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Encyclopedia > Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton

In office
September 11, 1789 – January 31, 1795
President George Washington
Preceded by (none)
Succeeded by Oliver Wolcott, Jr.

Born January 11, 1755(1755-01-11) or 1757
Nevis, Caribbean (now Saint Kitts and Nevis)
Died July 12, 1804 (aged 49)
New York City, New York
Political party Federalist
Spouse Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton
Profession Lawyer, Military officer, Politician, Financier, Cabinet officer, Scholar
Religion Episcopalian at his death.

Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,[dubious ] financier, and political theorist. One of America's first constitutional lawyers, he was a leader in calling the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. He was one of the two chief authors of the anonymous Federalist Papers, the most cited contemporary interpretation of intent for the United States Constitution. Download high resolution version (868x1224, 303 KB) A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Oliver Wolcott Jr. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Nevis (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ... Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (August 9, 1757 – November 9, 1854), was the wife of the founder of the Federalist party and first Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Financier (IPA: /ËŒfi nãn ˈsjei/) is an elegant term for a person who handles large sums of money, usually involving money lending, financing projects, large-scale investing, or large-scale money management. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production and the relationships of buying and selling and their relationship to laws, customs and government. ... Financier (IPA: /ËŒfi nãn ˈsjei/) is an elegant term for a person who handles large sums of money, usually involving money lending, financing projects, large-scale investing, or large-scale money management. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


During the Revolutionary War, Hamilton served as an artillery captain, senior[1] aide-de-camp to General George Washington, and led three battalions at the Battle of Yorktown. Under President Washington, Hamilton became the first Secretary of the Treasury. As Secretary of the Treasury and confidant of Washington, Hamilton had wide-reaching influence over the direction of policy during the formative years of the government. Hamilton believed in the importance of a strong central government, and convinced Congress to use an elastic interpretation of the Constitution to pass far-reaching laws. They included: the funding of the national debt; federal assumption of the state debts; creation of a national bank; and a system of taxes through a tariff on imports and a tax on whiskey that would help pay for it. He admired the success of the British system —particularly its strong financial and trade networks— and opposed what he saw as the excesses of the French Revolution. This article is about military actions only. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... The necessary and proper clause (also known as the elastic clause, the basket clause, the coefficient clause, and the sweeping clause [1]) refers to a provision, in Article One of the United States Constitution at section eight, clause 18, which addresses implied powers of Congress. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is... The First Bank of the United States was a bank chartered by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. ... It has been suggested that Tariff in American history be merged into this article or section. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


He was one of the creators of the Federalist party, the first American political party, which he built up using Treasury department patronage, networks of elite leaders, and aggressive newspaper editors he subsidized both through Treasury patronage and by loans from his own pocket.[2] His great political adversary was Thomas Jefferson who, with James Madison, created the opposition party (of several names, now known as the Democratic-Republican Party). They opposed Hamilton's urban, financial, industrial goals for the United States, and his promotion of extensive trade and friendly relations with Britain. Hamilton retired from the Treasury in 1795 to practice law in New York City, but during the Quasi-War with France he served as organizer and de facto commander of a national army beginning in December, 1798; if full scale war broke out with France, the army was intended to conquer the North American colonies of France's ally, Spain, bordering the United States. He worked to defeat both John Adams and Jefferson in the election of 1800. However, when the House of Representatives deadlocked, he helped secure the election of Jefferson over Hamilton's long-time political enemy, Aaron Burr. The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... The Democratic-Republican Party was founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... In the United States presidential election of 1800, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1800”, Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ...


Hamilton's nationalist and industrializing vision fell out of favor after the election of rival Thomas Jefferson to the presidency in 1800. However, after the War of 1812 showed the need for strong national institutions, his former opponents—including Madison and Albert Gallatin—adopted some of his program as they too set up a national bank, tariffs, a national infrastructure, and a standing army and navy. The later Whig, Republican and Democratic political parties adopted many of Hamilton's ideas regarding the flexible interpretation of the Constitution and using the federal government to build a strong economy and military. Opinions of him have run a wide gamut: both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson viewed him as unprincipled and dangerously aristocratic. He was sufficiently admired by the time of the American Civil War that his portrait began to appear on US currency, and now appears on the $10 bill; after the Civil War, a time of high tariffs, he was lauded to the skies.[3][vague] Herbert Croly, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Theodore Roosevelt directed attention to him at the end of the nineteenth century in the interest of an active federal government, whether or not supported by tariffs. Several 19th and early 20th Century Republicans entered politics by writing laudatory biographies of Hamilton.[4] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Herbert David Croly (January 23, 1869 - May 17, 1930) was a liberal political author. ... Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and noted historian. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... GOP redirects here. ...

Contents

Early years

A young Alexander Hamilton.

Hamilton was born in Charlestown, Nevis, the capital of the island of Nevis, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Leeward Islands, West Indies,[5] out of wedlock, to James A. Hamilton, the fourth son of a Scottish laird, and Rachel Faucett Lavien, of part French Huguenot descent. There is, however, some evidence suggesting that Hamilton's biological father may have been a Nevis merchant named Thomas Stevens.[6] ImageMetadata File history File links Young_alexander_hamilton. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Young_alexander_hamilton. ... Charlestown was built in a protected area on the Leeward side of Nevis, situated between Fort Charles and the Fort Black Rocks. ... For other uses, see Nevis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... A lord is a male who has power and authority. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...


Hamilton was born on January 11, but the year of his birth is somewhat uncertain. Most historians now use January 11, 1755 as the date of his birth, although disagreement remains. A young Hamilton claimed 1757 as his birth year when he first arrived from Nevis. However, he is also recorded in the probate papers shortly after his mother's death as being thirteen years old,[7] which would make his birth year 1755. Various explanations for this discrepancy have been suggested: He may have been trying to appear younger than his college classmates; he may have wanted to avoid standing out as older; the probate document may be wrong; or he may have been passing as older than he was in order to be more employable after his mother's death.[8] He was often approximate about his age in later life. is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Hamilton's mother had been married previously to Johann Michael Lavien of St. Croix.[9] To escape her unhappy marriage, Rachel left St. Croix for St. Kitts in 1750, where she met James Hamilton.[10] They moved together to Nevis, which was Rachel's birthplace and the place from which she had inherited property from her father.[11] They would have two sons together, James, Jr. and Alexander. Because Hamilton's parents were not legally married, the Church of England denied Hamilton membership or education in the church school. Instead, the young Hamilton received some "individual tutoring"[12] and classes in a private, Jewish school.[13] Hamilton supplemented this education with a family library of thirty-four books [14] which included Greek and Roman classics. In 1765, a business assignment led James Hamilton to move the family to Christiansted, St. Croix. James then abandoned Rachel and their two sons. After James left, Rachel supported the family by keeping a small store in Christiansted. She contracted a "severe fever" and died on February 19, 1768, leaving Hamilton effectively orphaned. This abandonment, death, and anxiety over his illegitimate birth, all presumably had severe emotional consequences for Alexander, even by the standards of an eighteenth-century childhood.[15] After Rachel's death, her son from her first marriage appeared and (legally, via probate court) claimed the few valuables Hamilton's mother had owned, including several silver spoons. Many of these items, including the books, were auctioned off. A family friend purchased the library and returned it to the bookish young Hamilton.[16] Hamilton never saw his half-brother again, but years later received his death notice and a small amount of money.[17] A separate article treats the several rivers known as the St. ... Saint Kitts (also/previously known as Saint Christopher) is an island in the Caribbean. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Christiansted is a town on St. ...


Following his mother's death, Hamilton was adopted by a cousin, Peter Lytton, and became a clerk at a local import-export firm, Beekman and Cruger, which had significant ties to the New York area. Lytton soon committed suicide, and Hamilton was split from his older brother, James.[18] Hamilton's brother was made apprentice to a local carpenter, while Hamilton was adopted by a local merchant named Thomas Stevens. Thomas Stevens' son, Edward Stevens, became a close friend of Hamilton. The two friends looked very much like each other, they were both fluent in French, and they shared similar interests.[citation needed]


While living with Stevens, Hamilton continued to work as a clerk. He remained an avid reader, developed an interest in writing, and began to long for a life off his small island. On August 30th, 1772, a hurricane devastated Christiansted. Hamilton wrote a letter first published in the Royal Danish-American Gazette with a description of the terrible hurricane. Impressed by Hamilton, the community began a collection for a "subscription fund" to educate the young Hamilton in New England. Hamilton left the island, and arrived at a grammar school in Elizabethtown, New Jersey in the autumn of 1772.


Education

In 1773, Hamilton attended a college-preparatory program with Francis Barber at Elizabethtown, New Jersey. There he came under the influence of a leading intellectual and revolutionary, William Livingston.[19] Hamilton may have applied to the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) but been refused the opportunity for accelerated study.[20] In the end, Hamilton decided to attend King's College (now Columbia University) in New York City. While studying at King's College, Hamilton and several classmates formed a small literary and debating group that was a forerunner of Columbia's Philolexian Society.[21][22] William Livingston William Livingston (November 30, 1723 – July 25, 1790) served as the Governor of New Jersey (1776–1790) during the American Revolution and was a signer of the United States Constitution. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Philolexian Society of Columbia University is one of the oldest collegiate literary societies in the United States, and the oldest student group at Columbia. ...


When Church of England clergyman Samuel Seabury published a series of pamphlets promoting the Tory cause the following year, Hamilton struck back with his first political writings, A Full Vindication of the measures of Congress, and The Farmer Refuted. He published two additional pieces attacking the Quebec Act[23], as well as fourteen anonymous installments of "The Monitor" for Holt's New York Journal. Although Hamilton was a supporter of the Revolutionary cause at this pre-war stage, he did not approve of mob reprisals against those who were not. One generally accepted account details how Hamilton saved King's College president and Tory sympathizer Myles Cooper from an angry mob by speaking to the crowd long enough for Cooper to escape the dangerous situation.[24] Samuel Seabury The Right Reverend Samuel Seabury (November 30, 1729 – February 25, 1796), was the first American Episcopal bishop, the second Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, USA, and the first Bishop of Connecticut. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... // The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. ... Portrait of Myles Cooper by John Singleton Copley Myles Cooper (1735 – 1785) was a figure in colonial New York. ... An ochlocracy from The Simpsons Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατία or ohlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ...


Military career

"Alexander Hamilton in the Uniform of the New York Artillery" by Alonzo Chappel (1828-1887)
"Alexander Hamilton in the Uniform of the New York Artillery" by Alonzo Chappel (1828-1887)

In 1775, after the first engagement of American troops with the British in Boston, Hamilton joined a New York volunteer militia company called the Hearts of Oak, (which included other King's College students). He drilled with the company before classes in the graveyard of nearby St. Paul's Chapel. Hamilton studied military history and tactics on his own, and achieved the rank of lieutenant. Under fire from the HMS Asia, he led a successful raid for British cannon in the Battery, the capture of which resulted in the Hearts of Oak becoming an artillery company thereafter. Through his connections with influential New York patriots like Alexander McDougall and John Jay, he raised the New York Provincial Company of Artillery of sixty men in 1776, and was elected captain. He earned the interest of Nathanael Greene and George Washington by the proficiency and bravery he displayed in the campaign of 1776 around New York City, particularly at the Battle of White Plains and later the Battle of Trenton. Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... The Hearts of Oak (originally, The Corsicans) were a volunteer militia in the British colony of New York, formed c. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... St. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... HMS is a three-letter acronym that may stand for: Handheld, Manpack, Small Form Factor radio transceivers in the United States military Joint Tactical Radio System Hans Majestäts Skepp (His Majestys ship) or Hennes Majestäts Skepp (Her Majestys Ship), the prefix of Royal Swedish Navy ship... A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ... ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A map of the Province of New York. ... Alexander McDougall (1731-1786) was an American seaman, merchant, and leader from New York City during the Revolutionary War. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American Revolutionary War hero. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The New York Campaign describes the actions and battles of the American Revolutionary War, by which the British forces gained control of New York City and its surroundings in the summer and fall of 1776. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Combatants United States Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 14,500 men 14,000 men Casualties 300 killed and wounded 313 killed and wounded Battle of White Plains Historic Site : George Washingtons HQ The Battle of White Plains was an inconclusive meeting on October 28, 1776 in the... Belligerents Continental Army a Hessian Brigade Commanders George Washington Johann Rall† Strength 2,400 18 guns [1] 1,400 6 guns [2] Casualties and losses 2 dead, On the march 4 wounded 23 dead, 92 wounded, 913 captured The Battle of Trenton was a battle which took place on December...


After turning down invitations to serve under several different high-ranking officers, Hamilton joined Washington's staff in March 1777 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Hamilton served for four years, in effect, as Washington's Chief of Staff.[25] He handled the "letters to Congress, state governors, and the most powerful generals in the Continental Army."[26] He drafted many of Washington's orders and letters at the latter's direction, and was eventually allowed to "issue orders from Washington over his own signature."[27] Hamilton was involved in a wide variety of high-level duties, including: intelligence, diplomacy, and negotiation with general officers as Washington's emissary.[28] The important duties with which he was entrusted attest to Washington's deep confidence in his abilities and character, then and afterward. Indeed, reciprocal confidence and respect initially took the place of personal attachment in their relations. In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... Intelligence has two different common meanings : Intelligence (trait) Intelligence (information gathering) Business intelligence Military espionage This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about negotiations. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Emissary was the first episode of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. ...


In a particularly dire situation, Washington sent Hamilton to General Horatio Gates to negotiate the transfer of men from Gates to Washington. This caused Hamilton's involvement in the "Conway Cabal" a notorious event in which Conway, Gates, and other critics of Washington tried to replace him as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. Through no fault of Hamilton's, letters from Gates were made public that called into question Washington's abilities to lead the army. Washington, furious, demanded an explanation. To evade this, Gates claimed that Hamilton had stolen the papers from him while collecting the soldiers. As it turned out Hamilton had nothing to do with these affairs, an accusation that sparked personal dislike between Hamilton and Gates. Hamilton remained a steadfast supporter of Washington throughout the cabal. Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ... The Conway Cabal refers to a conspiracy in late 1777 and 1778 designed to remove George Washington as commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


During the war Hamilton became close friends with several fellow officers, including John Laurens and the Marquis de Lafayette. Jonathan Katz argues that Hamilton's letters to Laurens reveal at least a homosocial attachment and perhaps, in coded allusions to Greek history and mythology, a relationship modern readers would label homosexual; Ron Chernow implies this in discussing Laurens. Thomas Flexner portrays a similar homosocial relationship with Lafayette. These biographers may well be over-reading the literary conventions of the late eighteenth century, an age of sentiment [29] John Laurens (October 28, 1754 - August 27, 1782) was an American soldier and statesman from South Carolina during the Revolutionary War. ... Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ... The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility. ...


Hamilton repeatedly sought independent command, especially of small units. He became impatient of detention in what he regarded as a subordinate position. Hamilton wanted a combat command position, and an opportunity for military glory before the war was over. In February 1781, he used a slight reprimand from Washington as an excuse for resigning his staff position. After hounding Washington and others for a field command, he submitted a letter to Washington in early July of 1781 with his commission enclosed, "thus tacitly threatening to resign if he didn't get his desired command."[30] On July 31, 1781, Hamilton was given command of a New York light infantry battalion. In the planning for the assault on Yorktown, Hamilton was given command of three battalions which were to fight in conjunction with French troops in taking Redoubts #9 and #10 of the British fortifications at Yorktown. Hamilton and his battalions fought bravely and took Redoubt #10 with bayonets, as planned. The French also fought bravely, took heavy casualties, and successfully took Redoubt #9. This action forced the British surrender at Yorktown of an entire army, effectively ending the British effort to reclaim the Thirteen Colonies.[31] An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle or similar weapon. ... Casualties of war. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


Hamilton would return to duty during the Quasi-War with France (see, below). As Major General, he was the de facto commander of the army during this period, and had planned to invade the North American possessions of France's ally, Spain. President John Adams' diplomatic efforts thwarted any such plans, however, and Hamilton returned to private life. The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ...


Under the Confederation

Alexander Hamilton shortly after the American Revolution
Alexander Hamilton shortly after the American Revolution

After Yorktown, Hamilton resigned his commission. He was elected a member of the Continental Congress from New York in July 1782. While he was there, several Congressmen from that area, including Hamilton, Robert and Gouverneur Morris wanted to acquire stable revenues for the Confederation. They attempted to persuade the states of this by encouraging the Newburgh conspiracy of discontented Continental officers who, by the threat of mutiny, wanted to be sure Congress paid their pensions. This would be most likely to succeed if Washington were at the head of the movement, and Hamilton wrote to persuade him. Washington did indeed go to Newburgh, but instead called the officers together and rebuked them for their arrogance, when he himself had "grown gray in their service." He also wrote Hamilton, criticizing the Congressmen severely for playing with so "dangerous an instrument" as an army and making the veterans "mere Puppets to establish Continental funds".[32] Download high resolution version (892x1536, 167 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (892x1536, 167 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ... For other persons named Robert Morris, see Robert Morris (disambiguation). ... Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ... The Newburgh Conspiracy was a plot hatched in 1783 near the end of the American Revolutionary War resulting from the fact that many of the officers and men of the Continental Army had not received pay for many years. ...


In 1783, Hamilton resigned to open his own law office in New York City. He specialized in defending Tories and British subjects, as in Rutgers v. Waddington, in which he defeated a claim for damages done to a brewery by the Englishmen who held it during the military occupation of New York. He pleaded that the Mayor's Court should interpret state law to be consistent with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which had ended the Revolutionary War.[33] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...


In 1784, he founded the Bank of New York, now the oldest ongoing banking organization in the United States. Hamilton was one of the men who restored King's College as Columbia College, which had been suspended since the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and severely crippled by the Revolutionary War. His public career resumed when he attended the Annapolis Convention as a delegate in 1786 and drafted its resolution for a Constitutional convention. The Bank of New York (NYSE: BK), sometimes BNY, is a global financial services company operating in four primary business areas: Securities servicing Treasury management Investment management Private banking Bank of New York and Mellon Financial Corporation will merge. ... Columbia College is the main undergraduate college at Columbia University, situated on the universitys main campus of Morningside Heights in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 unknown, nearly 20,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,719 total (312 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured... This article is about military actions only. ... The Annapolis Convention was a meeting at Annapolis, Maryland of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that called for a constitutional convention. ...


Constitution and the Federalist Papers

In 1787, he served as assemblyman from New York County in the New York State Legislature and was the first delegate chosen to the Constitutional Convention. Hamilton's direct influence at the Convention was limited, since Governor George Clinton's faction in the New York legislature had chosen two other delegates, John Lansing and Robert Yates, who opposed a strong national government. While they were present, they decided New York's vote; and when they left the convention in protest, Hamilton remained with no vote (two representatives were required for any state to cast a vote). For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... The New York Legislature is the U.S. state of New Yorks legislative branch, seated at the states capital, Albany. ... This article discusses the history of the United States Constitution. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... John Lansing, Jr. ... Robert Yates (1738-1831) was a United States politician well known for his anti-federalist stances. ...


Early in the Convention he made a speech proposing what was considered a very monarchical government for the United States. Though regarded as one of his most eloquent speeches, it had little effect, and deliberations continued largely ignoring his suggestions. Based on his interpretation of history, Hamilton concluded the ideal form of government had represented all the interest groups, but maintained a hereditary monarch to decide policy. In his opinion, this was impractical in the United States but, nevertheless, the country should mimic this form of government as closely as possible. He proposed, therefore, to have a President and elected Senators for life, with possibility of removal for corruption or abuse. He also discussed abolition of autonomous state governments. Much later, he stated that his "final opinion" in the Convention was that the President should have a three year term. The notes of the Convention are rather brief; there has been some speculation that he might have also proposed a longer, and more republican, plan.[34] A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... The Washington Senators can refer to: The Washington Senators (officially named the Washington Nationals during the 1905–1956 seasons), an American League baseball team based in Washington, D.C. from 1901 to 1960. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


During the convention, he constructed a draft on the basis of the debates which he had not actually presented. This has most of the features of the actual Constitution, down to such details as the three-fifths clause. In his draft, the Senate was to be elected in proportion to population, being two-fifths the size of the House, and the President and Senators were to be elected through complex multi-stage elections, in which chosen electors would elect smaller bodies of electors; they would hold office for life, but were removable for misconduct. The President would have an absolute veto. The Supreme Court was to have immediate jurisdiction over all law suits involving the United States, and State governors were to be appointed by the federal government.[35] An elector can be: In the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, the collegiate of seven Electors (eight since 1648) (Kurfürsten) consisted of those lay or clerical princes who had the right to vote in the election of the king or Holy Roman Emperor; see prince-elector. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in which the party commencing the action, the plaintiff, seeks a legal remedy. ...


At the end of the Convention, he declared that, although he still disliked the Constitution, he would sign it, and he urged his fellow delegates to do so also;[36] since Lansing and Yates had withdrawn, his is the only signature for New York. He then took part in the successful campaign for its ratification in New York (1788), a crucial victory for national ratification. Hamilton recruited John Jay and James Madison to write a defense of the proposed Constitution, now known as The Federalist Papers, and made the largest contribution to that effort, writing 51 of 85 essays published (Madison wrote 29, Jay only five). Hamilton's essays and arguments were influential in New York State, and elsewhere, during the debates over ratification. The Federalist Papers are more often cited than any other primary source by jurists, lawyers, historians and political scientists as the major contemporary interpretation of the Constitution. This article is about the state. ... An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ...


In 1788, Hamilton served yet another term in what proved to be the last time the Continental Congress met under the Articles of Confederation. The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ...


Secretary of the Treasury: 1789–1795

President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton served in the Treasury Department from September 11, 1789, until January 31, 1795. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department, a treasury, of the United States government established by an Act of U.S. Congress in 1789 to manage the revenue of the United States government. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Within one year, Hamilton submitted five reports that amounted to a financial revolution in the American Economy.

In the Report on Public Credit, the Secretary made the controversial proposal that would have had the federal government assume state debts incurred during the Revolution. It was a bold move to empower the federal government over State governments, and it drew sharp criticism from Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Representative James Madison. The disagreements between Jefferson and Hamilton extended to other proposals Hamilton made to Congress, and they grew especially bitter, with Hamilton's followers known as federalists and Jefferson's as republicans. As Madison put it: The Report on Public Credit was a report that analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America and made recommendations for the retirement of the national debt. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... the Act Laying Duties on Imports Communicated to the House of Representatives, April 23, 1790. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Second Report on Public Credit was the second report of three major reports on economic policy issued by American Founding Father and 1st United States Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress for consideration on establishing a national banking system with the creation of the Bank of... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ...

"I deserted Colonel Hamilton, or rather Colonel H. deserted me; in a word, the divergence between us took place from his wishing to administration, or rather to administer the Government into what he thought it ought to be..."[37]

These became the first political parties in the U.S. as the Federalist Era emerged.


Jefferson and Madison eventually struck a deal with Hamilton that required him to use his influence to place the permanent capital on the Potomac River, while Jefferson and Madison would encourage their friends to back Hamilton's assumption plan. In the end, Hamilton's assumption, together with his proposals for funding the debt, overcame legislative opposition and became law. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


Hamilton's next milestone report was his "Report on Manufactures." Congress shelved the report without much debate, except for Madison's objection to Hamilton's formulation of the General Welfare clause, which Hamilton construed liberally. It has been often quoted by protectionists since.[38] Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ...


Hamilton helped found the United States Mint; the first national bank; a "System of Cutters", forming the Revenue Cutter Service, now known as the United States Coast Guard; and an elaborate system of duties, tariffs, and excises. The complete Hamiltonian program replaced the chaotic financial system of the confederation era, in five years, with a modern apparatus to give financial stability to the new government and give investors the confidence necessary for them to invest in government bonds. Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... The First Bank of the United States was a bank chartered by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791. ... The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1790 as an armed maritime law enforcement service. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


One of the principal sources of revenue Hamilton prevailed upn Congress to approve an excise tax on whiskey. Strong opposition to the whiskey tax by cottage producers in remote, rural regions erupted into the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794; in Western Pennsylvania and western Virginia, whiskey was commonly made (and used as a form of currency) by most of the community. In response to the rebellion—believing compliance with the laws was vital to the establishment of federal authority—he accompanied to the rebellion's site President Washington, General Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, and more federal troops than were ever assembled in one place during the War for Independence. This overwhelming display of force intimidated the leaders of the insurrection, ending the rebellion virtually without bloodshed.[39] An excise is an indirect tax or duty levied on items within a country. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Henry Lee III (January 29, 1756 - March 25, 1818), American general, called Light Horse Harry, was born near Dumfries, Virginia. ...


Founding the Federalist Party

Statue of Hamilton by Franklin Simmons, overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey. Hamilton envisioned the use of the falls to power new factories.
Statue of Hamilton by Franklin Simmons, overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey. Hamilton envisioned the use of the falls to power new factories.

Hamilton created the Federalist Party and dominated it until 1800. It was the first political party in the nation; some have called it the first mass-based party in any republic; others have seen its chief weakness in having too little connection to the masses.[40] As early as 1790, Hamilton started putting together a nationwide coalition, using the contacts he had made in the Army and the Treasury, building vocal political support in each state by signing up prominent men who were like-minded nationalists. The friends of the government especially included merchants, bankers, and financiers in a dozen major cities. By 1792 or 1793 newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and the opponents "democrats" or "republicans". Religious and educational leaders, hostile to the French Revolution, joined his coalition, especially in New England. Hamilton systematically set up a Federalist newspaper network, recruiting and subsidizing editors including Noah Webster and John Fenno; he wrote numerous anonymous editorials and essays for his papers. Statue of Alexander Hamilton overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey © 2004 Matthew Trump File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Statue of Alexander Hamilton overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey © 2004 Matthew Trump File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Great Falls of the Passaic River The Great Falls of the Passaic River is a prominent waterfall, 77 ft (23 m) high, on the Passaic River in the city of Paterson in Passaic County in northern New Jersey in the United States. ... “Paterson” redirects here. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Noah Webster Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – April 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, word enthusiast, and editor. ... John Fenno (Aug. ...


In 1801, Hamilton founded his own newspaper, the New-York Evening Post, edited by William Coleman. The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ...


The Federalist and Republican newspapers of the 1790s traded "rancorous and venomous abuse."[41] John Fenno had founded the Gazette of the United States in 1789, on Hamilton's side; Philip Freneau, known as the "Poet of the Revolution," became a Democratic-Republican editor in 1791.[42] The Republicans attacked Hamilton as a monarchist who betrayed America's true values; after the Reynolds affair transpired they used salacious humor relentlessly. John Fenno (Aug. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Philip Morin Freneau ( January 2, 1752 – December 18, 1832 ) was a United States poet and one of the most important writers/poets of The Age of Reason. He focused on writing nonpolitical poetry. ...


By 1792, Jefferson and Madison started an opposition caucus in Congress, which was to grow into the Democratic Republican Party. By 1795, Federalists and Republicans had organized in every state and city, firmly establishing themselves, with all the arts of politics. Hamilton had over 2,000 Treasury jobs to dispense, while Jefferson had only one. Jay's Treaty of 1794 injected foreign policy into the party debates, with Hamilton and his party favoring Britain and denouncing the French Revolution, while the Jeffersonians strongly opposed the treaty as a sellout to the archenemy.[43] The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... John Jay The Jay Treaty of 1795 (also known as Jays Treaty or the Treaty of London), named after U.S. Supreme Court chief justice John Jay, was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain signed on November 19, 1794 that attempted to clear up some of...


Hamilton drafted Jay's instructions in negotiating the Treaty; he also made Jay's doing so more difficult. As part of the European war, several nations had formed a League of Armed Neutrality; the Cabinet had decided not to join it, but had kept the decision secret. Hamilton had revealed this decision in private to George Hammond, the British Minister to the United States, without telling Jay—or anyone else; it was unknown until Hammond's dispatches were read in the 1920s. This "amazing revelation" may have had limited effect on the negotiations; Jay did threaten to join the League at one point, but the British had other reasons not to view the League as a serious threat.[44] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Industrialist

In 1778, Hamilton visited the Great Falls of the Passaic River in northern New Jersey and saw that the falls could one day be harnessed to provide power for a manufacturing center on the site. While still Secretary of the Treasury, in 1791, he helped to found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, a private corporation that would use the power of the falls to operate mills. Although the company did not succeed in its original purpose, it leased the land around the falls to other mill ventures and continued to operate for over a century and a half. The Great Falls of the Passaic River The Great Falls of the Passaic River is a prominent waterfall, 77 ft (23 m) high, on the Passaic River in the city of Paterson in Passaic County in northern New Jersey in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Great Falls of the Passaic River, showing the turbine housing of the S.U.M. dating from 1911 The Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures (S.U.M.) was a private state-sponsored corporation founded in 1791 to promote industrial development along the Passaic River in New Jersey...


Retirement from Federal Service

Affair

In 1791, Hamilton became sexually involved in an affair with Maria Reynolds that badly damaged his reputation. Reynolds' husband, James, blackmailed Hamilton for money, threatening to inform Hamilton's wife Elizabeth. When James Reynolds was arrested for counterfeiting, he contacted several prominent members of the Democratic-Republican Party, most notably James Monroe and Aaron Burr, touting that he could expose a top level official for corruption. When they visited Hamilton with their suspicions (expecting that James Reynolds could implicate Hamilton in an abuse of his position in Washington's Cabinet), Hamilton insisted he was innocent of any misconduct in public office and admitted to the affair with Maria Reynolds. When rumors began spreading, Hamilton published a confession of his affair, shocking his family and supporters by not merely confessing but narrating the affair in detail, thus injuring Hamilton's reputation for the rest of his life. Maria Reynolds (born Maria Lewis, 1768 – 1832?) is best known as the mistress of Alexander Hamilton and wife of noted con man James Reynolds, and she played a central role in one of the first sex scandals in American political history. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ...


At first Hamilton accused Monroe of making his affair public, and challenged him to a duel. Aaron Burr stepped in and persuaded Hamilton that Monroe was innocent of the accusation. His well-known vitriolic temper led Hamilton to challenge several others to duels in his career.


Hamilton resigned as Secretary of the Treasury while this affair was still being investigated; he submitted his resignation on December 1, 1794, effective on January 31, 1795. [45] is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


1796 presidential election

Hamilton's resignation as Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 did not remove him from public life. With the resumption of his law practice, he remained close to Washington as an adviser and friend. Hamilton influenced Washington in the composition of his Farewell Address; Washington and members of his Cabinet often consulted with him. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the finance minister of the Federal Government of the United States. ... George Washington in 1795. ...


In the election of 1796, under the Constitution as it stood then, each of the presidential Electors had two votes, which they were to cast for different men. The one with most votes to be President, the second Vice President. This system was not designed for parties, which had been thought disreputable and factious. The Federalists planned to deal with this by having all their Electors vote for John Adams, the Vice-President, and all but a few for Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina, then on his way home from a successful embassage to Spain. Jefferson chose Aaron Burr as his vice presidential running mate. This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Pinckney Thomas Pinckney (1750–1828), was an American soldier, politician, and diplomat. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


Hamilton, however, disliked Adams and saw an opportunity. He urged all the Northern Electors to vote for Adams and Pinckney, lest Jefferson get in. He cooperated with Edward Rutledge to have South Carolina's Electors vote for Jefferson and Pinckney. If all this worked, Pinckney would have more votes than Adams. Pinckney would be President, and Adams would remain Vice President. It did not. The Federalists found out about it (even the French minister to the United States knew), and Northern Federalists voted for Adams but not for Pinckney, in sufficient numbers that Pinckney came in third and Jefferson became Vice President.[46] Edward Rutledge Edward Rutledge (November 23, 1749 – January 23, 1800), South Carolina statesman, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor of South Carolina. ...


Quasi-War

Adams resented this; from the non-partisan point of view, his services and seniority were much greater than Pinckney's.[47] Adams also resented Hamilton's influence with Washington and considered him overambitious and scandalous in his private life; Hamilton compared Adams unfavorably with Washington and thought him too emotionally unstable to be President. During the Quasi-War of 1798–1800, and with Washington's strong endorsement, Adams reluctantly appointed Hamilton a major general of the army (essentially placing him in command since Washington could not leave Mt. Vernon). The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


Hamilton proceeded to set up an army, which was to guard against invasion and march into the possessions of Spain, then allied with France, and take Louisiana and Mexico. His correspondence further suggests that when he returned in military glory, he dreamed of setting up a properly energetic government, without any Jeffersonians. Adams, however, derailed all plans for war by opening negotiations with France.[48] Adams had also held it right to retain Washington's cabinet, except for cause; he found, in 1800 (after Washington's death), that they were obeying Hamilton rather than himself and fired several of them.[49] The United States in 1810, following the Louisiana Purchase. ...


1800 presidential election

Statue of Hamilton in the United States Capitol rotunda.
Statue of Hamilton in the United States Capitol rotunda.

In the 1800 election, Hamilton acted against both sides. He proposed that New York, which Burr had won for Jefferson, should have its election rerun with carefully chosen districts - a definitely non-legal maneuver. John Jay, who had given up the Supreme Court to be Governor of New York, wrote on the back of the letter the words "Proposing a measure for party purposes which it would not become me to adopt", and declined to reply. [50] John Adams was running this time with Pinckney's elder brother Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. On the other hand, Hamilton toured New England, again urging Northern Electors to hold firm for this Pinckney, in the renewed hope to make Pinckney President; and he again intrigued in South Carolina. This time, the important reaction was from the Jeffersonian Electors, all of whom voted both for Jefferson and Burr to ensure that no such deal would result in electing a Federalist. (Burr had received only one vote from Virginia in 1796.) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (912 × 1352 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of statue of Alexander Hamilton in the rotunda of the United States Capitol, taken by Rebel At, on June 23rd, 2007. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (912 × 1352 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of statue of Alexander Hamilton in the rotunda of the United States Capitol, taken by Rebel At, on June 23rd, 2007. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... Charles Cotesworth (C.C.) Pinckney (February 5, 1746 – August 16, 1825), was an early American statesman and a signer of the U.S. Constitution. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


In September, Hamilton wrote a pamphlet (Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq. President of the United States) which was highly critical of Adams, although it closed with a tepid endorsement. He mailed this to two hundred leading Federalists; when a copy fell into Democratic-Republican hands, they printed it. This also hurt Adams's 1800 reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, virtually assuring the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of 1800, and destroyed Hamilton's position among the Federalists.[51] Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


On the Federalist side, Governor Arthur Fenner of Rhode Island denounced these "jockeying tricks" to make Pinckney President, and one Rhode Island Elector voted for Adams and Jay. The result was that Jefferson and Burr tied for first and second; and Pinckney came in fourth.[52] Arthur Fenner (b. ...


So Jefferson had beaten Adams, but both he and his running mate, Aaron Burr, received 73 votes in the Electoral College. With Jefferson and Burr tied, the United States House of Representatives had to choose between the two men. (As a result of this election, the Twelfth Amendment was proposed and ratified, adopting the method under which presidential elections are held today.) Several Federalists who opposed Jefferson supported Burr, but Hamilton reluctantly threw his weight behind Jefferson, causing one Federalist congressman to abstain from voting after 36 tied ballots. This ensured that Jefferson was elected President rather than Burr. Even though Hamilton did not like Jefferson and disagreed with him on many issues, he was quoted as saying, "At least Jefferson was honest." Burr then became Vice President of the United States. When it became clear that he would not be asked to run again with Jefferson, Burr sought the New York governorship in 1804 with Federalist support, against the Jeffersonian Morgan Lewis, but was defeated by forces including Hamilton.[53] Amendment XII in the National Archives The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution alterd Article II pertaining to presidential elections. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Morgan Lewis (1754 - 1844) was the son of Francis Lewis. ...


Family life

Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, 1781
Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, 1781

In spring 1779, Hamilton asked his friend John Laurens to find him a wife in South Carolina: [Mitchell vol 1 p 199]:

"She must be young—handsome (I lay most stress upon a good shape) Sensible (a little learning will do) —well bred. . . chaste and tender (I am an enthusiast in my notions of fidelity and fondness); of some good nature—a great deal of generosity (she must neither love money nor scolding, for I dislike equally a termagant and an economist)—In politics, I am indifferent what side she may be of—I think I have arguments that will safely convert her to mine—As to religion a moderate stock will satisfy me—She must believe in God and hate a saint. But as to fortune, the larger stock of that the better."

Hamilton found his own bride on December 14, 1780 when he married Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of General Philip Schuyler, and thus joined one of the richest and most political families in the state of New York. The marriage took place at Schuyler Mansion in Albany, New York. is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (August 9, 1757 – November 9, 1854), was the wife of the founder of the Federalist party and first Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. ... Philip Schuyler Philip John Schuyler (November 10, 1733 – November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. ... Schuyler Mansion is a historic house at 32 Catherine Street in Albany, New York, United States. ... For other uses, see Albany. ...


Hamilton grew extremely close to Eliza's sister, Angelica Church, who was married to John Barker Church, a Member of Parliament in Great Britain.[54] It is believed by many that the two had an affair, although, due to extensive editing of much Hamilton-Church correspondence by Hamilton's later descendants, it is impossible to know for sure.[55] A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


Hamilton's widow, Elizabeth (known as Eliza or Betsy), survived him for fifty years, until 1854; Hamilton had referred to her as "best of wives and best of women." An extremely religious woman, Eliza spent much of her life working to help widows and orphans. After Hamilton's death, Eliza sold the country house, the Grange she and Hamilton built together 1800 to 1802; and she co-founded New York's first private orphanage, the New York Orphan Asylum Society. Despite the Reynolds affair, Alexander and Eliza were very close, and as a widow she always strove to guard his reputation and enhance his standing in American history. Drawing of the Grange before 1889. ...


Hamilton and Elizabeth had eight children, They had two Phillip's.The elder Philip, Hamilton's first child, was killed in 1801 in a duel with George I. Eacker whom he had publicly insulted in a Manhattan theater. The second Philip, Hamilton's last child, was born in 1802, after the first Philip was killed. Their children's names are: Phillip, January 22, 1782; Angelica, September 25, 1784; Alexander May 16, 1796; James April 14, 1788; John Church, August 22, 1792; William Stephen August 4, 1797; Eliza, November 26, 1799; and the second Phillip, June 2, 1802[citation needed]


Duel with Aaron Burr and death

Hamilton fights his fatal duel with Vice President Aaron Burr. The depiction is inaccurate: Only the two seconds actually witnessed the duel.
Hamilton fights his fatal duel with Vice President Aaron Burr. The depiction is inaccurate: Only the two seconds actually witnessed the duel.
Main article: Burr-Hamilton duel

Soon after the gubernatorial election in New York—in which Morgan Lewis, greatly assisted by Hamilton, defeated Aaron Burr—a newspaper published a letter recounting a dinner party in upstate New York during which Hamilton said he could reveal "an even more despicable opinion" of Colonel Burr.[56] Burr, sensing an attack on his honor, and surely still stung by the political defeat, demanded an apology. Hamilton refused on the grounds that he could not recall the instance. Alexander Hamilton duelling with Aaron Burr. ... Alexander Hamilton duelling with Aaron Burr. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... A contemporary artistic rendering of the July 11, 1804 duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton by J. Mund. ... Morgan Lewis (October 16, 1754– April 7, 1844) was the son of Francis Lewis. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ...


Following an exchange of three testy letters, and despite the attempts of friends to avert a confrontation, a duel was nevertheless scheduled for July 11, 1804, along the west bank of the Hudson River on a rocky ledge in Weehawken, New Jersey, a common dueling site at which, three years earlier, Hamilton's eldest son, Philip, had been killed. is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... Weehawken is a township in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. ...


At dawn, the duel began, and Vice President Aaron Burr shot Hamilton. Hamilton's shot broke a tree branch directly above Burr's head. A letter that he wrote the night before the duel states, "I have resolved, if our interview [duel] is conducted in the usual manner, and it pleases God to give me the opportunity, to reserve and throw away my first fire, and I have thoughts even of reserving my second fire", which asserts an intention to miss Burr. The circumstances of the duel, and Hamilton's actual intentions, are still disputed. Neither of the seconds, Pendleton or Van Ness, could determine who fired first. Soon after, they measured and triangulated the shooting (both men were the same height), but could not determine from which angle Hamilton fired. Burr's shot, however, hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen above the right hip. The bullet ricocheted off Hamilton's second or third false rib, fracturing it and caused considerable damage to his internal organs, particularly his liver and diaphragm before becoming lodged in his first or second lumbar vertebra. The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ... A typical lumbar vertebra The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column, and can be distinguished by the absence of a foramen (hole) in the transverse process, and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body. ...


If a duelist decided not to aim at his opponent there was a well-known procedure, available to everyone involved, for doing so. Hamilton did not follow this procedure (If so, Burr might have followed suit, and death may have been avoided). It was a matter of honor among gentlemen to follow these rules. Because of the high incidence of septicemia and death resulting from torso wounds, a high percentage of duels employed this procedure of throwing away fire.[57] Years later, when told that Hamilton may have misled him at the duel, the ever-laconic Burr replied, "Contemptible, if true." [58] Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ...


Hamilton was ferried back to New York. After final visits from his family and friends and considerable suffering, Hamilton died on the following afternoon, July 12, 1804. Gouverneur Morris, a political ally of Hamilton's, gave the eulogy at his funeral and secretly established a fund to support his widow and children. Hamilton was buried in the Trinity Churchyard Cemetery in Manhattan alongside other famous Americans such as Robert Fulton. Gouverneur Morris Gouverneur Morris (January 31, 1752 – November 6, 1816) was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and was an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States. ... Trinity Church Cemetery consists of three separate burial grounds associated with Trinity Church in Manhattan, New York, USA. The first was established in the Churchyard located at 74 Trinity Place at Wall Street and Broadway. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

Alexander Hamilton on the current U.S. $10 bill, based on an 1805 portrait by John Trumbull.
Alexander Hamilton on the current U.S. $10 bill, based on an 1805 portrait by John Trumbull.

From the start, Hamilton set a precedent as a Cabinet member by formulating federal programs, writing them in the form of reports, pushing for their approval by appearing in person to argue them on the floor of the United States Congress, and then implementing them. Hamilton and the other Cabinet members were vital to Washington, as there was no president before him (under the Constitution) to set precedents for him to follow in national situations such as seditions, foreign affairs, etc. Image File history File links US10dollarbill-Series_2004A.jpg New US 10 bill (front) Series 2004A Source: United States Treasury Bureau of Engraving and Printing The image above depicts a unit of currency issued by the United States of America. ... Image File history File links US10dollarbill-Series_2004A.jpg New US 10 bill (front) Series 2004A Source: United States Treasury Bureau of Engraving and Printing The image above depicts a unit of currency issued by the United States of America. ... The old and new ten dollar bill The U.S. ten dollar bill ($10) is a denomination of United States currency. ... This article is about the American painter. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Another of Hamilton's legacies was his pro-federal interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Though the Constitution was drafted in a way that was somewhat ambiguous as to the balance of power between national and state governments, Hamilton consistently took the side of greater federal power at the expense of states. Thus, as Secretary of the Treasury, he established—against the intense opposition of Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson—the country's first national bank. Hamilton justified the creation of this bank, and other increased federal powers, on Congress's constitutional powers to issue currency, to regulate interstate commerce, and anything else that would be "necessary and proper." Jefferson, on the other hand, took a stricter view of the Constitution: parsing the text carefully, he found no specific authorization for a national bank. This controversy was eventually settled by the Supreme Court of the United States in McCulloch v. Maryland, which in essence adopted Hamilton's view, granting the federal government broad freedom to select the best means to execute its constitutionally enumerated powers, specifically the doctrine of implied powers. The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding Although the Constitution does not specifically give Congress the power to establish a bank, it does delegate the ability to tax and spend, and a bank is a proper and suitable instrument to assist the operations of the government in the collection and disbursement of the revenue. ... Implied powers are those powers authorized by a legal document which, while not explicitly stated, are deemed to be implied by powers expressly stated. ...


Hamilton's policies as Secretary of the Treasury have had an immeasurable effect on the United States Government and still continue to influence it. In 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the U.S. Navy was still using inter-ship communication protocols written by Hamilton for the original U.S. Coast Guard. His constitutional interpretation, specifically of the necessary-and-proper clause, set precedents for federal authority that are still used by the courts and are considered an authority on constitutional interpretation. The prominent French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand once said "I consider Napoleon, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton. He divined Europe."[59] For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The necessary and proper clause (also known as the elastic clause, the basket clause, the coefficient clause, and the sweeping clause [1]) refers to a provision, in Article One of the United States Constitution at section eight, clause 18, which addresses implied powers of Congress. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Prince de Benevente (February 2, 1754 – May 17, 1838), the Prince of Diplomats,[2] was a French diplomat. ...


Hamilton's portrait began to appear during the American Civil War on the $2, $5, $10, and $50 notes. His face continues to appear on the front of the ten dollar bill. Hamilton also appears on the $500 Series EE Savings Bond. The source of the face on the $10 bill is John Trumbull's 1805 portrait of Hamilton that belongs to the portrait collection of New York City Hall.[60] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is about the American painter. ... ...


On the south side of the Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. is a statue of Hamilton. ...


Hamilton's upper Manhattan home is preserved as Hamilton Grange National Memorial, and currently includes a statue at the entrance. The historic structure, already removed from its original location many years ago, is being moved again - from its current position sandwiched between two masonry buildings, to a spot in a nearby park on land that was once part of the Hamilton estate.[61] It is expected to re-open to the public in 2009. This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Drawing of the Grange before 1889. ...


Multiple towns throughout the United States have been named after Hamilton.


On slavery

Some modern scholars believe that the historical record confirms Hamilton as a "steadfast abolitionist"; others see him as a "hypocrite.".[62] For example, Hamilton returned an escaped slave to a friend.[63] Hamilton's first polemic against King George's ministers contains a paragraph which speaks of the evils which "slavery" to the British would bring upon the Americans. One biographer sees this as an attack on actual slavery;[64] such hostility was quite common in 1776.[65]


During the Revolutionary War, there was a series of proposals to arm slaves, free them, and compensate their masters.[66] Freeing any enlisted slaves had also become customary by then both for the British, who did not compensate their American masters, and for the Continental Army; some states were to require it before the end of the war.[67] In 1779, Hamilton's friend John Laurens suggested such a unit be formed under his command, to relieve besieged Charleston, South Carolina; Hamilton wrote a letter to the Continental Congress to create up to four battalions of slaves for combat duty, and free them. Congress recommended that South Carolina (and Georgia) acquire up to three thousand slaves, if they saw fit; they did not, even though the South Carolina governor and Congressional delegation had supported the plan in Philadelphia.[68] John Laurens (October 28, 1754 - August 27, 1782) was an American soldier and statesman from South Carolina during the Revolutionary War. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Hamilton argued that blacks' natural faculties were as good as those of free whites, and he forestalled objections by citing Frederick the Great and others as praising obedience and lack of cultivation in soldiers; he also argued that if the Americans did not do this, the British would (as they had elsewhere). One of his biographers has cited this incident as evidence that Hamilton and Laurens saw the Revolution and the struggle against slavery as inseparable.[69] Hamilton later attacked his political opponents as demanding freedom for themselves and refusing to allow it to blacks.[70] Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...


In January 1785, he attended the second meeting of the New York Manumission Society (NYMS). John Jay was president and Hamilton was secretary; he later became president.[71] He was also a member of the committee of the society which put a bill through the New York Legislature banning the export of slaves from New York;[72] three months later, Hamilton returned a fugitive slave to Henry Laurens of South Carolina.[73] The New York Manumission Society was an early American organization founded in 1785 to promote the abolition of African slaves in the state of New York. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... Henry Laurens Henry Laurens (1724–1792) was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. ...


Hamilton never supported forced emigration for freed slaves; it has been argued from this that he would be comfortable with a multiracial society, and this distinguished him from his contemporaries.[74] In international affairs, he supported Toussaint L'Ouverture's black government in Haiti after the revolt that overthrew French control, as he had supported aid to the slaveowners in 1791 — both measures hurt France.[75] François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture François-Dominique Toussaint LOuverture, also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (c. ...


He may have owned household slaves himself (the evidence for this is indirect; one biographer interprets it as referring to paid employees[76]), and he did buy and sell them on behalf of others. He supported a gag rule to keep divisive discussions of slavery out of Congress, and he supported the compromise by which the United States could not abolish the slave trade for twenty years.[77] When the Quakers of New York petitioned the First Congress (under the Constitution) for the abolition of the slave trade, and Benjamin Franklin and the Pennsylvania Abolition Society petitioned for the abolition of slavery, the NYMS did not act.[78]Historian James Horton concludes that Hamilton's racial views, while not entirely egalitarian, were relatively progressive for his day.[79] A gag rule is a rule that limits or forbids the consideration or discussion of a topic. ... Federal Hall (1790) // The First United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprised of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. ...


On economics

Alexander Hamilton is sometimes considered the "patron-saint" of the American School of economic philosophy that, according to one historian, dominated economic policy after 1861.[80] He firmly supported government intervention in favor of business, after the manner of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, as early as the fall of 1781.[81]. Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... The American School, also known as National System, represents three different yet related things in politics, policy and philosophy. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ...


Hamilton opposed the British ideas of free trade which he believed skewed benefits to colonial/imperial powers, in favor of U.S. protectionism which he believed would help develop the fledgling nation's emerging economy. Henry C. Carey was inspired by his writings. Some say he influenced the ideas and work of German Friedrich List. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Henry Charles Carey (December 15, 1793 - October 13, 1879), American economist, was born in Philadelphia. ... Friedrich List (August 6, 1789 - November 30, 1846) was a leading 19th Century German economist who believed in the National System. // He was born at Reutlingen, Württemberg. ...


Hamilton's religion

In his early life, he was an orthodox and conventional, though not deeply pious, Presbyterian. From 1777 to 1792, he appears to have been completely indifferent, and made jokes about God at the Constitutional Convention. During the French Revolution, he had an "opportunistic religiosity," using Christianity for political ends and insisting that Christianity and Jefferson's democracy were incompatible. After his misfortunes of 1801, he asserted the truth of the Christian revelation. He proposed a Christian Constitutional Society in 1802, to take hold of "some strong feeling of the mind" to elect "fit men" to office; but Hamilton now wrote also of "Christian welfare societies" for the poor. He did not join any denomination, but led his family in the Episcopal service the Sunday before the duel. After he was shot, Hamilton requested communion first from Benjamin Moore, the Episcopal Bishop of New York, who initially declined to administer the Sacrament chiefly because he did not wish to sanction the practice of dueling. Hamilton then requested communion from Presbyterian pastor John Mason, who declined on the grounds that Presbyterians did not reserve the Sacrament. After Hamilton spoke of his belief in God's mercy, and of his desire to renounce dueling, Bishop Moore reversed his decision, and administered communion to Hamilton.[82] Benjamin Moore (1748 - 1816) was a U.S. episcopal clergyman. ... The Episcopal Diocese of New York is in Province II of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... Captain John Mason (1586–1635) was born in Norfolk. ...


Memorial at colleges

Alexander Hamilton served as one of the first trustees of the Hamilton-Oneida Academy when the school opened in 1793. When the academy received a college charter in 1812 the school was formally renamed Hamilton College. There is a prominent statue of Alexander Hamilton in front of the school's chapel (commonly referred to as the "Al-Ham" statue) and the Burke Library has an extensive collection of Hamilton's personal documents. For other colleges with the same name, see Hamilton College (disambiguation). ...


Columbia College, Hamilton's alma mater, whose students formed his militia artillery company and fired some of the first shots against the British, has official memorials to Hamilton. The college's main classroom building for the humanities is Hamilton Hall, and a large statue of Hamilton stands in front of it. The university press has published his complete works in a multivolume letterpress edition. Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Letterpress printing is the oldest printing technique, in which a raised surface is inked and then pressed against a smooth substance to obtain an image in reverse. ...


The main administration building of the Coast Guard Academy is named Hamilton Hall to commemorate Hamilton's creation of the United States Revenue Cutter Service, one of the entities that was combined to form the United States Coast Guard. The United States Coast Guard Academy, located in New London, Connecticut, is a U.S. military academy that provides education to future officers of the United States Coast Guard. ... The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1790 as an armed maritime law enforcement service. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


References

"The long tradition of Hamilton biography has, almost without exception, been laudatory in the extreme. Facts have been exaggerated, moved around, omitted, misunderstood and imaginatively created. The effect has been to produce a spotless champion...Those little satisfied with this reading of American history have struck back by depicting Hamilton as a devil devoted to undermining all that was most characteristic and noble in American life." James Thomas Flexner, The Young Hamilton, pp. 3-4.

Secondary sources

  • Robert E. Wright: One Nation Under Debt: Hamilton, Jefferson, and the History of What We Owe (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008).
  • Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick: Age of Federalism (New York, Oxford University Press, 1993). online edition
  • Samuel Eliot Morison and Henry Steele Commager: Growth of the American Republic (New York, Oxford University Press, 1969; other eds as cited).

RAdm Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), USN historian Samuel Eliot Morison, RAdm, USNR (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian, notable for producing scholarly works that were both authoritative and highly readable, an ability recognized with two Pulitzer Prizes. ... Henry Steele Commager (October 25, 1902 - March 2, 1998) was a noted American historian who wrote (or edited) over forty books and over 700 journalistic essays and reviews, and taught at New York University, Columbia, and Amherst College. ...

Biographies

  • Brookhiser, Richard. Alexander Hamilton, American. Free Press, (1999) (ISBN 0-684-83919-9).
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. Penguin Books, (2004) (ISBN 1-59420-009-2). full length detailed biography
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (2002), won Pulitzer Prize.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. The Young Hamilton: A Biography. Fordham University Press, (1997) (ISBN 0-8232-1790-6).
  • Fleming, Thomas. Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America. (2000) (ISBN 0-465-01737-1).
  • McDonald, Forrest. Alexander Hamilton: A Biography(1982) (ISBN 0-393-30048-X), biography focused on intellectual history esp on AH's republicanism.
  • Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (1959), full-length scholarly biography; online edition
  • Mitchell, Broadus. Alexander Hamilton (2 vols, 1957–62), the most detailed scholarly biography; also published in abridged edition
  • Randall, Willard Sterne. Alexander Hamilton: A Life. HarperCollins, (2003) (ISBN 0-06-019549-5). Popular.
  • Don Winslow Alexander Hamilton: In Worlds Unknown (Script and Film New York Historical Society)

Don Winslow is an author currently living in the United States, most recognized for his crime and mystery novels. ...

Specialized studies

  • Douglass Adair and Marvin Harvey: "Was Alexander Hamilton a Christian Statesman?" The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 12, No. 2, Alexander Hamilton: 1755-1804. (Apr., 1955), pp. 308-329. 1JSTOR URL.
  • Arming slaves : from classical times to the modern age, Christopher Leslie Brown and Philip D. Morgan, eds. esp. 180–208 on the American Revolution, by Morgan and A. J. O'Shaubhnessy.
  • Douglas Ambrose and Robert W. T. Martin, eds. The Many Faces of Alexander Hamilton: The Life & Legacy of America's Most Elusive Founding Father (2006)
  • Brant, Irving: The Fourth President: a Life of James Madison. Bobbs-Merill, 1970. A one-volume recasting of Brant's six-volume life.
  • Chan, Michael D. "Alexander Hamilton on Slavery." Review of Politics 66 (Spring 2004): 207-31.
  • Fatovic, Clement. "Constitutionalism and Presidential Prerogative: Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian Perspectives." American Journal of Political Science 2004 48(3): 429-444. Issn: 0092-5853 Fulltext in Swetswise, Ingenta, Jstor, Ebsco
  • Flaumenhaft; Harvey. The Effective Republic: Administration and Constitution in the Thought of Alexander Hamilton Duke University Press, 1992
  • Harper, John Lamberton. American Machiavelli: Alexander Hamilton and the Origins of U.S. Foreign Policy. (2004)
  • Horton, James Oliver. "Alexander Hamilton: Slavery and Race in a Revolutionary Generation" New-York Journal of American History 2004 65(3): 16–24. ISSN 1551-5486 online version
  • Roger G. Kennedy; Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character Oxford University Press, 2000
  • Knott, Stephen F. Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth University Press of Kansas, (2002) (ISBN 0-7006-1157-6).
  • Harold Larsen: Alexander Hamilton: The Fact and Fiction of His Early Years The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 9, No. 2. (Apr., 1952), pp. 139–151. JSTOR link
  • Littlefield, Daniel C. "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery." New York History 2000 81(1): 91–132. ISSN 0146-437X
  • Martin, Robert W. T. "Reforming Republicanism: Alexander Hamilton's Theory of Republican Citizenship and Press Liberty." Journal of the Early Republic 2005 25(1): 21-46. Issn: 0275-1275 Fulltext online in Project Muse and Ebsco
  • McManus, Edgar J. History of Negro Slavery in New York. Syracuse University Press, 1966.
  • Mitchell, Broadus: "The man who 'discovered' Alexander Hamilton". Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 1951. 69:88–115
  • Monaghan, Frank: John Jay. Bobbs-Merrill (1935).
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775–1815 (1962).
  • Rossiter, Clinton. Alexander Hamilton and the Constitution (1964)
  • Sharp, James. American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis. (1995), survey of politics in 1790s
  • Sheehan, Colleen. "Madison V. Hamilton: The Battle Over Republicanism And The Role Of Public Opinion" American Political Science Review 2004 98(3): 405–424.
  • Smith, Robert W. Keeping the Republic: Ideology and Early American Diplomacy. (2004)
  • Staloff, Darren. "Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding." (2005)
  • Stourzh, Gerald. Alexander Hamilton and the Idea of Republican Government (1970),
  • Trees, Andrew S. "The Importance of Being Alexander Hamilton." Reviews in American History 2005 33(1): 8-14. Issn: 0048-7511 Fulltext: in Project Muse
  • Trees, Andrew S. The Founding Fathers and the Politics of Character. (2004)
  • Wallace, David Duncan: Life of Henry Laurens, with a sketch of the life of Lieutenant-Colonel John Laurens Putnam (1915)
  • Weston, Rob N. "Alexander Hamilton and the Abolition of Slavery in New York" Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 1994 18(1): 31–45. ISSN 0364-2437 An undergraduate paper, which concludes that Hamilton was ambivalent about slavery.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists (1949), coverage of how the Treasury and other departments were created and operated.
  • Richard D. White; "Political Economy and Statesmanship: Smith, Hamilton, and the Foundation of the Commercial Republic" Public Administration Review, Vol. 60, 2000
  • Wright; Robert E. Hamilton Unbound: Finance and the Creation of the American Republic Praeger (2002)

JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ...

Primary sources

  • Hamilton, Alexander. (Joanne B. Freeman, ed.) Alexander Hamilton: Writings (2001), The Library of America edition, 1108 pages. ISBN 978-1-93108204-4; all of Hamilton's major writings and many of his letters
  • Syrett, Harold C.; Cooke, Jacob E.; and Chernow, Barbara, eds. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton (27 vol, Columbia University Press, 1961–87); includes all letters and writing by Hamilton, and all important letters written to him; this is the definitive letterpress edition, heavily annotated by scholars; it is available in larger academic libraries.
  • Goebel, Julius, Jr., and Smith, Joseph H., eds., The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton (5 vols., Columbia University Press, 1964-80); the legal counterpart to the Papers of Alexander Hamilton.
  • Morris, Richard. ed. Alexander Hamilton and the Founding of the Nation (1957), excerpts from AH's writings
  • Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton. Morton J. Frisch ed. (1985).
  • The Works of Alexander Hamilton edited by Henry Cabot Lodge (1904) full text online at Google Books online in HTML edition. This is the only online collection of Hamilton's writings and letters. Published in 10 volumes, containing about 1.3 million words.
  • Federalist Papers under the shared pseudonym "Publius" by Alexander Hamilton (c. 52 articles), James Madison (28 articles) and John Jay (five articles)
  • Report on Manufactures, his economic program for the United States.
  • Report on Public Credit, his financial program for the United States.
  • Cooke, Jacob E. ed., Alexander Hamilton: A Profile (1967), short excerpts from AH and his critics.
  • Cunningham, Noble E. Jefferson vs. Hamilton: Confrontations that Shaped a Nation (2000), short collection of primary sources with commentary.
  • George Rogers Taylor; ed, Hamilton and the National Debt 1950, excerpts from all sides in 1790s

An advertisement for The Federalist The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist. ... A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Chernow p 90
  2. ^ ANB "John Fenno"
  3. ^ Brant, Fourth President, p. 201 says "apothesosis"; but he may, in context, be writing of historians, such as James Ford Rhodes.
  4. ^ Flexner, Introduction; for example, Arthur H. Vandenburg wrote The Greatest American in 1922, when he was still a newspaper editor, likewise Henry Cabot Lodge's Alexander Hamilton was written when he was a junior professor; for the effect on his career of his "advocacy of his party's views", see American National Biography, Arthur H. Vandenburg.
  5. ^ Nevis is the island that Hamilton claimed to be his birthplace, but no records have ever been found to confirm this.
  6. ^ Chernow, p.28
  7. ^ From the records of St. Croix; Ramsing published in 1930, in Danish, so his findings took a while to enter the Hamilton literature
  8. ^ Chernow, Flexner, Mitchell's Concise Life. "Most historians" from McDonald, 366, n.8, who nevertheless gives 1757; he discounts the probate document because the clerk gives another spelling of "Lavien" and therefore showed himself unreliable.
  9. ^ The spelling of Lavien varies; this is Hamilton's version, which may be a Sephardic spelling of Levine; Chernow, p. 10. The couple may have lived apart from one another under an order of legal separation; since Rachel was the guilty party, re-marriage was impossible on the island of St. Croix. When she moved to Nevis, she left behind a son from that marriage.
  10. ^ Chernow, page 12
  11. ^ Chernow, page 17
  12. ^ Chernow, page 17
  13. ^ Glimpses Into American Jewish History, The Jewish Press, May 2, 2007
  14. ^ Chernow, page 24
  15. ^ For conjecture on this, see, for example, Flexner, passim.
  16. ^ Chernow, page 25
  17. ^ Flexner, McDonald
  18. ^ Chernow, page 26
  19. ^ Adair and Harvey: "Christian Statesman"
  20. ^ :There is some dispute about this. The original source was a collection of anecdotes by Hercules Mulligan, published well after Hamilton's death; some biographers, including Mitchell and Flexner, consider him unreliable. Mulligan asserted that Hamilton demanded the right to advance from class to class at his own speed, and John Witherspoon refused. Witherspoon had just overseen similar programs for James Madison and Joseph Ross, but this may have been the problem: Madison had then collapsed from overwork and Ross had died young (as Elkins and McKitrick comment).
  21. ^ Chernow, p. 53
  22. ^ Philolexian Society
  23. ^ Morison and Commager, p. 160; Miller p. 19
  24. ^ McDonald (p.14), Mitchell (I 75), Chernow (63), and Flexner (78). Flexner even answers the objection that Cooper wrote a poem about the incident and did not mention Hamilton, by suggesting that Cooper did not see Hamilton, who was on the other side of the building.
  25. ^ Chernow p 90
  26. ^ Chernow p 90
  27. ^ Chernow p 90
  28. ^ Lodge 1: 15–20; Miller 23–26
  29. ^ Gay American History 1976; Flexner, Young Hamilton, chiefly p.316. For Chernow, and the criticism see Trees, Andrew S. "The Importance of Being Alexander Hamilton." (a review of Chernow) Reviews in American History 2005 33(1): 8-14
  30. ^ Chernow p.159
  31. ^ Mitchell, p. 254–60; Morison and Commager, p. 160
  32. ^ Martin and Lender, A Respectable Army; the Military Origins of the Republic, 1763-1789 pp. 188-9. Garry Wills, Cincinnatus, p.6, citing Washington's letters of April 4, 1783 (to Hamilton) and March 12, 1783 (to Elias Boudinot, as President of Congress) as warnings to the Congressmen; Washington mentions Robert Morris expressly. Quotes from the letter to Hamilton, text from Fitzpatrick's edition of the Writings 26:293. American National Biography, "Alexander Hamilton" by Forrest McDonald. The two Morrises, despite their association here and elsewhere, were unrelated.
  33. ^ Chernow, p. 197–9, McDonald p. 64–9
  34. ^ Mitchell, p. 394–6, who sees only the monarchist speech here mentioned and the draft below.
  35. ^ Mitchell, p. 397 ff.
  36. ^ Irving Brant, Fourth President, p. 195.
  37. ^ Max Farrand, ed., The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (RFC), 4 vols. (New Haven, Conn., 1937), 3:533–34
  38. ^ Morrison and Commager, I, p.290
  39. ^ Morison and Commager, I 309-11
  40. ^ Britain had groupings inside Parliament that can be called parties, but they did not reach out to the voters.
  41. ^ Jacobin and Junto Charles Warren (1931) pp 90–91.
  42. ^ Miller p. 344
  43. ^ Bemis, Jay's Treaty. Elkins and McKitrick 400 ff.
  44. ^ Samuel Flagg Bemis, Jay's Treaty (quoted); Elkins and McKitrick p.411 f.
  45. ^ Chernow, p. 479, ANB Hamilton.
  46. ^ Elkins and McKitrick; Age of Federalism.pp.523–8, 859; Rutledge had his own plan, to have Pinckney win with Jefferson as Vice-President.
  47. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, p.515
  48. ^ Morison and Commager, p.327
  49. ^ ANB James McHenry; he also fired Timothy Pickering
  50. ^ Monaghan, p. 419–421.
  51. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, like other historians, speak of Hamilton's self-destructive tendencies in this connection.
  52. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, p. 734–40
  53. ^ ANB "Aaron Burr"
  54. ^ Chernow, p. 133
  55. ^ Chernow, p. 133–4
  56. ^ Kennedy, Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson, p. 72
  57. ^ Joanne B. Freeman "Dueling as Politics: Reinterpreting the Burr-Hamilton Duel"; The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 53, No. 2. (Apr., 1996), pp. 289-318. JSTOR link.
  58. ^ Joseph Wheelan, Jefferson's Vendetta: The Pursuit of Aaron Burr and the Judiciary, New York, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2005, ISBN 0786714379, p. 90
  59. ^ "Je considère Napoleon, Fox, et Hamilton comme les trois plus grands hommes de notre époque, et si je devais me prononcer entre les trois, je donnerais sans hesiter la première place à Hamilton. Il avait deviné l'Europe." Talleyrand, Études sur la République.
  60. ^ The New York Times. Dec 6, 2006. "In New York, Taking Years Off the Old, Famous Faces Adorning City Hall." [1]
  61. ^ http://www.nps.gov/hagr/
  62. ^ Quotes describing the historiography from Weston, who disagrees with both, finding Hamilton ambivalent.
  63. ^ Littlefield, p.126, citing Syrett: 3:605-8. See also Wills,Negro President p. 209
  64. ^ McDonald
  65. ^ McManus; "Many national leaders including Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, John Adams, John Jay, Gouverneur Morris, and Rufus King, saw slavery as an immense problem, a curse, a blight, or a national disease." David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage p.156; Morison and Commager quote Patrick Henry's regrets at being unable to give up the comforts of slave-owning.
  66. ^ The first of these projects was made in August 1776, by Jonathan Dickinson Sargeant, see Arming slaves pp. 192–3, 206; Rhode Island had formed the First Rhode Island regiment in 1777. which fought the Battle of Rhode Island; and there were other black units. Sidney Kaplan: The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution, p.64ff
  67. ^ McManus, pp. 153-58.
  68. ^ Mitchell 1:175–77, 550 n.92; citing the Journals of the Continental Congress for March 29, 1779; Wallace p 455. Congress offered to compensate their masters after the war.
  69. ^ letter to Jay of 14 March 1779; Chernow p.121. McManus, p. 154-7
  70. ^ McDonald, p. 34; Flexner, p. 257–8,
  71. ^ McManus, p. 168.
  72. ^ Chernow, p. 216
  73. ^ Littlefield, p.126, citing Syrett: 3:605-8. The mention in Wills, p. 209, that Hamilton arranged, a decade later, as Secretary of the Treasury, to recapture one of Washington's slaves is a chronological error; it was his successor, Oliver Wolcott, of Connecticut.
  74. ^ Horton, p. 22
  75. ^ Horton; Kennedy 97–98; Littlefield. Wills, p. 35, 40
  76. ^ McDonald
  77. ^ Flexner. 39
  78. ^ McDonald, p. 177
  79. ^ Horton p.19.
  80. ^ Lind, Michael. Hamilton's Republic (1997) pages xiv-xv, 229–30.
  81. ^ Chernow, 170; citing Continentalist V, Syrett: 3:77; published April 1782, but written Fall 1781
  82. ^ This entire paragraph, including the quote on religiosity, is from Adair and Harvey: "Christian Statesman?" passim. Hamilton's early faith is a deduction: Livingstone and Knox would have chosen to sponsor only an orthodox young man. Quotes on the Christian Constitutional Society are from Hamilton's letter to James A. Bayard of April 1802, as quoted by Adair and Harvey; they see this as a great change from the military preparations and Sedition Act of 1798. For Bishop Moore, see also Chernow, p. 707; McDonald, p.3 on Hamilton's secular ambition, although he adds that Hamilton's faith "had not entirely departed" him before the crisis of 1801. (p. 356).

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Political offices
Preceded by
(none)
United States Secretary of the Treasury
1789–1795
Succeeded by
Oliver Wolcott, Jr.
Military offices
Preceded by
George Washington
Senior Officer of the United States Army
1799–1800
Succeeded by
James Wilkinson
Persondata
NAME Hamilton, Alexander
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Founding Fathers of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH January 11, 1755 or 1757
PLACE OF BIRTH Nevis, Caribbean
DATE OF DEATH July 12, 1804
PLACE OF DEATH New York City, New York, United States

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Alexander Hamilton, author of Federalist No. ... The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the United States. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links the first president of the United States of America Stuart, Gilbert, 1755-1828, artist File links The following pages link to this file: President of the United States Purple Heart United States List of Presidents of the United States User talk:Simplicius User:Bishonen/prettytable... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Oliver Wolcott Jr. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nations first Secretary of War. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... James McHenry (November 16, 1753 – May 3, 1816) was an early American statesman. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... Charles Lee (1758– June 24, 1815) was an American lawyer from Virginia. ...


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Alexander Hamilton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5382 words)
Hamilton also wrote a pamphlet which was highly critical of Adams (although it closed with a tepid endorsement) which may have hurt Adams's 1800 reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, contributing to the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of 1800.
Hamilton argued that fls' natural faculties were as good as those of free whites; and forestalled objections by citing Frederick the Great and others as praising obedience and lack of cultivation in soldiers; he also argued that if the Americans didn't do this, the British would (as they had elsewhere).
Alexander Hamilton is sometimes considered the "patron-saint" of the American School of economic philosophy that, accoridng to one historian, dominated economic policy after 1861.
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