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Encyclopedia > Alexander Cartwright
Alexander Cartwright.

Alexander Joy Cartwright (April 17, 1820July 12, 1892) was officially credited by the United States Congress on June 3, 1953, with inventing the modern game of base ball. Cartwright was a bookseller in Manhattan, and a volunteer fireman. [1] Cartwright founded the Knickerbocker Baseball Club (after the Knickerbocker Fire Engine Company) in 1842. [2] They played a brand of stick-and-ball game called the town game. In 1845 Cartwright and a committee from his club drew up rules converting this playground game into a more elaborate and interesting sport to be played by adults. He and other firemen played on a field at 47th and 27th Streets. [3] The rules of the modern game are based on their by-laws, and Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond shaped field.[4] Alexander Cartwright Image from: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Alexander Cartwright Image from: [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the sport. ... The New York Knickerbockers were one of the first organized baseball teams which played under a set of rules similar to the game today. ... The game of town ball, sometimes called townball, is a descendant of rounders, and often thought to be a stepping stone from rounders to modern baseball. ...


The Knickerbockers participated in the first competitive game (as opposed to intramural) under these rules on June 19, 1846. The Knickerbockers lost 23-1 to the New York Nine. is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Cartwright left New York to mine gold in California in 1849 and introduced baseball in almost every town where he stayed along the way. But the unsanitary conditions in California mining camps proved horrible by modern standards, eventually leading to a cholera epidemic. To escape it, Cartwright settled in Hawai'i and became a successful Honolulu businessman. There, Cartwright established the first baseball league composed of teams he created throughout the Hawaiian islands.[citation needed] His Hawaiian leagues became a model for the modern American and National Leagues of today. He is buried in Oahu Cemetery in Honolulu, a plaque to him exists in Honolulu Hale (City Hall), and Cartwright Field in Honolulu is named in his honor. In 1938, Cartwright was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... For the city and county of Honolulu, see City & County of Honolulu. ... The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the National League, is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada and the worlds oldest extant professional team sports league. ... The 1938 elections to select inductees to the Baseball Hall of Fame were conducted along much the same lines as the 1937 vote. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 25 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related...

Contents

The "Knickerbocker Rules"

Part of the Baseball series on
History of baseball

Origins of baseball This article is about the sport. ... Wikipedia has a number of articles about the history of baseball: Origins of baseball History of baseball in the United States History of baseball outside the United States Baseball in the United Kingdom 1845 to 1868 in baseball Pre-1850s in baseball London Tecumsehs (and origins of baseball in Canada... Little is known about the origin of baseball. ...

Early years
First league
New York rules
Massachusetts rules
Alexander Cartwright
Abner Doubleday
First pro team
First pro league

• Derived from: The following are the baseball events of the years 1845 through 1868 throughout the world. ... The National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) was founded in 1857 by sixteen baseball clubs located in the New York metropolitan area. ... The so-called Knickerbocker Rules were the 20 general guidelines to the rules of the game of baseball and of the organization itself that drew up those rules: The early 1840s New York ball club called the Knickerbockers. ... The Massachusetts Game was a type of amateur club baseball popular in 19th century New England. ... Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career U.S. Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. ... The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP), or simply the National Association (NA), was founded in 1871 and lasted through the 1875 season. ...

Cricket
Compared to baseball
Rounders
Town ball

• History of baseball in: Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Baseball and cricket fields compared. ... Rounders (Irish: cluiche corr) is a sport which originated in Great Britain and Ireland. ... The game of town ball, sometimes called townball, is a descendant of rounders, and often thought to be a stepping stone from rounders to modern baseball. ...

the United States
• Worldwide
the United Kingdom
Canada
Japan
Cuba

Negro league baseball
Minor league baseball
Ken Burns' documentary
Baseball Hall of Fame Perhaps the first recorded instances of baseball played outside North America came in 1874, when a party comprising members of the Boston and Philadelphia clubs toured England both playing cricket and demonstrating baseball. ... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... Baseball: A Film by Ken Burns is an Emmy Award-winning 1994 documentary series by Ken Burns about the game of baseball. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 25 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related...

Society for American
Baseball Research (SABR)

• Baseball year-by-year SABR redirects here; for Selectable Assault Battle Rifle (S.A.B.R.) see XM29 OICW The Society for American Baseball Research was established in Cooperstown, New York in August of 1971. ...

MLB season-by-season
Portal · Project  v  d  e 
Main article: Knickerbocker Rules

While there are many differences between the modern rules of baseball and the so-called Knickerbocker Rules (as adopted September 23, 1845 by the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club), there are also many similarities. This is a list of seasons of Major League Baseball. ... The so-called Knickerbocker Rules were the 20 general guidelines to the rules of the game of baseball and of the organization itself that drew up those rules: The early 1840s New York ball club called the Knickerbockers. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Similarities between the Knickerbockers' rules and the rules of today include:

  • there are four bases laid out in a square.
  • the bases are approximately 90 feet (27 m) apart.
  • balls hit outside of first or 3rd base are foul.
  • there are three "hands out" per inning.
  • teams play an equal number of "hands", or innings.
  • the striker must swing and miss three times to strike out.
  • on the third swinging strike, the "striker" (batter) may run to first if the catcher does not catch the ball on the fly or on one bounce.
  • runners may put out by being tagged or forced.
    • a runner cannot be put out by "soaking" (hitting them with a thrown ball).
    • throwing at a runner is prohibited.

Differences between the Knickerbocker rules and the rules of today include:

  • foul balls were not considered strikes.
  • there were no called strikes.
  • the game continued until one team scores 21 "aces" (runs), provided that an equal number of hands (innings) had been played.
  • the ball had to be pitched underhand.
  • a "striker" (batter) was out if a fair or foul ball was caught on the fly or the first bounce. All base runners could advance on a fair ball caught on the first bounce.

Major changes to the Knickerbocker rules:

  • 1857; January 22 - the nine inning game is introduced.
  • 1858 - called strikes are introduced.
  • 1864; December 14 - a batter is no longer out if a fair struck ball is caught on one bounce. Foul balls caught on the first bounce are still outs.

Questions

New York City librarian Robert W. Henderson documented Cartwright's contributions to baseball in his 1947 book Bat, Ball, and Bishop, which Congress cited in recognizing Cartwright as the inventor of the modern game. Although there is no question that Cartwright was a prominent figure in the early development of baseball, some students of baseball history have suggested that Henderson and others embellished Cartwright's role. The primary complaint is that touting Cartwright as the "true" inventor of the modern game was an effort to find an alternative single individual to counter the clearly mythical "invention" of baseball by Abner Doubleday. Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career U.S. Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Some authors have also questioned the supposed "first game" under the new rules. The Knickerbockers' scorebook shows games during 1845 also. Those who have studied the scorebook have concluded that the differences in the games of 1845 and 1846, compared with the specifications of the Knickerbocker rules, are minimal, such as fielding teams of 7 players instead of 9.


See also

  • History of baseball

Wikipedia has a number of articles about the history of baseball: Origins of baseball History of baseball in the United States History of baseball outside the United States Baseball in the United Kingdom 1845 to 1868 in baseball Pre-1850s in baseball London Tecumsehs (and origins of baseball in Canada...

References

  1. ^ Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.
  2. ^ Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.
  3. ^ Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.
  4. ^ Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.

John Lloyd (born 1951 in Dover, England; birth name: John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd), British comedy writer and producer. ... John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and co-author of The Book of General Ignorance with QIs creator John Lloyd. ... QI: The Book of General Ignorance (UK cover) The Book of General Ignorance is a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by John Lloyd and John Mitchinson. ... John Lloyd (born 1951 in Dover, England; birth name: John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd), British comedy writer and producer. ... John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and co-author of The Book of General Ignorance with QIs creator John Lloyd. ... QI: The Book of General Ignorance (UK cover) The Book of General Ignorance is a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by John Lloyd and John Mitchinson. ... John Lloyd (born 1951 in Dover, England; birth name: John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd), British comedy writer and producer. ... John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and co-author of The Book of General Ignorance with QIs creator John Lloyd. ... QI: The Book of General Ignorance (UK cover) The Book of General Ignorance is a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by John Lloyd and John Mitchinson. ... John Lloyd (born 1951 in Dover, England; birth name: John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd), British comedy writer and producer. ... John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and co-author of The Book of General Ignorance with QIs creator John Lloyd. ... QI: The Book of General Ignorance (UK cover) The Book of General Ignorance is a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by John Lloyd and John Mitchinson. ...

External links

  • BaseballLibrary - biography

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexander Cartwright at AllExperts (593 words)
Cartwright was a member of the New York Knickerbockers, who played a brand of stick-and-ball game called the town game.
In 1845 Cartwright and a committee from his club drew up rules converting this playground game into more elaborate and interesting sport to be played by adults.
In 1938, Cartwright was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
Alexander Cartwright Summary (2267 words)
Cartwright was appointed secretary and vice-president of the club when it wrote down a formal constitution in September of that year.
Cartwright later was credited with instituting two other key rule changes: setting the number of players at nine for each side, and fixing the length of a game at nine innings.
Alexander Cartwright is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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