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Encyclopedia > Alexander Henderson (theologian)
Alexander Henderson
Alexander Henderson

Alexander Henderson (1583? – August 19, 1646) was a Scottish theologian. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (629x794, 208 KB) Alexander Henderson (1583-1646). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (629x794, 208 KB) Alexander Henderson (1583-1646). ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events The Westminster Confession of Faith Ongoing events Wars of the Three Kingdoms, including the English Civil War (1642-1649) Births February 4 - Hans Erasmus Aßmann, Freiherr von Abschatz, German statesman and poet (d. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ...


He was born at Criech, Fife, graduated at the University of St Andrews in 1603, and in 1610 was appointed professor of rhetoric and philosophy and questor of the faculty of arts. Shortly after this he was presented to the living of Leuchars. As Henderson was located upon his parish by Archbishop George Gladstanes, and was known to sympathize with episcopacy, his settlement was at first extremely unpopular; but he subsequently changed his views and became a Presbyterian in doctrine and church government, and one of the most esteemed ministers in Scotland. He early made his mark as a Church of Scotland leader, and took an active part in petitioning against the five acts and later against the introduction of a service-book and canons drawn up on the model of the English prayer-book. Fife (Fìobh in Gaelic) is a council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with landward boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. ... The University of St Andrews was founded between 1410 and 1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland (and third oldest in the English speaking world). ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Rhetoric from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a study that includes diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. ... The term Questor can refer to: An alternate spelling of a Quaestor, an ancient Roman official. ... A precise definition of the arts can be contentious, but the following areas of activity are usually included: Art / Visual arts Architecture Crafts Dance Drawing Film Literature Music Painting Photography Pottery Sculpture Theater Unlike art, design focuses less on the aesthetics of a thing and more on the functionality of... St Athernase Church in Leuchars, Fife, Scotland Leuchars is a small town near the north east coast of Fife in Scotland, sited nearly 2 miles (3 km) to the north of the village of Guardbridge which lies on the north bank of the River Eden where it widens to the... Episcopacy is the regime of church government by bishops (Lat. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain or Elder. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Church of Scotland (C of S, also known informally as The Kirk; until the 17th century officially the Kirk of Scotland) is the Christian national church of Scotland. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ...


On the 1st of March 1638 the public signing of the National Covenant began in Greyfriars Kirk, Edinburgh. Henderson was mainly responsible for the final form of this document, which consisted of Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Greyfriars Kirk, today Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, is a parish kirk (church) of the Church of Scotland in central Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...

  1. the kings confession drawn up in 1581 by John Craig
  2. a recital of the acts of parliament against superstitious and papistical rites
  3. an elaborate oath to maintain the true reformed religion.

Owing to the skill shown on this occasion he seems to have been applied to when any manifesto of unusual ability was required. In. July of the same year he proceeded to the north to debate on the Covenant with the famous Aberdeen doctors; but he was not well received by them. The voyd church was made fast, and the keys keeped by the magistrate, says Baillie. Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A monarch (see sovereign) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... This article is about John Craig the Scottish mathematician. ... This article is about the Scottish city. ... There are several notable people with the surname Baillie: Robert Baillie (1602-1662), Scottish divine and historical writer Lady Grizel Baillie, (1665–1746), Scottish song-writer Baillie of Jerviswood (d. ...


Henderson's next public opportunity was in the famous Assembly which met in Glasgow on the 21st of November 1638. He was chosen moderator by acclamation, being, as Baillie says, incomparablie the ablest man of us all for all things. James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton, was the king's commissioner; and when the Assembly insisted on proceeding with the, trial of the bishops, he formally dissolved the meeting under pain of treason. Acting on the constitutional principle that the king's right to convene did not interfere with the church's independent right to hold assemblies, they sat till the 20th of December, deposed all the Scottish bishops, excommunicated a number of them, repealed all acts favoring episcopacy, and reconstituted the Scottish Kirk on thorough Presbyterian principles. During the sitting of this Assembly it was carried by a majority of seventy-five votes that Henderson should be transferred to Edinburgh. He had been at Leuchars for about twenty-three years, and was extremely reluctant to leave it. The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is The Kirks highest court. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton by Daniel Mytens. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Excommunication is religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Kirk can mean church in general or The Church of Scotland in particular. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


While Scotland and England were preparing for the First Bishops' War, Henderson drew up two papers, entitled respectively The Remonstrance of the Nobility and Instructions for Defensiite Arms. The first of these documents he published himself; the second was published against his wish by John Corbet (1603-1641), a deposed minister. The First Bishops' War did not last long. At the Pacification of Birks the king virtually granted all the demands of the Scots. In the negotiations for peace Henderson was one of the Scottish commissioners, and made a very favorable impression on the king. The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 1640 Henderson was elected by the town council rector of Edinburgh University, an office to which he was annually re-elected till his death. The Pacification of Birks had been wrung from the king; and the Scots, seeing that he was preparing for the Second Bishops' War, took the initiative, and pressed into England so vigorously that Charles had again to yield everything. The maturing of the treaty of peace took a considerable time, and Henderson was again active in the negotiations, first at Ripon (October 1st) and afterwards in London. While he was in London he had a personal interview with the king, with the view of obtaining assistance for the Scottish universities from money formerly applied to the support of the bishops. Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Ripon is a small cathedral city in the Harrogate borough of North Yorkshire, England, 214 miles NNW from London. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation) and Defining London (below). ...


On Henderson's return to Edinburgh in July 1641 the Assembly was sitting at St Andrews. To suit the convenience of the parliament, however, it removed to Edinburgh; Henderson was elected moderator of the Edinburgh meeting. In this Assembly he proposed that a confession of faith, a catechism, a directory for all the parts of the public worship, and a platform of government, wherein possibly England and we might agree, should be drawn up. This was unanimously approved of, and the laborious undertaking was left in Hendersons bands; but the notable motion did not lead to any immediate results. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Named after Saint Andrew the Apostle, the Royal Burgh of St Andrews is a town on the east coast of Fife, Scotland, and the home of golf. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is similar to belief, trust or confidence, but unlike these terms, faith tends to imply a transpersonal rather than interpersonal relationship – with God or a higher power. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ...


During Charles's second state-visit to Scotland, in the autumn of 1641, Henderson acted as his chaplain, and managed to get the funds, formerly belonging to the bishopric of Edinburgh, applied to the metropolitan university. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ...


In 1642 Henderson, whose policy was to keep Scotland neutral in the war which had now broken out between the king and the parliament, was engaged in corresponding with England on ecclesiastical topics; and, shortly afterwards, he was sent to Oxford to mediate between the king and his parliament; but his mission proved a failure. Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...


A memorable meeting of the General Assembly was held in August 1643. Henderson was elected moderator for the third time. He presented a draft of the famous Solemn League and Covenant, which was received with great enthusiasm. Unlike the National Covenant of 1638, which applied to Scotland only, this document was common to the two kingdoms. Henderson, Baillie, Rutherford and others were sent up to London to represent Scotland in the Assembly at Westminster. The Solemn League and Covenant, which pledged both countries to the extirpation of prelacy, leaving further decision as to church government to be decided by the example of the best reformed churches, after undergoing some slight alterations, passed both parliaments, the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England, and thus became law for the two kingdoms. By means of it Henderson has had considerable influence on the history of Great Britain. As Scottish commissioner to the Westminster Assembly, he was in England from August 1643 till August 1646; his principal work was the drafting of the directory for public worship. The Church of Scotland (C of S, also known informally as The Kirk; until the 17th century officially the Kirk of Scotland) is the Christian national church of Scotland. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation) and Defining London (below). ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... The Parliament of Scotland, was the legislature for the independent Kingdom of Scotland prior to the Act of Union 1707 creating a Parliament of Great Britain. ... The Parliament of England can trace its roots back to the early medieval period. ... Westminster Assembly The Westminster Assembly of Divines 1643 was appointed by the Long Parliament to restructure the Church of England. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... // Events The Westminster Confession of Faith Ongoing events Wars of the Three Kingdoms, including the English Civil War (1642-1649) Births February 4 - Hans Erasmus Aßmann, Freiherr von Abschatz, German statesman and poet (d. ...


Early in 1645 Henderson was sent to Uxbridge to aid the commissioners of the two parliaments in negotiating with the king; but nothing came of the conference. In 1646 the king joined the Scottish army; and, after retiring with them to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, he sent for Henderson, and discussed with him the two systems of church government in a number of papers. Meanwhile Henderson was failing in health. He sailed to Scotland, and eight days after his arrival died, on the 19th of August 1646. He was buried in Greyfriars Kirk churchyard, Edinburgh; and his death was the occasion of national mourning in Scotland. // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Uxbridge is a place in the London Borough of Hillingdon in west London. ... // Events The Westminster Confession of Faith Ongoing events Wars of the Three Kingdoms, including the English Civil War (1642-1649) Births February 4 - Hans Erasmus Aßmann, Freiherr von Abschatz, German statesman and poet (d. ... Newcastle upon Tyne, often shortened to Newcastle, is a city and metropolitan borough situated on the north bank of the River Tyne, in North East England. ... // Events The Westminster Confession of Faith Ongoing events Wars of the Three Kingdoms, including the English Civil War (1642-1649) Births February 4 - Hans Erasmus Aßmann, Freiherr von Abschatz, German statesman and poet (d. ...


On the 7th of August Baillie had written that he had heard that Henderson was dying most of heartbreak. A document was published in London purporting to be a Declaration of Mr Alexander Henderson made upon his Death-bed ; and, although this paper was disowned, denounced and shown to be false in the General Assembly of August 1648, the document was used by Clarendon as giving the impression that Henderson had recanted. Its foundation was probably certain expressions Limenting Scottish interference in English affairs. For other uses, see London (disambiguation) and Defining London (below). ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked...


Henderson is one of the greatest men in the history of Scotland and, next to Knox, is certainly the most famous of Scottish ecclesiastics. He had great political genius; and his statesmanship was so influential that he was, as Masson well observes, a cabinet minister without office. He has made a deep mark on the history, not only of Scotland, but of England; and the existing Presbyterian churches in Scotland are largely indebted to him for the forms of their dogmas and their ecclesiastical organization. He is thus justly considered the second founder of the Reformed Church in Scotland. Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Knox can refer to these things: Fort Knox, a United States Army post in Kentucky. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... A genius is a person with distinguished mental prowess. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Francis Masson (August 1741 – 23 December 1805) was a Scottish botanist and gardener, and Kew Gardens’ first plant hunter. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ...


External links

  • Article in the Scottish Preachers' Hall of Fame

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Alexander Henderson (theologian) (1288 words)
As Henderson was located upon his parish by Archbishop George Gladstanes, and was known to sympathize with episcopacy, his settlement was at first extremely unpopular; but he subsequently changed his views and became a Presbyterian in doctrine and church government, and one of the most esteemed ministers in Scotland.
In 1642 Henderson, whose policy was to keep Scotland neutral in the war which had now broken out between the king and the parliament, was engaged in corresponding with England on ecclesiastical topics; and, shortly afterwards, he was sent to Oxford to mediate between the king and his parliament; but his mission proved a failure.
A document was published in London purporting to be a Declaration of Mr Alexander Henderson made upon his death-bed; and, although this paper was disowned, denounced and shown to be false in the General Assembly of August 1648, the document was used by Clarendon as giving the impression that Henderson had recanted.
Famous Scots (296 words)
King Alexander I, II and III - Kings of Scotland
Alexander Graham Bell - Inventor of the telephone
Alexander Cunningham - The 1st earl of Glencairn
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