to Paris, presented to the Tsar his Reflections on the True Nature of the Consul for Life, which, as Alexander said, tore the veil from his eyes, and revealed Bonaparte "as not a true patriot", but only as "the most famous tyrant the world has produced." Alexander's disillusionment was completed by the murder of the duc d'Enghien. The Russian court went into mourning for the last member of the House of Condé, and diplomatic relations with France were broken off. This article is about the capital of France. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc dEnghien (August 22, 1772 – March 21, 1804) was a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France, and is more famous for his death than his life. ... Prince of Condé (named after Condé-en-Brie, in the Aisne département) is a title in French peerage, originally granted to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ...


Opposition to Napoleon

The events of the Napoleonic Wars that followed belong to the general history of Europe; but Alexander's attitude throughout is personal to himself, though pregnant with issues momentous for the world. In opposing Napoleon I, "the oppressor of Europe and the disturber of the world's peace," Alexander in fact already believed himself to be fulfilling a divine mission. In his instructions to Novosiltsov, his special envoy in London, the Tsar elaborated the motives of his policy in language which appealed as little to the common sense of the prime minister, Pitt, as did later the treaty of the Holy Alliance to that of the foreign minister, Castlereagh. Yet the document is of great interest, as in it we find formulated for the first time in an official dispatch those exalted ideals of international policy which were to play so conspicuous a part in the affairs of the world at the close of the revolutionary epoch, and issued at the end of the 19th century in the Rescript of Nicholas II and the conference of the Hague. The outcome of the war, Alexander argued, was not to be only the liberation of France, but the universal triumph of "the sacred rights of humanity". To attain this it would be necessary "after having attached the nations to their government by making these incapable of acting save in the greatest interests of their subjects, to fix the relations of the states amongst each other on more precise rules, and such as it is to their interest to respect." Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... The Holy Alliance was a coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, signed by the three powers in Vienna on September 26, 1815. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province South Holland of which it is also the capital. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


A general treaty was to become the basis of the relations of the states forming "the European Confederation"; and this, though "it was no question of realising the dream of universal peace, would attain some of its results if, at the conclusion of the general war, it were possible to establish on clear principles the prescriptions of the rights of nations." "Why could not one submit to it", the Tsar continued, "the positive rights of nations, assure the privilege of neutrality, insert the obligation of never beginning war until all the resources which the mediation of a third party could offer have been exhausted, having by this means brought to light the respective grievances, and tried to remove them? It is on such principles as these that one could proceed to a general pacification, and give birth to a league of which the stipulations would form, so to speak, a new code of the law of nations, which, sanctioned by the greater part of the nations of Europe, would without difficulty become the immutable rule of the cabinets, while those who should try to infringe it would risk bringing upon themselves the forces of the new union."


1807 loss to French forces

Equestrian portrait of Alexander I (1812)
Equestrian portrait of Alexander I (1812)

Meanwhile Napoleon, a little deterred by the Russian autocrat's youthful ideology, never gave up hope of detaching him from the coalition. He had no sooner entered Vienna in triumph than he opened negotiations with him; he resumed them after the Battle of Austerlitz (December 2, 1805). Imperial Russia and France, he urged, were "geographical allies"; there was, and could be, between them no true conflict of interests; together they might rule the world. But Alexander was still determined "to persist in the system of disinterestedness in respect of all the states of Europe which he had thus far followed", and he again allied himself with the Kingdom of Prussia. The campaign of Jena and the battle of Eylau followed; and Napoleon, though still intent on the Russian alliance, stirred up Poles, Turks and Persians to break the obstinacy of the Tsar. A party too in Russia itself, headed by the Tsar's brother Constantine Pavlovich, was clamorous for peace; but Alexander, after a vain attempt to form a new coalition, summoned the Russian nation to a holy war against Napoleon as the enemy of the Orthodox faith. The outcome was the rout of Friedland (June 13/14, 1807). Napoleon saw his chance and seized it. Instead of making heavy terms, he offered to the chastened autocrat his alliance, and a partnership in his glory. Image File history File links Franz Kruger. ... Image File history File links Franz Kruger. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Jefferson. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... , For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Commanders Napoleon I General Bennigsen General LEstocq Strength 45,000 men, 200 cannons[2] 67,000 men, 460 cannons[2] Casualties Up to 25,000 (see text) Up to 25,000 (see text) The Battle of Eylau or Battle of... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... Friedland is the name of several locations the city Friedland in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany the city Friedland in Brandenburg, Germany the municipality Friedland in Lower Saxony, Germany the old German name of the city Pravdinsk in former East Prussia (now Kaliningrad Oblast) This is a disambiguation page — a...


The two Emperors met at Tilsit on 25 June 1807. Alexander, dazzled by Napoleon's genius and overwhelmed by his apparent generosity, was completely won over. Napoleon knew well how to appeal to the exuberant imagination of his new-found friend. He would divide with Alexander the Empire of the world; as a first step he would leave him in possession of the Danubian principalities and give him a free hand to deal with Finland; and, afterwards, the Emperors of the East and West, when the time should be ripe, would drive the Turks from Europe and march across Asia to the conquest of India. A programme so stupendous awoke in Alexander's impressionable mind an ambition to which he had hitherto been a stranger. The interests of Europe were forgotten. "What is Europe?" he exclaimed to the French ambassador. "Where is it, if it is not you and we?" A railway bridge in Tilsit Sovetsk (Советск) is a town on the Neman River in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, which prior to 1945 was known by its German name, Tilsit, and was in East Prussia. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...


Prussia

The brilliance of these new visions did not, however, blind Alexander to the obligations of friendship; and he refused to retain the Danubian principalities as the price for suffering a further dismemberment of Prussia. "We have made loyal war", he said, "we must make a loyal peace." It was not long before the first enthusiasm of Tilsit began to wane. Napoleon I was prodigal of promises, but niggard of their fulfilment. The French remained in Prussia, the Russians on the Danube; and each accused the other of breach of faith. Meanwhile, however, the personal relations of Alexander and Napoleon were of the most cordial character; and it was hoped that a fresh meeting might adjust all differences between them. The meeting took place at Erfurt in October 1808 and resulted in a treaty which defined the common policy of the two Emperors. But Alexander's relations with Napoleon nonetheless suffered a change. He realised that in Napoleon sentiment never got the better of reason, that as a matter of fact he had never intended his proposed "grand enterprise" seriously, and had only used it to preoccupy the mind of the Tsar while he consolidated his own power in Central Europe. From this moment the French alliance was for Alexander also not a fraternal agreement to rule the world, but an affair of pure policy. He used it, in the first instance, to remove "the geographical enemy" from the gates of Saint Petersburg by wresting Finland from the Swedes (1809); and he hoped by means of it to make the Danube the southern frontier of Russia. A railway bridge in Tilsit Sovetsk (Советск) is a town on the Neman River in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, which prior to 1945 was known by its German name, Tilsit, and was in East Prussia. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Franco-Russian Alliance

Events were in fact rapidly tending to the rupture of the Franco-Russian alliance. Alexander, indeed, assisted Napoleon in the war of 1809, but he declared plainly that he would not allow the Austrian Empire to be crushed out of existence; and Napoleon complained bitterly of the inactivity of the Russian troops during the campaign. The Tsar in his turn protested against Napoleon's encouragement of the Poles. In the matter of the French alliance he knew himself to be practically isolated in Russia, and he declared that he could not sacrifice the interest of his people and empire to his affection for Napoleon. "I don't want anything for myself", he said to the French ambassador, "therefore the world is not large enough to come to an understanding on the affairs of Poland, if it is a question of its restoration." Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded...


The Treaty of Vienna, which added largely to the Duchy of Warsaw, he complained had "ill requited him for his loyalty", and he was only mollified for the time by Napoleon's The annexation of Oldenburg, of which the Duke of Oldenburg (January 3, 1754July 2, 1823) was the Tsar's uncle, to France in December, 1810, added another to the personal grievances of Alexander against Napoleon; while the ruinous reaction of "the continental system" on Russian trade made it impossible for the Tsar to maintain a policy which was Napoleon's chief motive for the alliance. An acid correspondence followed, and ill-concealed armaments, which culminated in the summer of 1812 with Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Yet, even after the French had passed the frontier, Alexander still protested that his personal sentiments towards the Emperor were unaltered; "but", he added, "God Himself cannot undo the past". It was the occupation of Moscow and the desecration of the Kremlin, the sacred centre of Holy Russia, that changed his sentiment for Napoleon into passionate hatred. In vain the French Emperor, within eight days of his entry into Moscow, wrote to the Tsar a letter, which was one long cry of distress, revealing the desperate straits of the Grand Army, and appealed to "any remnant of his former sentiments". Alexander returned no answer to these "fanfaronnades". "No more peace with Napoleon!" he cried, "He or I, I or He: we cannot longer reign together!" There were several treaties of Vienna: Treaty of Vienna, 1725 Treaty of Vienna, 1731 Treaty of Vienna, 1738 Treaty of Vienna, 1809 Treaty of Vienna, 1815 Treaty of Vienna, 1864 This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... Peter Friedrich Wilhelm, born 3 January 1754, died 1823. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom of Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austrian Empire Kingdom of Prussia Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jaques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Alexander... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about Russian citadels. ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ...


Liberal political views

House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Paul I
Children
   Alexander I
   Grand Duke Constantine
   Grand Duchess Alexandra
   Grand Duchess Elena
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Catherine
   Grand Duchess Olga
   Grand Duchess Anna
   Nicholas I
   Grand Duke Mikhail
Alexander I
Children
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Elizabeth
Nicholas I
Children
   Alexander II
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Olga
   Grand Duchess Alexandra
   Grand Duke Konstantine
   Grand Duke Nicholas
   Grand Duke Michael
Alexander II
Children
   Grand Duchess Alexandra
   Tsarevich Nicholas
   Alexander III
   Grand Duke Vladimir
   Grand Duke Alexei
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duke Sergei
   Grand Duke Paul
Alexander III
Children
   Nicholas II
   Grand Duke Alexander
   Grand Duke George
   Grand Duchess Xenia
   Grand Duke Michael
   Grand Duchess Olga
Nicholas II
Children
   Grand Duchess Olga
   Grand Duchess Tatiana
   Grand Duchess Maria
   Grand Duchess Anastasia
   Tsarevich Alexei

Once a supporter of limited liberalism, as seen in his approval of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815, from the end of the year 1818 Alexander's views began to change. A revolutionary conspiracy among the officers of the guard, and a foolish plot to kidnap him on his way to the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, are said to have shaken the foundations of his Liberalism. At Aix he came for the first time into intimate contact with Metternich. From this time dates the ascendancy of Metternich over the mind of the Russian Emperor and in the councils of Europe. It was, however, no case of sudden conversion. Though alarmed by the revolutionary agitation in Germany, which culminated in the murder of his agent, the dramatist August von Kotzebue (March 23, 1819), Alexander approved of Castlereagh's protest against Metternich's policy of "the governments contracting an alliance against the peoples", as formulated in the Carlsbad Decrees of July 1819, and deprecated any intervention of Europe to support "a league of which the sole object is the absurd pretensions of absolute power." The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia, (Russian: Великая княжна Александра Павловна) (St. ... This article is about the daughter of Paul I of Russia. ... Portrait of Maria Pavlovna, by Vladimir Borovikovsky. ... Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna of Russia (Tsarskoe Selo, 10 May 1788 – Stuttgart, 9 January 1819) was the fourth daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. ... Portrait of Jan Baptist van der Hulst, 1837. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia (Russian:Михаи́л Па́влович; Mikhail Pavlovich) (born St. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Olga of Russia (September 11, 1822 – October 30, 1892), later Queen Olga of Württemberg, was a member of the Russian Imperial Family who became the Queen consort of Württemberg. ... Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia. ... Grand Duke Konstantine Nikolaievich of Russia Grand Duke Konstantine Nikolaievich of Russia (September 9, 1827 – January 13, 1892) was the second son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. ... Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich of Russia Do not confuse with his son, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856-1929). ... Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia (October 13, 1832 - December 18, 1909) was the fourth son and seventh child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexandra Alexandrovna Romanov, Grand Duchess of Russia (August 30, 1842 - July 10, 1849) was born at Tsarskoe Selo to Alexander II of Russia and Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke of Russia (Russian: ) (20 September [O.S. 8 September] 1843 — 24 April [O.S. 12 April] 1865) was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Imperial Russia, from March 2, 1855 until his death in 1865. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Velikiy Knjaz Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, in Russian Владимир Александрович / Влади́мирович (22 April 1847 - 17 February 1909). ... The Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovitch Romanov of Russia (14 January 1850- 14 November 1908) was the sixth child and the fourth son of Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse). ... Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (later Duchess of Edinburgh and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; 17 October 1853 – 24 October 1920) was a daughter of Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress consort Marie of Hesse. ... Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov (April 29, 1857 - February 4, 1905, Old Style) was the seventh child and fifth son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first Empress-consort Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. ... His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia (Павел Александрович) (October 3, 1860 N.S.–January 24, 1919 N.S.) was the eighth child of Tsar Alexander II of Russia by his first wife Maria Alexandrovna of Hesse. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Grand Duke George Alexandrovitch as a young man in the early 1890s Grand Duke George Alexandrovich Romanov, (In Russian Великий Князь Георгий Александрович Романов), (May 6, 1871 in Tsarskoe Selo - August 9, 1899 in Abbas Tuman, Caucasus) was the third son of Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Xenia of Russia (April 6, 1875 – April 20, 1960) was a member of the Russian Imperial Family. ... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (St. ... The flag of the House of Romanov Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (Russian: ; Olga Alexandrovna Romanova) (June 13, 1882–November 24, 1960) was the last Grand Duchess of Imperial Russia under the reign of her elder brother, Czar Nicholas II. Her father was the reformer of 19th century Russia... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (Olga Nikolaevna Romanova) (in Russian Великая Княжна Ольга Николаевна; November 15 [O.S. November 3] 1895 – July 17, 1918) was the eldest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of the Russian Empire, and of Empress Alexandra of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaievna of Russia (Tatiana Nikolaievna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Татьяна Николаевна), (May 29 (O.S.)/June 10 (N.S.), 1897 - July 17, 1918), was the second daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of Russia, and of Tsarina Alexandra. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (Maria Nikolaevna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Мария Николаевна), (June 14 (O.S.)/June 26 (N.S.), 1899 – July 17, 1918) was the third daughter of Nicholas II of Russia and Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, (Russian: (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 — July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. ... Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke (Russian: ) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Russia, being the youngest child and the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and... // Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland was granted to the Congress Kingdom of Poland by tsar of Russia and king of Poland, Alexander I of Russia who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... The Congress or Conference of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), held in the autumn of 1818, was primarily a meeting of the four allied powers Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia to decide the question of the withdrawal of the army of occupation from France and the nature of the modifications to... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era. ... August von Kotzebue August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue (May 3, 1761 in Weimar - March 23, 1819 in Mannheim) was a German dramatist. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of social restrictions introduced in Germany by Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria on September, 20 1819. ...


He still declared his belief in "free institutions, though not in such as age forced from feebleness, nor contracts ordered by popular leaders from their sovereigns, nor constitutions granted in difficult circumstances to tide over a crisis. "Liberty", he maintained, "should be confined within just limits. And the limits of liberty are the principles of order."


It was the apparent triumph of the principles of disorder in the revolutions of Naples and Piedmont, combined with increasingly disquieting symptoms of discontent in France, Germany, and among his own people, that completed Alexander's conversion. In the seclusion of the little town of Troppau, where in October 1820 the powers met in conference, Metternich found an opportunity for cementing his influence over Alexander, which had been wanting amid the turmoil and feminine intrigues of Vienna and Aix. Here, in confidence begotten of friendly chats over afternoon tea, the disillusioned autocrat confessed his mistake. "You have nothing to regret," he said sadly to the exultant chancellor, "but I have!" Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Piedmont is a region of northwestern Italy. ... Opava (German Troppau, Polish Opawa) is a city with a population of 62,815 (1995) in the northern Czech Republic. ...


The issue was momentous. In January Alexander had still upheld the ideal of a free confederation of the European states, symbolised by the Holy Alliance, against the policy of a dictatorship of the great powers, symbolised by the Quadruple Treaty; he had still protested against the claims of collective Europe to interfere in the internal concerns of the sovereign states. On 19 November he signed the Troppau Protocol, which consecrated the principle of intervention and wrecked the harmony of the concert. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congress of Troppau was a conference of the allied sovereigns or their representatives to discuss a concerted policy with regard to the questions raised by the revolution in Naples of July 1820. ...


Revolt of the Greeks

At Congress of Laibach, whither in the spring of 1821 the congress had been adjourned, Alexander first heard of the Revolt of the Greeks. From this time until his death his mind was torn between his anxiety to realise his dream of a confederation of Europe and his traditional mission as leader of the Orthodox crusade against the Ottoman Empire. At first, under the careful nursing of Metternich, the former motive prevailed. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


He struck the name of Alexander Ypsilanti from the Russian army list, and directed his foreign minister, Giovanni, Count Capo d'Istria, himself a Greek, to disavow all sympathy of Russia with his enterprise; and, next year, a deputation of the Morea the Congress of Verona was turned back by his orders on the road. Alexander Ypsilanti (1792 – January 31, 1828) was a Greek military commander and national hero. ... Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831). ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... The Congress of Verona met at Verona on October 20, 1822 as the last of the series of international conferences or congresses that opened with the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ...


He made some effort to reconcile the principles at conflict in his mind. He offered to surrender the claim, successfully asserted when the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II had been excluded from the Holy Alliance and the affairs of the Ottoman empire from the deliberations of Vienna, that the affairs of the East were the "domestic concerns of Russia," and to march into the Ottoman Empire, as Austria had marched into Naples, "as the mandatory of Europe." The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


Metternich's... opposition to this, illogical, but natural from the Austrian point of view, first opened his eyes to the true character of Austria's attitude towards his ideals. Once more in Russia, far from the fascination of Metternich's personality, the immemorial spirit of his people drew him back into itself; and when, in the autumn of 1825, he took his dying Empress Louise of Baden (January 24, 1779May 26, 1826) for change of air to the south of Russia, in order—as all Europe supposed—to place himself at the head of the great army concentrated near the Ottoman frontiers, his language was no longer that of "the peace-maker of Europe," but of the Orthodox Tsar determined to take the interests of his people and of his religion "into his own hands." Before the momentous issue could be decided, however, Alexander died, "crushed," to use his own words, "beneath the terrible burden of a crown" which he had more than once declared his intention of resigning. Empress Elisabeth Alexeievna of Russia (in Russian, Elisaveta Alexeievna), born Louise Marie Auguste, Princess of Baden of the House of Zähringen (24 January 1779 - 4 May (O.S.) = 16 May (N.S.), 1826) was a daughter of Prince Karl Ludwig of Baden and Amalia of Hesse-Darmstadt. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Private life

Alexander married Princess Louise of Baden (Elisabeth Alexeyevna) on October 9, 1793. He later told his friend Frederick William III that the marriage, a political match devised by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, regretfully proved to be a misfortune for him and his wife. Their two children of the marriage died young. Empress Elizabeth Alexeievna of Russia (Russian: Елизавета Алексеевна), born Louise Maria Auguste, Princess of Baden (13/24 January 1779 - 4 May/16 May, 1826) was the wife of Tsar Alexander I of Russia. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from...

Their common sorrow drew husband and wife closer together. Towards the close of his life their reconciliation was completed by the wise charity of the Empress in sympathising deeply with him over the death of his beloved daughter Sophia, by Princess Maria Naryshkina. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Adam Czartoryski can mean: Adam Casimir Czartoryski (1734-1823), of Polish nobility Adam George Czartoryski (1770-1861), Polish statesman This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maria Dmitrievna, Princess Naryshkina (1779 - 1854), born Maria Swiatopolk - Czetwertynska was the wife of Dmitry Lvovich Naryshkin (a hofmeister), the mistress of Tsar Alexander I of Russia and had three illegitimate children by him. ...


Alexander also had 9 illegitmate children.


With Sophia Vsevolojsky (1775-1848)

With Princess Maria Naryshkina (1779-1854) is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maria Dmitrievna, Princess Naryshkina (1779 - 1854), born Maria Swiatopolk - Czetwertynska was the wife of Dmitry Lvovich Naryshkin (a hofmeister), the mistress of Tsar Alexander I of Russia and had three illegitimate children by him. ...

With Marguerite-Josephine Weimer (1787-1867) 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

With Veronica Dzierzanowska is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

With Princess Barbara Tourkestanova (1775 - 20 March 1819) is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ...

With Maria Ivanovna Katatcharova (1796-1824) is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Hedwig Sophia of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Peter III of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Peter I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Anna Petrovna of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Catherine I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Paul I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Johann Ludwig of Anhalt-Zerbst
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Christine Eleonore von Zeustch
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Catherine II of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Johanna Elisabeth, Princess of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Alexander I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Frederick Charles of Württemberg-Winnental
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Eleonore Juliane von Brandenburg-Ansbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Anselm Franz of Thurn and Taxis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Maria Augusta Anna of Thurn and Taxis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Princess Maria Ludovika von Lobkowicz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Sophie Dorothea of Württemburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Philipp, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Friedrich Wilhelm, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Johanna Charlotte of Anhalt-Dessau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Frederick William I of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Sophie Dorothea Marie, Princess of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
 
 
 
 
 
 

Duke Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp (18 October 1671 – 19 July 1702) was Duke of Schleswig. ... Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (German: ), (1700-1739) was the son of Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Hedvig Sophia of Sweden. ... Hedvig Sofia of Sweden (1681-1708), Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, was the eldest child of King Charles XI of Sweden. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Portrait by Ivan Nikitin Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia (Russian: ; 27 January 1708, Moscow – 4 March 1728, Kiel) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Catherine I of Russia. ... Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst (November 29, 1690 - March 16, 1747) married, on November 8, 1727, Johanna Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (October 24, 1712 - May 30, 1760). ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Prince Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp (1673 - 1726) was Duke of Slesvig-Holstein, prince regent of Eutin, prince-bishop of Lubeck and regent of the duchy of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Frederick Charles (September 12, 1652 in Stuttgart - December 20, 1697 in Stuttgart) was since 1677 Duke of the new-founded line of Württemberg-Winnental and regent of the infant Duke Eberhard Ludwig. ... Karl I Alexander, Duke of Württemberg (24 May 1684 - 12 March 1737) was the eldest son of Friedrich Karl, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental and Eleanore Juliane, Princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach . ... Friedrich II Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (21 January 1732, Stuttgart-23 December 1797, Hohenheim), the fourth son of Duke Karl Alexander and Maria Augusta Anna of Thurn and Taxis (11 August 1706 - 1 February 1756). ... Roslins portrait of Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, with the Pavlovsk Palace in the background. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Princess Sophia Dorothea with her husband Friedrich Wilhelm, by Antoine Pesne Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia (German:Sophia Dorothea Marie von Preußen) (born Berlin, 25 January 1719; died Schwedt, 13 November 1765) was the ninth child and fifth daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ...

Mysterious death

The Palace of Alexander I in Taganrog, where the Russian Emperor died in 1825.
The Palace of Alexander I in Taganrog, where the Russian Emperor died in 1825.

Tsar Alexander I became increasingly involved in and increasingly more suspicious of those around him. On the way to the conference in Aachen, Germany an attempt had been made to kidnap him which made him more suspicious of the people around him. Image File history File links The Palace of Alexander I of Russia in Taganrog, where the Russian Emperor died in 1825, as appears on a 19th century postcard. ... Image File history File links The Palace of Alexander I of Russia in Taganrog, where the Russian Emperor died in 1825, as appears on a 19th century postcard. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ...


In the autumn of 1825 the Emperor undertook a voyage to the south of Russia due to the increasing illness of Alexander's wife. During his trip he himself caught a cold which developed into typhus from which he died in the southern city of Taganrog on November 19 (O.S.)/December 1, 1825. His wife died a few months later as the emperor's body was transported to St. Petersburg for the funeral. He was interred at the Sts. Peter and Paul Cathedral of the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg on March 13, 1826. Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The unexpected death of the Emperor of Russia far from the capital caused persistent rumors that his death and funeral were staged while the emperor allegedly renounced the crown and retired to spend the rest of his life in solitude. It is rumored that a "soldier" was buried as Alexander or that the grave was empty or that a British ambassador at the Russian court said he had seen Alexander boarding a ship. Some say the former emperor became a monk in either Pochaev Lavra or Kievo-Pecherskaya Lavra or elsewhere. Many people, including some historians, supposed that a mysterious hermit Feodor Kuzmich (or Kozmich) who emerged in Siberia in 1836 and died in the vicinity of Tomsk in 1864 was in fact Alexander I under an assumed identity. While there are testimonies that "Feodor Kozmich" in his earlier life might have belonged to a higher society his identity as Alexander I was never established beyond the reasonable doubt. In 1925 the Soviets opened Alexander's tomb and did not find a body. Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... Pochayiv Lavra of the Assumption of the Theotokos has for centuries been the foremost spiritual and ideological centre of various Orthodox denominations in Western Ukraine. ... Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Eastern Orthodoxy | Places in Ukraine | Kyiv city | UN World Heritage Sites ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Flag Seal Location Tomsk and Oblast on the map of Russia Coordinates , Government Oblast Tomsk Mayor Aleksandr Makarov Geographical characteristics Area     City 294,6 km²     Land   294,6 km²     Water   0 km² Population     City (end of 2005) 509,568     Density   1,730/km² Elevation +100 m Website: Municipality website Main...


The immediate aftermath of Alexander's death was also marked by confusion regarding the order of succession and by the attempt of military coup-d'etat by liberal-minded officers. The heir presumptive, Tsesarevich and Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich had in 1822 renounced his rights of succession, but this act was not publicly announced, nor known to anybody outside of few people within the tsar's family. For this reason, on November 27 (O.S.), 1825 the population, including Constantine's younger brother Nicholas, swore allegiance to Constantine. After the true order of succession was disclosed to the imperial family and general public, Nicholas I ordered that the allegiance to him to be sworn on December 14 (O.S.), 1825. Seizing the opportunity, the Decembrists revolted, allegedly to defend Constantine's rights to the throne, but in fact - in order to initiate the change of regime in Russia. Nicholas I brutally suppressed the rebellion and sent the ringleaders to the gallows and Siberia. An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Tsesarevich was the title of the Heir Apparent to the tsars of Russia, (see Tsar). ... Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the failed Russian revolt. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ...


Some confidantes of Alexander I reported that in the last years the Emperor was aware that the secret societies of future Decembrists were plotting the revolt, but chose not to act against them, remarking that these officers were sharing "the delusions of his own youth." Historians believe that these secret societies appeared after the Russian officers returned from their Napoleonic campaigns in Europe in 1815.i know you did not no this but amari was in this This article is about the failed Russian revolt. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


Other

Alexander I was the godfather of future Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom who was christened Alexandrina Victoria in honour of the tsar. Queen Victoria redirects here. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Александр I Павлович

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

Alexander I of Russia
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 23 December 1777 Died: 1 December 1825
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Paul I
Emperor of Russia
March 23, 1801December 1, 1825
Succeeded by
Nicholas I of Russia
Preceded by
Gustav IV Adolf
Grand Duke of Finland
1809–1825
Preceded by
Stanisław August Poniatowski
King of Congress Poland
1815–1825

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... For other people and places of the same name, see Gustaf Adolf (disambiguation). ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Peter II (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... Anna Ivanovna (Russian: ) (February 7, 1693, Moscow – October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... H.I.M. Ivan, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, with his mother Anna Leopoldovna Ivan VI of Russia (Иоанн Антонович), (August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764), reigned as Emperor of Russia 1740 - 1741, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg and of the princess Anna Leopoldovna... Charles van Loo. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Persondata
NAME Alexander I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Pavlovich, Aleksandr I
SHORT DESCRIPTION Emperor of Russia
DATE OF BIRTH December 23, 1777(1777-12-23)
PLACE OF BIRTH Saint Petersburg
DATE OF DEATH December 1, 1825
PLACE OF DEATH Taganrog

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexander II of Russia - LoveToKnow 1911 (2287 words)
(1818-1881), emperor of Russia, eldest son of Nicholas I., was born on the 29th of April 18 i 8.
Fortunately for Russia the autocratic power was now in the hands of a man who was impressionable enough to be deeply influenced by the spirit of the time, and who had sufficient prudence and practical common-sense to prevent his being carried away by the prevailing excitement into the dangerous region of Utopian dreaming.
Russia required, it was said, not classical scholars, but practical, scientific men, capable of developing her natural resources.
Alexander I of Russia - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
ALEXANDER I. emperor of Russia, son of the grand-duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of Frederick Eugene of Wurttemberg, was born on the 28th of December 1777.
That Alexander's reign, which began with so large a promise of amelioration, ended by riveting still tighter the chains of the Russian people was, however, due less to the corruption and backwardness of Russian life than to the defects of the tsar himself.
Alexander, in fact, who, without being consciously tyrannical, possessed in full measure the tyrant's characteristic distrust of men of ability and independent judgment, lacked also the first requisite for a reforming sovereign: confidence in his people; and it was this want that vitiated such reforms as were actually realized.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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