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Encyclopedia > Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell

Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell c. 1910
Born 3 March 1847
Edinburgh, Scotland.
Died 2 August 1922 (aged 75)
Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Cause of death Pernicious anemia
Education University of Edinburgh
University College London
University of Toronto
Occupation Inventor, Scientist, Professor (Boston University)
Known for Inventor of the telephone
Spouse Mabel Hubbard
(married 1877–1922)
Children (4) Two sons who died in infancy and two daughters
Parents Alexander Melville Bell
Eliza Grace Symonds Bell
Relatives Gardiner Greene Hubbard (father-in-law)
Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (son-in-law)
Melville Bell Grosvenor (grandson)

Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 18472 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. His father, grandfather and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[1] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices that eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876.[2] Download high resolution version (480x624, 58 KB)Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell, ca. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Beinn Bhreagh is an unincorporated Canadian rural community in Victoria County, Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermers anaemia or Addisons anaemia or Addison-Biermer anaemia) is a form of megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency dependent on impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the setting of atrophic gastritis, and more specifically of loss of gastric parietal cells. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Affiliations: University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website: http://www. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Mabel Gardiner Hubbard (November 25, 1857 – January 3, 1923), was the daughter of Boston lawyer, Gardiner Hubbard, and the wife of Alexander Graham Bell. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (1875–1966) was the founder and first editor of the National Geographic Magazine from 1903 to 1954. ... Melville Bell Grosvenor was the president of the National Geographic Society and editor of National Geographic Magazine from 1957 to 1969. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... For other uses, see Innovation (disambiguation). ... In lay terms, an invention is a novel device, material, or technique. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Elocution is proper speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone. ... Look up speech, speaking, utter, gab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many other inventions marked Bell's later life including groundbreaking work in hydrofoils and aeronautics. In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.[3] In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.[4] Upon Bell's death, all telephones throughout the United States "stilled their ringing for a silent minute in tribute to the man whose yearning to communicate made them possible."[5] Groundbreaking is a traditional ceremony in many cultures that celebrates the first day of construction for a building or other project. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... Six F-16 Fighting Falcons with the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team fly in delta formation in front of the Empire State Building. ... This article is about the organization. ...

Contents

Early years

Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on March 3, 1847.[6] Throughout his early life, Bell was a British subject. The family home was at 16 South Charlotte Street, Edinburgh, Scotland, and now has a commemorative marker at the doorstep, marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace. He had two brothers: Melville James Bell (1845–1870) and Edward Charles Bell (1848–1867). Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis, Edward in 1867 and Melville in 1870.[7] His father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, and his mother was Eliza Grace(nee Symonds).[8] Although he was born "Alexander", at age ten, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers.[9] For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the middle name "Graham" chosen out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father and boarder who had become a family friend.[10] To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck" which his father continued to call him into later life.[11] For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


First invention

As a child, young Aleck Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. When their typical child's play had caused a racket one day, John Herdman admonished the two boys, "Why don't you do something useful?" Young Aleck asked what needed to be done at the mill. He was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine that was put into operation and used steadily for a number of years. [12] In return, John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop to "invent."[12] Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Gristmill with water wheel, Skyline Drive, VA, 1938 A gristmill is a building where grain is ground into flour. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ...


Early work with speech

From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry and music that was encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist.[13] Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that constantly entertained family guests.[13] Bell was also deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12) and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour.[14] He also developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity.[15] Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary sciences that always deals with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ...


His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists. His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860)[13][16] and treatise on Visible Speech, which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone (it is alleged that he stole his ideas from a Birmingham inventor named Matthew Coaton, who was killed in a mysterious toast accident). In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning. Aleck's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but also to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound.[17] Aleck became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities in deciphering Latin, Gaelic and even Sanskrit symbols.[17] Elocution is proper speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Look up Treatise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Visible speech is the name of the system used by Alexander Melville Bell, who was known internationally as a teacher of speech and proper elocution and an author of books on the subject. ... Deaf-mute was a term historically used by hearing people to identify a person who was deaf and could not speak. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Education

As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, however, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at age 15, completing the first four forms only.[18] His school record was undistinguished, marked by absenteeism and lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father.[19] Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study. The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.[20] At age 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy, at Elgin, Moray, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session.[21] The following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year, and where Bell intended to write exams, but later graduated from the University of Toronto. The Royal High School (RHS) of Edinburgh can trace its roots back to 1128, and is one of the oldest schools in Scotland. ... Elocution is proper speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone. ... For other uses, see Elgin. ... Moray (pronounced Murray, spelled A Moireibh in Gaelic) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


First experiments with sound

Bell's father encouraged Aleck's interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton, developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.[22] The rudimentary "mechanical man" simulated a human voice. Aleck was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head. Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.[22] While his brother constructed the throat and larynx, Aleck tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull. His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak," albeit only a few words.[22] The boys would carefully adjust the "lips" and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe, a very recognizable "Mama" ensued, to the delight of neighbors who came to see the Bell invention.[23] The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of... Wolfgang von (de Pámánd) Kempelen or Ján Vlk Kempelen or Farkas Kempelen (born 23 January 1734 in Pressburg (today Bratislava), died 26 March 1804 in Vienna) was an author and inventor, who became most famous for his construction of the Mechanical Turk, which was a first-class... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... Speak can mean: Look up speak in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Lip (disambiguation). ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ... Windpipe redirects here. ...


Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye terrier, "Trouve".[24] After he taught it to growl continuously, Aleck would reach into its mouth and manipulate the dog's lips and vocal cords to produce a crude-sounding "Ow ah oo ga ma ma." With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate "How are you grandma?" More indicative of his playful nature, his experiments convinced onlookers that they saw a "talking dog."[25] However, these initial forays into experimentation with sound led Bell to undertake his first serious work on the transmission of sound, using tuning forks to explore resonance. At the age of 19, he wrote a report on his work and sent it to Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father.[25] Ellis immediately wrote back indicating that the experiments were similar to existing work in Germany. Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Hermann von Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", he pored over the German scientist's book, Sensations of Tone. From his translation of the original German edition, Aleck then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means so could consonants, so could articulate speech."[26] The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... A tuning fork is a simple metal two-pronged fork with the tines formed from a U-shaped bar of elastic material (usually steel). ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Groundbreaking is a traditional ceremony in many cultures that celebrates the first day of construction for a building or other project. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Look up speech, speaking, utter, gab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Family tragedy

In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London,[27] Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment. Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.[28] Throughout the fall and winter, his health faltered mainly through exhaustion. His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered (now referring to himself in correspondence as "A.G. Bell") and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath, Somerset, England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover. Upon his brother's passing, Bell returned home in 1867. His older brother, "Melly" had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at the University College London, Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... For the college in Taunton, England, see Somerset College of Arts and Technology Somerset College is a non-denominational Christian school located in Mudgeeraba, Gold Coast, Australia. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Affiliations: University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website: http://www. ...


Helping his father in Visible Speech demonstrations and lectures brought Bell to Susanna E. Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington, London. His first two pupils were "deaf mute" girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage. While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher. However, in May 1870, Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland. Bell's parents precipitated a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Making a swift judgement, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,[29] conclude all of his brother's affairs (Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp),[30] and join his father and mother in setting out for the "New World."[31] Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, whom he had surmised was not prepared to leave England with him.[32] The junction with Old Brompton Road and Pelham Street, outside South Kensington tube station. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


Canada

In 1870, at age 23, Bell, his brother's widow, Caroline (Margaret Ottaway),[33] and his parents travelled on the SS Nestorian to Canada.[34] After landing at Quebec City, the Bells boarded a train to Montreal and later to Paris, Ontario to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend. After a brief stay with the Hendersons, the Bell family purchased a ten and a half acre farm at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford, Ontario. The property consisted of an orchard, a larger farm house, a stable, a pigsty, a hen-house and a carriage house, which bordered the Grand River.[35] Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... This article is about the Ontario town. ... Brantford (2001 population 86,417)[1] is a city located on the Grand River in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Grand River Ontario This article is about the Grand River in Southern Ontario, Canada. ...


At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house[36] near to what he called his "dreaming place," a large hollow, nestled in trees at the back of the property, above the river.[37] Despite his frail condition upon arriving in Canada, Bell found the climate and environs to his liking, and rapidly improved.[38] He continued his interest in the study of the human voice and when he discovered the Six Nations Reserve across the river at Onondaga, he learned the Mohawk language and translated its unwritten vocabulary into Visible Speech symbols. For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.[39] The term Carriage House refers to a building from the days when transporation required horse carriages. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ... Onondaga is the name of some places in North America: Onondaga, Michigan Onondaga, New York Onondaga, Ontario Onondaga County, New York Onondaga Lake Onondaga Reservation, New York Onondaga Township, Michigan Other meanings: Onondaga Native American Iroquois First Nations group Onandaga Cave State Park in Leasburg, Missouri Onondaga Camp Minden,Ontario... Mohawk is: A tribe of American Indians: see Mohawk nation The Mohawk language spoken by the Mohawk people. ...


After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound.[36] He designed a piano, which, by means of electricity, could transmit its music at a distance. Once the family was settled in, both Bell and his father made plans to establish a teaching practice and in 1871, he accompanied his father to Montreal, where Melville was offered a position to teach his System of Visible Speech. A short grand piano, with the lid up. ...


Work with the deaf

Subsequently, his father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the Horace Mann School for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing),[40] in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors but he declined the post, in favor of his son. Travelling to Boston in April 1871, Bell provided a successful inservicing of the school's instructors.[41] He was subsequently asked to repeat the program at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton. Horace Mann (May 4, 1796 – August 2, 1859) was an American education reformer and abolitionist. ... Horace Mann (May 4, 1796 – August 2, 1859) was an American education reformer and abolitionist. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The American School for the Deaf (ASD) was the first institution for the education of the deaf in America. ... When used by itself in a sentence, the term Hartford can refer to one of several places in the United States. ... Clarke School for the Deaf was founded in 1867 in Northampton, Massachusetts as the first permanent oral school for the deaf in the United States and has gained an international reputation as a pioneer and a leader in the field of auditory/oral education. ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ...


Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph."[42]The basic concept behind his device was that messages could be sent through one wire if each message was transmitted at a different pitch but work on both the transmitter and receiver were needed.[43] Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.[44] His father helped him set up his private practise by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard, the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation. Teaching his father's system, in October 1872, Alexander Bell opened a school in Boston named the "Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" which attracted a large number of deaf pupils.[45] His first class numbered 30 students.[46] Working as a private tutor, one of his most famous pupils was Helen Keller, who came to him as a young child, unable to see, hear or speak. She later was to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges."[47] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was an American author, activist and lecturer. ...


Continuing experimentation

In the following year, Bell became professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at the Boston University School of Oratory. During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors resident in the city. He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation. While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house. Keeping up "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment. Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover.[48] Worse still, his health deteriorated as he suffered severe headaches.[43] Returning to Boston in fall 1873, Bell made a fateful decision to concentrate on his experiments in sound. For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Night owl is a term for a person who tends to stay up until late at night. ...

Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone
Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone

Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell only retained two students, six-year old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth and 15-year old Mabel Hubbard. Each pupil would serve to play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay at nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment." Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in 1872 where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr. Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together with free room and board thrown in.[49] Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years his junior but became the object of Bell's affection. Losing her hearing after a bout of scarlet fever at age five, she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.[50] Image File history File links 1876_Bell_Speaking_into_Telephone. ... Image File history File links 1876_Bell_Speaking_into_Telephone. ... // Salem is a common name for towns and places, particularly in the Western world. ... A benefactor is a person or other entity providing money or other benefits to another; the person receiving them is called a beneficiary. ...


Telephone

By 1874, Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage with progress it made both at his new Boston "laboratory" (a rented facility) as well as at his family home in Canada a big success..[51] While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations. Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves.[52] Bell also thought that multiple metal reeds tuned to different frequencies like a harp would be able to convert the undulatory currents back into sound. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.[53] Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone The history of the invention of the telephone is a confusing claim and counterclaim, further worsened by the lawsuits which hoped to resolve the patent claims of individuals. ...


In 1874, telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton, had become "the nervous system of commerce." Orton had contracted with inventors Thomas Edison and Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines.[54] When Bell mentioned to Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders that he was working on a method of sending multiple tones on a telegraph wire using a multi-reed device, the two wealthy patrons began to financially support Bell's experiments.[55] Patent matters would be handled by Hubbard's patent attorney Anthony Pollok.[56] Western Union (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ... Edison redirects here. ... Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an electrical engineer and is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois, U.S.A.. // Born into a Quaker family in Barnesville, Ohio, Gray was brought up on a farm. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ...


In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the famous scientist Joseph Henry, who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution, and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph. Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!" That declaration greatly encouraged Bell to keep trying. Bell did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas. A chance meeting in 1874 between Bell and Thomas A. Watson, an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that. Joseph Henry Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was a Scottish-American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Thomas Augustus Watson (18 January 1854 - 13 December 1934) was an assistant to Alexander Graham Bell, notably in the invention of the telephone. ... There have been a number of notable people named Charles Williams: Sir Charles Hanbury Williams (1708–1759), a British Member of Parliament and satirist. ...


With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell was able to hire Thomas Watson as his assistant and Bell and Watson experimented with acoustic telegraphy. On 2 June 1875, Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed, overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech. That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was needed, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone, which was able to transmit indistinct voice-like sounds but not clear speech. Acoustic telegraphy was also known as harmonic telegraphy. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ...


The race to the patent office

Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter. On 14 February 1876, Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. patent office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed an application with the patent office for the telephone. There is a debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.[57] is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... A patent caveat was a legal document filed with the United States Patent Office. ...


On 14 February 1876, Bell was in Boston. Hubbard, who was paying for the costs of Bell's patents, told his patent lawyer Anthony Pollok to file Bell's application in the U.S. Patent Office. This was done without Bell's knowledge. Patent Number 174,465 was issued to Bell on 7 March 1876 by the U.S. Patent Office which covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically… by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound."[58] is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... PTO headquarters in Alexandria The United States Patent and Trademark Office (PTO or USPTO) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides patent and trademark protection to inventors and businesses for their inventions and corporate and product identification. ...


Three days after his patent was issued, Bell experimented with a water transmitter, using an acid-water mixture. Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water which varied the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the famous sentence "Mr Watson — Come here — I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,[59] Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.[60]


Bell's successful test of Gray's water transmitter design provided a proof of concept experiment that proved to Bell's satisfaction that clear human voice sounds could be electrically transmitted. After that, Bell focused on improving the electromagnetic telephone and he did not use a water transmitter in public demonstrations or in commercial applications.[61] A proof of concept is a short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea(s) to demonstrate its feasibility. ...


Later developments

Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought a working model of his telephone home. On 3 August 1876, from the telegraph office in Mount Pleasant five miles (eight km) away from Brantford, Alexander sent a tentative telegram indicating he was ready. With curious onlookers packed into the office as witnesses, faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed his family and guests when a message was received at the Bell home from Brantford, four miles (six km) distant along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines, fences and ending up being laid through a tunnel. This time guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. These first long-distance transmissions clearly proved that the telephone could work over long distances.[62] is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Mount Pleasant is a community in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, located north west of Toronto, in the city of Brampton, Ontario. ...


Bell and his partners, Hubbard and Sanders, offered to sell the patent outright to Western Union for $100,000. The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain. By then the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.[63] Bell's investors would become millionaires while he fared well from residuals and at one point, had assets nearly reaching one million dollars.[64] Millionairess redirects here. ...


Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures in order to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public. His demonstration of an early machine at the 1876 Centenary Exhibition in Philadelphia, the following day, made the telephone the featured headline worldwide.[65] Influential visitors to the exhibition included Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, and later Bell had the opportunity to personally demonstrate the invention to William Thomson, a renowned Scottish scientist and even Queen Victoria who had requested a private audience at Osborne House, her Isle of Wight home; she called the demonstration "most extraordinary." The enthusiasm that surrounded Bell's public displays laid the groundwork for acceptance of the revolutionary device.[66] For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... There have been a number of people named William Thomson: William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, usually known as Lord Kelvin, was a 19th century British physicist. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Osborne House and its grounds are now open to the public Osborne House is a former royal residence in East Cowes, Isle of Wight, England. ... For other uses, see Isle of Wight (disambiguation). ...


The Bell Telephone Company was created in 1877, and by 1886, over 150,000 people in the U.S. owned telephones. Bell company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone which developed into one of the most successful products. In 1879, the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for long distances, unlike Bell's voice-powered transmitter that required users to shout into it to be heard at the receiving telephone, even at short distances. On 25 January 1915, Alexander Graham Bell sent the first transcontinental telephone call, at 15 Day Street in New York City, which was received by Thomas Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco. The New York Times reported: "On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile (3 km) wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, 1915] the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,400-mile (5,500 km) wire between New York and San Francisco. Dr. Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent. They heard each other much more distinctly than they did in their first talk thirty-eight years ago."[67] Bell Telephone Company can refer to: The Bell System, a name and trademark formerly given to AT&T. Bell Canada Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company, a former company in Antwerp (Belgium), now part of Alcatel The original Bell Telephone Company was founded in 1878 by Alexander Graham Bells father in... Carbon microphone from Western Electric telephone. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Thomas Watson or Tom Watson can refer to: Thomas Watson (bishop), the Bishop of Lincoln from 1557-1560. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Competitors

As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.[68] Although many of these devices had common features that were incorporated in Bell's machine, none were successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent.[69] The Bell company lawyers successfully fought off a myriad of lawsuits generated initially around the challenges by Elisha Gray and Amos Dolbear. In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work which considerably weakened their later claims.[70] On 13 January 1887, the Government of the United States moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. The prosecuting attorney was the Hon. George M. Stearns under the direction of the Solicitor General George A. Jenks. The Bell company decisively won the landmark case. Bell's direct and cross-examination testimony alone filled 445 pages but was the key to the decision against the government.[71] Amos Emerson Dolbear (November 10, 1837 – February 23, 1910) was an American inventor. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Over a period of 18 years, the Bell Telephone Company faced over 600 litigations from inventors claiming to have invented the telephone, never once losing a case. Bell's laboratory notes and family letters were the key to establishing a long lineage to his experiments.[72] One example of the legal action was by Italian inventor Antonio Meucci who claimed in 1834 to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy. In 1876, Meucci took Bell to court in order to establish his priority. Meucci's working models were reportedly lost by exactly the same Western Union affiliate laboratory where Bell conducted his experiments, later being granted the patent [1]. Meucci lost his case due to lack of material evidence of his inventions. Meucci's work, like many other inventors of the period, was based around earlier acoustic principles.[73] However, due to the efforts of Congressman Vito Fossella, Resolution 269 the U.S. House of Representatives on 11 June 2002 stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged," even though this did not put an end to a still contentious issue.[74][75] Overwhelmingly, modern scholars do not recognize the claims of acoustic devices such as Meucci's had any bearing on the development of the telephone.[76] Antonio Meucci. ... Vito John Fossella, Jr. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and when Bell had delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) managed to set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent. The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without paying royalties.[77] A series of agreements in other countries eventually consolidated a global telephone operation. The strain on Bell by his constant appearances in court necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.[78] Siemens redirects here. ...


Family life

On 11 July 1877, a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge, and shortly after, embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe. During that excursion, Alec took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday." Although the courtship had begun years earlier, Alexander waited until he was financially secure before marrying. Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after 1897.[79] One unusual request exacted by his fiancée was that he use "Alec" rather than the family's earlier familiar name. From 1876, he would sign his name "Alec Bell."[80][81] They had four children: Elsie May Bell (1878–1964) who married Gilbert Grosvenor of National Geographic fame,[82][83] Marian Hubbard Bell (1880–1962) who was referred to as "Daisy",[84] and two sons who died in infancy. is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Bell Telephone Company can refer to: The Bell System, a name and trademark formerly given to AT&T. Bell Canada Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company, a former company in Antwerp (Belgium), now part of Alcatel The original Bell Telephone Company was founded in 1878 by Alexander Graham Bells father in... Mabel Gardiner Hubbard (November 25, 1857 – January 3, 1923), was the daughter of Boston lawyer, Gardiner Hubbard, and the wife of Alexander Graham Bell. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ... Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (October 28, 1875 – February 4, 1966) was the editor of the National Geographic Magazine from 1903 to 1954. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


In 1882, Bell became a naturalized citizen of the United States. The Bell family maintained a residence in Washington, DC, where Alec set up a laboratory. In 1915, he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries." Despite this declaration, Bell has been claimed as a "native son" by Canada, Scotland and the United States.[85] By 1885, a new summer retreat was contemplated. That summer, the Bells had a vacation on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, spending time at the small village of Baddeck. Returning in 1886, Bell started building an estate on a point across from Baddeck, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake. By 1889, a large house, christened "The Lodge" was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh(Gaelic: beautiful mountain) after Alec's ancestral Scottish highlands.[86] Bell would spend his final, and some of his most productive years in residence in both Washington, D.C. and Beinn Bhreagh.[87] Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... The village of Baddeck is located on Cape Breton Island in the Province of Canada It is situated on the shores of the beautiful Bras dOr Lake (Golden Arm) in the heart of Cape Breton lsland. ... Bras dOr Lake, Nova Scotia. ... Beinn Bhreagh is an unincorporated Canadian rural community in Victoria County, Nova Scotia. ... Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scota, was Alexander Graham Bells estate, where he lived during the summer. ...


Until the end of his life Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that annual stays lengthened. Both Mabel and Alec became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own." The Bells were still in residence at Beinn Bhreagh when the Halifax Explosion occurred on 6 December 1917. Mabel and Alec mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.[88] The Halifax Explosion occurred on Thursday, December 6, 1917, when the City of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was devastated by the huge detonation of a French cargo ship, fully loaded with wartime explosives, that had accidentally collided with a Norwegian ship in The Narrows section of the Halifax Harbour. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Later inventions

Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied. According to his biographer, Charlotte Gray, Bell's work ranged "unfettered across the scientific landscape" and he often went to bed voraciously reading the Encyclopaedia Britannica, scouring it for new areas of interest.[89] The range of Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators. These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes" and two for selenium cells. Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels. The photophone was originally invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Sumner Tainter on February 19, 1880. ... Tonearm redirects here. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... An audiometer is a machine used for testing hearing. ...


Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound. Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they were unable to develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder, the hard disc and floppy disc drive and other magnetic media. Sony reel-to-reel tape recorder. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that comprises a circular piece of thin, flexible (hence floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic wallet. ... Magnetic storage is a term from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetised medium. ...


Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere. In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses. Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Composting toilets use biological processes to deal with the disposal and processing of human excrement into organic compost material. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ...


Metal detector

Bell is also credited with the invention of the metal detector in 1881. The device was hurriedly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of U.S. President James Garfield. The metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find the assassin's bullet partly because the metal bed frame the President was lying on disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.[90] The president's surgeons, who were sceptical of the device, ignored Bell's requests to move the president to a bed not fitted with metal springs. Alternately, although Bell had detected a slight sound on his first test, the bullet may have lodged too deeply to be detected by the crude apparatus.[90] Bell gave a full account of his experiments in a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science(AAAS) in August 1882. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inductive sensor. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...


Hydrofoils

Main article: Hydrofoil
Bell HD-4 on a test run c. 1919
Bell HD-4 on a test run c. 1919

The March 1906 Scientific American article by American hydrofoil pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement. Based on information gained from that article he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W. "Casey" Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft. This article is about marine engineering. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... Look up hydroplane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Frederick Walker Baldwin also known as Casey Baldwin (January 2, 1882 - August 7, 1948) was an engineer and a hydrofoil and aviation pioneer who was the first Canadian to pilot an aircraft. ... Enrico Forlanini. ...


During his world tour of 1910–1911, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag, the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.[91] The experimental boats were essentially proof-of-concept prototypes that culminated in the more substantial HD-4, powered by Renault engines. A top speed of 54 miles per hour (87 km/h) was achieved, with the hydrofoil exhibiting rapid acceleration, good stability and steering along with the ability to take waves without difficulty.[92] In 1913, Dr. Bell hired Walter Pinaud, a Sydney yacht designer and builder as well as the proprietor of Pinaud's Yacht Yard in Westmount, Nova Scotia to work on the pontoons of the HD-4. Pinaud soon took over the boatyard at Bell Laboratories on Beinn Bhreagh, Bell's estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD-4. After the First World War, work began again on the HD-4. Bell's report to the U.S. Navy permitted him to obtain two 350 horsepower (260 kW) engines in July 1919. On 9 September 1919, the HD-4 set a world's marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour (114.04 km/h).[93] This record stood for ten years. Lake Maggiore (in Italian: Lago Maggiore or lago Verbano) is the most westerly of the three large prealpine lakes of Europe and the second largest after Lake Garda. ... For the author, see Mary Renault. ... The village of Baddeck is located in Victoria County, Nova Scotia on Cape Breton Island in the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Aeronautics

Main article: AEA Silver Dart
AEA Silver Dart c.1909
AEA Silver Dart c.1909

Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October 1907 at the suggestion of Mrs. Mabel Bell and with her financial support. The AEA was headed by Bell and the founding members were four young men: American Glenn H. Curtiss, a motorcycle manufacturer who later was awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere and became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Frederick W. Baldwin, the first Canadian and first British subject to pilot a public flight in Hammondsport, New York; J.A.D. McCurdy; and Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, an official observer from the U.S. government. In 1891, Bell began experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. The Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) was formed in 1907 under the tutelage of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. ... The Silver Dart (or Aerodrome #4) was an early aircraft which after many successful flights in Hammondsport, New York, earlier in 1909, was dismantled and crated then brought to Baddeck Nova Scotia. ... AEA Silver Dart. ... AEA Silver Dart. ... The Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) was formed in 1907 under the tutelage of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. ... Glenn Hammond Curtiss (May 21, 1878 - July 23, 1930) was an aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Frederick Walker Baldwin also known as Casey Baldwin (January 2, 1882 - August 7, 1948) was an engineer and a hydrofoil and aviation pioneer who was the first Canadian to pilot an aircraft. ... Hammondsport is a village in Steuben County, New York, USA. The population was 731 at the 2000 census. ... John McCurdy John Alexander Douglas McCurdy (August 2, 1886 – June 25, 1961) was a Canadian aviation pioneer and lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia from 1947 to 1952. ... First Lieutenant Thomas Etholen Selfridge (February 8, 1882 – September 17, 1908) was the first person to die in a powered aircraft crash. ...


In 1898, Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in silk. The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned (Cygnet I crashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907–1912. Some of Bell's kites are on display at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site. A tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. ... Diagram of Box kite Hargrave (seated) and Swain demonstrate the Hargrave box kite, November 1894. ... A tetrahedral kite is a multicelled rigid box kite composed of tetrahedrally shaped cells. ...


The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing, framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.[94] On 12 March 1908, over Keuka Lake, the biplane lifted off on the first public flight in North America.[95] The innovations that were incorporated into this design included a cockpit enclosure and tail rudder (later variations on the original design would add ailerons as a means of control). One of the AEA project's inventions, the aileron, is a standard component of aircraft today. (The aileron was also invented independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie.) The White Wing and June Bug were to follow and by the end of 1908, over 150 flights without mishap had been accomplished. However, the AEA had depleted its initial reserves and only a $10,000 grant from Mrs. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments.[96] The Red Wing (or Aerodrome #1) was an early aircraft designed by Thomas Selfridge and built by the Aerial Experiment Association in 1908. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Keuka Lake is an unusual member of the Finger Lakes because it is Y-shaped instead of long and narrow. ... For the band with a similar name, see The Ailerons Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. ... Robert Esnault-Pelterie Avion Esnault-Pelterie, 1906 Avion Esnault-Pelterie, 1906 Robert Albert Charles Esnault-Pelterie (November 8, 1881–December 6, 1957) was a pioneering French aircraft designer and spaceflight theorist. ...


Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines. On 23 February 1909, Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J.A.D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or, made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell had worried that the flight was too dangerous and had arranged for a doctor to be on hand. With the successful flight, the AEA disbanded and the Silver Dart would revert to Baldwin and McCurdy who began the Canadian Aerodrome Company and would later demonstrate the aircraft to the Canadian Army.[97] The Silver Dart (or Aerodrome #4) was an early aircraft which after many successful flights in Hammondsport, New York, earlier in 1909, was dismantled and crated then brought to Baddeck Nova Scotia. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Eugenics

Along with many very prominent thinkers and scientists of the time, Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States. In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on 13 November 1883 he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.[98] However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan's Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders Association. The committee unequivocally extended the principle to man.[99] From 1912 until 1918 he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisers to the Eugenics Record Office associated with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and regularly attended meetings. In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Organisations such as these advocated passing laws (with success in some states) that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race". By the late 1930s, about half the states in the U.S. had eugenics laws, and the California laws were used as a model for eugenics laws in Nazi Germany. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... David Starr Jordan David Starr Jordan, Ph. ... The Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Cold Spring Harbor, New York was a center for eugenics and human heredity research in the first half of the twentieth century. ... The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a research and educational institution, consisting of science laboratories located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York on Long Island, USA. The Laboratory has research programs focusing on cancer, neurobiology, plant genetics, genomics and bioinformatics, and has a broad educational mission, including the recently... This article is about the state. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Awards, honors and tributes

Main article: Alexander Graham Bell honors and tributes

In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs ($10,000) for the invention of the telephone from L’Académie française, representing the French government, in Paris. Among the luminaries who judged were Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas, père. The Volta Prize was established by Napoleon Banaparte in 1803 to honor Alessandro Volta, an Italian physicist noted for developing the battery. (The modern usage of the word "volt" is derived from his name.) Since he was reaching affluent circumstances himself, Bell used the money from the Prize to create a number of social structures in and around Washington, D.C. using the symbolic "Volta": the "Volta Fund," "Volta Laboratories" and "Volta Bureau." The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... For the concept car, see Toyota Alessandro Volta. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ...


In partnership with Gardiner Hubbard, Bell established the publication Science in 1883. In 1888, Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president (1897–1904) and Regent of the Smithsonian Institution (1898–1922). He was the recipient of many honours. The French government conferred on him the decoration of the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honour); the Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the Albert Medal in 1902; and the University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him a Ph.D. He was awarded the AIEE's Edison Medal in 1914 "For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone." This article is about the organization. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... The Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts was instituted in 1864 as a memorial to Prince Albert, who had been President of the Society for 18 years. ... [ recorded in this] The University of Würzburg is a university in Würzburg, Germany, founded in 1402. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ...


The bel (B) is a unit of measurement invented by Bell Labs and named after Bell. The bel was too large for everyday use, so the decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 B, became more commonly used as a unit for measuring sound intensity.[100] Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ...


The IEEE's Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been presented since 1976 to an individual or team, honoring outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... The IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal was instituted by the IEEE Board of Directors in 1976, commemorating the centennial of the invention of the telephone. ...


A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Alexander Graham Bell, as well as the world's first telephone company:

  • Parks Canada maintains the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site which incorporates the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in Baddeck, Nova Scotia, close to the Bell estate Beinn Bhreagh. The National Historic Site in Baddeck is open to visitors, while Bell's descendant's still reside at Beinn Bhreagh;
  • The world's first telephone company building, the Henderson Home, of the nascent Bell Telephone Company, originally built on Sheridan Street within the city of Brantford, Ontario, and then carefully relocated in 1969 to the historic Bell Homestead. Both the Bell Homestead and the Bell Telephone Company building, are maintained by the Bell Homestead Society and are open to visitors.

A large number of Bell's writings, notebooks, papers and other documents rest at the United States Library of Congress Manuscript Devision, as the Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers; the collection is available for online viewing. Another large collection of Bell's documents resides at the Alexander Graham Bell Institute. Parks Canada is a Canadian government agency whose purpose is to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canadas natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. ... The village of Baddeck is located in Victoria County, Nova Scotia on Cape Breton Island in the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Beinn Bhreagh is an unincorporated Canadian rural community in Victoria County, Nova Scotia. ... Bell Telephone Company can refer to: The Bell System, a name and trademark formerly given to AT&T. Bell Canada Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company, a former company in Antwerp (Belgium), now part of Alcatel The original Bell Telephone Company was founded in 1878 by Alexander Graham Bells father in... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


Death

Bell died of pernicious anemia on 2 August 1922, at his private estate, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, at age 75.[101] While tending to her husband after a long illness, Mabel whispered, "Don't leave me." By way of reply, Bell traced the sign for "No" – and promptly expired.[102] Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermers anaemia or Addisons anaemia or Addison-Biermer anaemia) is a form of megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency dependent on impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the setting of atrophic gastritis, and more specifically of loss of gastric parietal cells. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Dr. Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain overlooking Bras d'Or Lake. He was survived by his wife and his two daughters, Elisa May and Marion.[103]


See also

The Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (AG Bell) is a lifelong resource, support network and advocate for listening, learning, talking and living independently with hearing loss. ... Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone The history of the invention of the telephone is a confusing claim and counterclaim, further worsened by the lawsuits which hoped to resolve the patent claims of individuals. ... Emile Berliner with disc record gramophone. ... Charles Bourseul was born in Brussels, Belgium on the 28th of April 1829, and grew up in Douai, France. ... Edison redirects here. ... Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an electrical engineer and is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois, U.S.A.. // Born into a Quaker family in Barnesville, Ohio, Gray was brought up on a farm. ... The Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell controversy considers the question of whether Bell and Gray invented the telephone independently and, if not, whether one stole the invention from the other. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Antonio Meucci. ... Johann Philipp Reis (January 7, 1834 -- January 24, 1874), was born in Gelnhausen, Germany, as son to a Jewish baker. ... Graham Bell Island is an island located at . ... The Oriental Telephone Company, created in January 25, 1881 by Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison, was the first telephone company. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 419.
  2. ^ Black 1997, p. 18. Quote: "He thought he could harness the new electronic technology by creating a machine with a transmitter and receiver that would send sounds telegraphically to help people hear."
  3. ^ National Geographic Magazine
  4. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 19.
  5. ^ Dunn 1990, p. 41.
  6. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 4.
  7. ^ Time Line of Alexander Graham Bell
  8. ^ "Alexander M. Bell Dead. Father of Prof. A.G. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes." New York Times Tuesday, 8 August 1905.
  9. ^ Call me Alexander Graham Bell Note: Bell typically signed his name in full on his correspondence.
  10. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 23.
  11. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 17–19.
  12. ^ a b Bruce 1990, p. 16.
  13. ^ a b c Gray 2006, p. 8.
  14. ^ Gray 2006, p. 9.
  15. ^ Mackay 1997, p.25.
  16. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 24.
  17. ^ a b Petrie 1975, p. 7.
  18. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 31.
  19. ^ Gray 2006, p. 11.
  20. ^ Town 1988, p. 7.
  21. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 37.
  22. ^ a b c Groundwater 2005, p. 25.
  23. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 7–9.
  24. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 9.
  25. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 30.
  26. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 31.
  27. ^ Micklos 2006, p. 8.
  28. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 45.
  29. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 67–68. Note: The family pet was given to his brother's family.
  30. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 68.
  31. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 33.
  32. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 33.
  33. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 50.
  34. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 10.
  35. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 61. Note: The estate is today known as the "Bell Homestead."
  36. ^ a b Wing 1980, p. 10.
  37. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 34.
  38. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 62. Note: Bell would later write that he had come to Canada a "dying man."
  39. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 35. Note: Bell was thrilled at his recognition by the Six Nations Reserve and throughout his life, would launch into a Mohawk war dance when he was excited.
  40. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 74.
  41. ^ Town 1988, p. 12.
  42. ^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p. 8. Note: In later years, Bell described the invention of the telephone and linked it to his "dreaming place."
  43. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 39.
  44. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 14.
  45. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 15.
  46. ^ Town 1988, p. 12–13.
  47. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 17.
  48. ^ Town 1988, p. 15.
  49. ^ Town 1988, p. 16.
  50. ^ Dunn 1990, p. 20.
  51. ^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p. 8. Quote: "Brantford is justified in calling herself 'The Telephone City' because the telephone originated there. It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of 1974."
  52. ^ Matthews 1999, p. 19–21.
  53. ^ Matthews 1999, p. 21.
  54. ^ A History of Electrical Engineering
  55. ^ Town 1988, p. 17.
  56. ^ Evenson 2000, p. 18–25.
  57. ^ See Elisha Gray and Alexander Bell Controversy.
  58. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 12–13. Note: A copy of the original patent is shown, described as "probably the most valuable patent ever."
  59. ^ Bell's Lab notebook I, p. 40–41 (image 22).
  60. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 12.
  61. ^ Shulman 2008, p. 175–177.
  62. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 14.
  63. ^ Fenster, Julie M. "Inventing the Telephone—And Triggering All-Out Patent War." American Heritage, 2006, AmericanHeritage.com.
  64. ^ Winfield 1987, p. 21.
  65. ^ Webb 1991, p. 15.
  66. ^ Ross 1995, p. 21–22.
  67. ^ "Phone to Pacific From the Atlantic." New York Times, 26 January 1915. Retrieved: 21 July 2007.
  68. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 19.
  69. ^ Black 1997, p. 19.
  70. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 179.
  71. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 277.
  72. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 95.
  73. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 271–272. Note: Meucci had a "tin-can on a string" telephone that could never have been patented as it was not an original invention. Bell's lawyer, William Sorrow later wrote: "Meucci is the silliest and weakest imposter who has ever turned up against the patent."
  74. ^ Vito Fossella's Press Release on Resolution 269 Original material about Meucci's work and his trial against Bell can be found here: Basilio Catania's Work on Antonio Meucci, [http://www.aei.it/ita/museo/mam_intel.htm Federazione Italiana di Elettrotecnica Museo Antonio Meucci
  75. ^ Basilio Catania 2002 "The United States Government vs. Alexander Graham Bell. An important acknowledgment for Antonio Meucci" Bulletin of Science Technology Society. 2002; 22: p. 426–442.
  76. ^ Antonio Meucci Note: Tomas Farley also writes that, "Nearly every scholar agrees that Bell and Watson were the first to transmit intelligible speech by electrical means. Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand."
  77. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 178.
  78. ^ Parker 1995, p. 23. Note: Many of the lawsuits became rancorous with Elisha Gray becoming particularly bitter over Bell's ascendancy in the telephone debate but Alec refused to launch counter actions for libel.
  79. ^ Dunn 1990, p. 28.
  80. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 120.
  81. ^ "Mrs. A.G. Bell Dies. Inspired Telephone. Deaf Girl's Romance With Distinguished Inventor Was Due to Her Affliction." New York Times, 4 January 1923.
  82. ^ "Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor Dies; Head of National Geographic, 90; Editor of Magazine 55 Years Introduced Photos, Increased Circulation to 4.5 Million." New York Times, 5 February 1966. Quote: Baddeck, Nova Scotia, 4 February 1964 (Canadian Press): Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor, chairman of the board and former president of the National Geographic Society and editor of the National Geographic magazine from 1899 to 1954, died on the Cape Breton Island estate once owned by his father-in-law, the inventor Alexander Graham Bell. He was 90 years old.
  83. ^ "Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor Dead; Joined in Geographic's Treks; Married Professor's Son." New York Times, 27 December 1964. Quote: Washington, DC, 26 December 1964. Mrs. Elsie May Bell Grosvenor, wife of Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor, chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society, died this evening at her home in Bethesda, Maryland. She was 86 years old. Death was attributed to heart disease and old age.
  84. ^ "Mrs. David Fairchild, 82, Dead; Daughter of Bell, Phone Inventor." New York Times, 25 September 1962. Quote: Baddeck, Nova Scotia, September 24, 1962 (The Canadian Press) Mrs. Marian Bell Fairchild of Miami, widow of David Fairchild, noted plant explorer, and daughter of the telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell, died tonight at her summer home. She was 82 years old.
  85. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 90, 471–472.
  86. ^ Tulloch 2006, p. 25–27. Note: Under the direction of the Boston architects, Cabot, Everett and Mead, a Nova Scotia company, Rhodes, Curry and Company, carried out the actual construction.
  87. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 22.
  88. ^ Tulloch 2006, p. 42.
  89. ^ Gray 2006, p. 219.
  90. ^ a b Grosvenor and Wesson 1997, p. 107.
  91. ^ Boileau 2004, p. 18.
  92. ^ Boileau 2004, p. 28–30.
  93. ^ Boileau 2004, p. 30.
  94. ^ Phillips 1977, p. 95.
  95. ^ "Selfridge Aerodrome Sails Steadily for 319 feet (97 m)." Washington Post 13 May 1908. Quote: At 25 to 30 Miles an Hour. First Public Trip of Heavier-than-air Car in America. Professor Alexander Graham Bell's New Machine, Built After Plans by Lieutenant Selfridge, Shown to Be Practicable by Flight Over Keuka Lake. Portion of Tail Gives Way, Bringing the Test to an End. Views of an Expert. Hammondsport, New York, 12 March 1908.
  96. ^ Phillips 1977, p. 96.
  97. ^ Phillips 1977, p. 96–97.
  98. ^ Bell, Alexander Graham. "Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race." Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, 1883. Retrieved: 13 December 2007.
  99. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 410–417.
  100. ^ Decibel Note: The decibel is defined as one tenth of a bel.
  101. ^ Gray 2006, p. 418.
  102. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 491.
  103. ^ "Dr. Bell, Inventor of Telephone, Dies." New York Times, 3 August 1922. Retrieved: 21 July 2007. Quote: Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, died at 2 o'clock this morning at Beinn Breagh, his estate near Baddeck.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... The Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell Controversy revolves around the question of whether Bell and Gray invented the telephone independently and, if not, whether one stole the invention from the other. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The village of Baddeck is located on Cape Breton Island in the Province of Canada It is situated on the shores of the beautiful Bras dOr Lake (Golden Arm) in the heart of Cape Breton lsland. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (1875–1966) was the founder and first editor of the National Geographic Magazine from 1903 to 1954. ... This article is about the organization. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This article is about the organization. ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The village of Baddeck is located on Cape Breton Island in the Province of Canada It is situated on the shores of the beautiful Bras dOr Lake (Golden Arm) in the heart of Cape Breton lsland. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Keuka Lake is an unusual member of the Finger Lakes because it is Y-shaped instead of long and narrow. ... Hammondsport is a village in Steuben County, New York, USA. The population was 731 at the 2000 census. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Bibliography

  • Alexander Graham Bell (booklet). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Maritime Telegraph & Telephone Limited, 1979.
  • Bruce, Robert V. Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-80149691-8.
  • Black, Harry. Canadian Scientists and Inventors: Biographies of People who made a Difference. Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Limited, 1997. ISBN 1-55138-081-1.
  • Boileau, John. Fastest in the World: The Saga of Canada's Revolutionary Hydrofoils. Halifax, Nova Soctia: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 2004. ISBN 0-88780-621-X.
  • Dunn, Andrew. Alexander Graham Bell (Pioneers of Science series). East Sussex, UK: Wayland (Publishers) Limited, 1990. ISBN 1-8521-958-0.
  • Eber, Dorothy Harley. Genius at Work: Images of Alexander Graham Bell. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982. ISBN 0-7710-3036-3.
  • Evenson, A. Edward. The Telephone Patent Conspiracy of 1876: The Elisha Gray - Alexander Bell Controversy. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7864-0138-9.
  • Gray, Charlotte. Reluctant Genius: Alexander Graham Bell and the Passion for Invention. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-55970-809-3.
  • Groundwater, Jennifer. Alexander Graham Bell: The Spirit of Invention. Calgary: Altitude Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-55439-006-0.
  • Grosvenor, Edwin S. and Wesson, Morgan. Alexander Graham Bell: The Life and Times of the Man Who Invented the Telephone. New York: Harry N. Abrahms, Inc., 1997. ISBN 0-8109-4005-1.
  • Mackay, James. Sounds Out of Silence: A life of Alexander Graham Bell. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 1-85158-833-7.
  • MacLeod, Elizabeth. Alexander Graham Bell: An Inventive Life. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 1999. ISBN 1-55074-456-9.
  • Matthews, Tom L. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1999. ISBN 0-7922-7391-5.
  • Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 2006. ISBN 978-0-06-057618-9.
  • Parker, Steve. Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone(Science Discoveries series). New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-7910-3004-0.
  • Petrie, A. Roy. Alexander Graham Bell. Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, 1975. ISBN 0-88902-209-7.
  • Phillips, Allan. Into the 20th Century: 1900/1910 (Canada's Illustrated Heritage). Toronto: Natural Science of Canada Limited, 1977. ISBN 0-9196-4422-8.
  • Ross, Stewart. Alexander Graham Bell (Scientists who Made History series). New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-7398-441-6.
  • Shulman, Seth. The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Bell's Secret. New York: Norton & Company, 2008. ISBN 978-0-393-06206-9.
  • Town, Florida. Alexander Graham Bell. Toronto: Grolier Limited, 1988. ISBN 0-7172-1950-X.
  • Tulloch, Judith. The Bell Family in Baddeck: Alexander Graham Bell and Mabel Bell in Cape Breton. Halifax: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 2006. ISBN 978-0-88780-713-8.
  • Walters, Eric. The Hydrofoil Mystery. Toronto: Puffin Books, 1999. ISBN 0-14-130220-8.
  • Webb, Michael, ed. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991. ISBN 0-7730-5049-3.
  • Winfield, Richard. Never the Twain Shall Meet: Bell, Gallaudet, and the Communications Debate. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-913580-99-6.
  • Wing, Chris. Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck. Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King, 1980.

Further reading

  • Bender, Lionel. Invention (Eyewitness Books series). London: Dorling Kindersley Books, 1991. ISBN 0-7737-2464-8.
  • Coe, Lewis. The Telephone and Its Several Inventors: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Publishing, 1995. ISBN 0-7864-0138-9.
  • Costain, Thomas. The Chord of Steel: Alexander Graham Bell and the Invention of the Telephone. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1960.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The village of Baddeck is located on Cape Breton Island in the Province of Canada It is situated on the shores of the beautiful Bras dOr Lake (Golden Arm) in the heart of Cape Breton lsland. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Boston redirects here. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The photophone was originally invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Sumner Tainter on February 19, 1880. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...

Movie biographies

  • Animated Hero Classics: Alexander Graham Bell (1995) at the Internet Movie Database
  • The Story of Alexander Graham Bell, 1939 film reformatted for VCR tape, Don Ameche playing Bell, (1966) ISBN 0-7939-1251-2
  • Biography - Alexander Graham Bell, A&E DVD biography based on historical footage and still pictures of Bell, (2005)
  • The Sound and the Silence (1992) (TV) with John Bach as Alexander Graham Bell; Canada / New Zealand / Ireland Sound and the Silence ASIN B0009K7RUW

For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ...

Bell's patents

  • Complete list of Bell patents

U.S. patent images in TIFF format This article is about TIFF, the computer image format. ...

  • U.S. Patent 161,739  Improvement in Transmitters and Receivers for Electric Telegraphs, filed March 1875, issued April 1875 (multiplexing signals on a single wire)
  • U.S. Patent 174,465  Improvement in Telegraphy, filed February 14, 1876, issued March 7, 1876 (Bell's first telephone patent)
  • U.S. Patent 178,399  Improvement in Telephonic Telegraph Receivers, filed April 1876, issued June 1876
  • U.S. Patent 181,553  Improvement in Generating Electric Currents (using rotating permanent magnets), filed August 1876, issued August 1876
  • U.S. Patent 186,787  Electric Telegraphy (permanent magnet receiver), filed January 15, 1877, issued January 30, 1877
  • U.S. Patent 235,199  Apparatus for Signalling and Communicating, called Photophone, filed August 1880, issued December 1880
  • U.S. Patent 757,012  Aerial Vehicle, filed June 1903, issued April 1904
Awards
Preceded by
Charles Brush
IEEE Edison Medal
1914
Succeeded by
Nikola Tesla
Preceded by
Gardiner Greene Hubbard
President of the National Geographic Society
1897–1904
Succeeded by
William John McGee
Persondata
NAME Bell, Alexander Graham
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Telephone inventor
DATE OF BIRTH 3 March 1847
PLACE OF BIRTH Edinburgh, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH 2 August 1922
PLACE OF DEATH Baddeck, Nova Scotia

is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Francis Brush (March 17, 1849 - June 15, 1929) was a U.S. inventor, entrepreneur and philanthropist. ... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ... Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the organization. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The village of Baddeck is located in Victoria County, Nova Scotia on Cape Breton Island in the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867...


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Alexander Graham Bell - MSN Encarta (580 words)
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), American inventor and teacher of the deaf, most famous for his work on the telephone.
Bell was born on March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland, and educated at the universities of Edinburgh and London.
Bell was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society, and he served as its president from 1896 to 1904.
Bell, Alexander Graham (625 words)
Bell, Alexander Graham, inventeur (Édimbourg, Écosse, 3 mars 1847 -- Baddeck, N.-É., 2 août 1922).
Bell passe le reste de sa vie dans le domaine de la recherche scientifique, soit en faisant lui-même de la recherche, soit en finançant celle des autres.
Bell travaille lui-même sur la pile photoélectrique, le poumon d'acier, le dessalement de l'eau de mer et le phonographe.
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