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Encyclopedia > Alexander Borodin

Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: Александр Порфирьевич Бородин, Aleksandr Porfir'evič Borodin) (31 Oct./12 Nov. 1833 – 15/27 Feb. 1887) was a Russian composer of Georgian parentage who made his living as a notable chemist. He was a member of the group of composers called The Five (the mighty handful), who were dedicated to producing a specifically Russian kind of art music [1] [2] [3]. 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under...

Contents

Life and profession

Borodin was born in Saint Petersburg, the illegitimate son of a Georgian Prince, Luka Semyonovich Gedeanishvili, who had him registered instead as the son of one of his serfs, Porfiry Borodin. As a boy he received a good education, including piano lessons, but he was eventually to earn a doctorate in medicine at the Medico–Surgical Academy, the later home to Ivan Pavlov, and to pursue a career in chemistry (just as his comrade César Cui would do in the field of military fortifications). As a result of his work in chemistry and difficulties in his home-life, Borodin was not as prolific in writing music as many of his contemporaries were -- hence his own description of himself as a "Sunday composer." He died during a festive ball, where he was participating with much vigor; he suddenly collapsed from heart failure. He was interred in Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in St. Petersburg, Russia. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: ) (September 14, 1849 – February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. ... César Antonovitch Cui (Russian: Цезарь Антонович Кюи) (January 6/18, 1835 – March 13, 1918) was a Russian composer and music critic of French and Lithuanian descent. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in St. ... View of the monastery in the early 19th century Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter the Great in 1710 at the southern end of the Nevsky Prospect in St Petersburg to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, patron saint of the newly-founded Russian capital. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Chemical career

In his chemical profession Borodin gained great respect, being particularly noted for his work on aldehydes [4] . Between 1859 and 1862 Borodin held a postdoctorate in Heidelberg. He worked in the laboratory of Emil Erlenmeyer working on benzene derivatives. He also spent time in Pisa, working on organic halogens. One experiment published in 1862 described the first nucleophilic displacement of chlorine by fluorine in benzoyl chloride [5]. A related reaction known to the west as the Hunsdiecker reaction published in 1939 by the Hunsdieckers was promoted by the Soviet Union as the Borodin reaction. In 1862 he returned to the Medico–Surgical Academy. There he worked on the selfcondensation of small aldehydes with publications in 1864 and 1869 and in this field he found himself competing with August Kekulé. An aldehyde. ... A view of the city from the castle (Schloss) A view of stone bridge from the castle (Schloss) The castle (Schloss) above the town Shopping district Heidelberg and the other cities of the Neckar valley View from the so called alley of philosophers (Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg... Richard August Carl Emil Erlenmeyer (28 June 1825 – 22 January 1909) was a German chemist, usually known simply as Emil Erlenmeyer. ... This article discusses the Italian city. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... Benzoyl chloride, also known as benzenecarbonyl chloride, is a colourless, fuming liquid, C6H5COCl, with an irritating odour. ... The Hunsdiecker reaction (also called the Borodin reaction after Alexander Borodin) is the organic reaction of silver salts of carboxylic acids with halogens to give organic halides. ... Kekulé von Stradonitz Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz (September 7, 1829 – July 13, 1896) was a German organic chemist. ...


Borodin is also credited with the discovery of the Aldol reaction together with Charles-Adolphe Wurtz. In 1872 he announced to the Russian Chemical Society the discovery of a new by-product in aldehyde reactions with properties like that of an alcohol and he noted similarities with compounds already discussed in publications by Wurtz from the same year. A typical experimental setup for an aldol reaction. ... Charles Adolphe Wurtz (November 26, 1817 - May 10, 1884) was a French chemist. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ...


He published his last full article in 1875 on reactions of amides and his last publication concerned a method for the identification of urea in animal urine. Amide functional group In chemistry, an amide is one of two kinds of compounds: - the organic functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (C=O) linked to a nitrogen atom (N), or a compound that contains this functional group (pictured to the right); or - a particular kind of nitrogen anion. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...


His son-in-law and successor was fellow chemist A. P. Dianin. A.P. Dianin was a Russian chemist from Saint Petersburg. ...


Musical avocation

As regards the significant factors of his avocational life in music, Borodin met Mily Balakirev in 1862, when under his tutelage in composition he began his first symphony (in E-flat Major), which was first performed in 1869, under Balakirev's conductorship. In that same year Borodin started on his second symphony (in B Minor), which was not particularly successful at its premiere in 1877 under Eduard Nápravník), but with some minor re-orchestration received a successful performance in 1879 by the Free Music School under Rimsky-Korsakov's direction. Balakirevs grave at Tikhvin Cemetery. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A symphony is an extended composition usually for orchestra and usually comprising four movements. ... A conductor conducting a band at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Eduard Frantsovitch Nápravník (24 August 1839, Býšť, Bohemia - 23 November 1916) was Czech/Russian conductor and composer. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (O.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (O.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a teacher of harmony and...


In 1869, Borodin became distracted from initial work on the second symphony by preoccupation with the opera Prince Igor, which is seen by some to be his most significant work and one of the most important historical Russian operas. It contains the Polovetsian Dances, which are often performed as a stand-alone concert work as probably Borodin's best known composition. Unfortunately Borodin left the opera (and a few other works) incomplete at his death. Prince Igor was completed posthumously by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Glazunov. The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... Prince Igor (Russian: Knâz Igor) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Alexander Borodin. ... The Polovetsian Dances are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodins opera Prince Igor. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (O.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (O.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a teacher of harmony and... Alexander Konstantinovich Glazounov (or Glazunov or Glazunow) (August 10, 1865 – March 21, 1936) was a major Russian composer, as well as an influential music teacher. ...


Other well-known compositions by Borodin include the popular symphonic poem In the Steppes of Central Asia and the second of two string quartets (in D Major), in which the composer's strong lyricism is represented in the popular "Nocturne" movement. A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... In the Steppes of Central Asia is the common English title for a musical tableau (or symphonic poem) by Alexander Borodin. ... The String Quartet No. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... A nocturne (from the French for nocturnal) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night. ...


In 1882, Borodin began composing a third symphony, but left it unfinished at his death; two movements of it were later completed and orchestrated by Glazunov. Among Borodin's other works there are several art songs, piano pieces (notably the Petite Suite), and other chamber music (notably a cello sonata based on a theme from Bach's Sonata No.1 in G minor, BWV 1001). Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one singer and often with piano accompaniment. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... For other uses, see Chamber music (disambiguation). ... A cello sonata usually denotes a sonata written for cello and piano, though other instrumentations are used, such as solo cello. ... In music, the BACH motif is the sequence of notes B flat, A, C, B natural. ...


Musical legacy

The bust of Borodin at his tomb in Tikhvin Cemetery. (The visible musical notation on the tile monument in the background shows themes from (1) "Gliding Dance of the Maidens" from Polovetsian Dances; (2) "Song of the Dark Forest"; and (3) the "Scherzo" theme from Symphony No. 3.)
The bust of Borodin at his tomb in Tikhvin Cemetery. (The visible musical notation on the tile monument in the background shows themes from (1) "Gliding Dance of the Maidens" from Polovetsian Dances; (2) "Song of the Dark Forest"; and (3) the "Scherzo" theme from Symphony No. 3.)

Borodin's fame outside the Russian Empire was made possible during his lifetime by Franz Liszt, who arranged a performance of the first symphony in Germany in 1880, and by Comtesse de Mercy-Argenteau in Belgium and France. His music is noted for its strong lyricism and rich harmonies. Along with some influences from Western composers, as a member of the The Five his music exudes also an undeniably Russian flavor. His passionate music and unusual harmonies proved to have a lasting influence on the younger French composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel (in homage, the latter composed in 1913 a piano piece entitled "À la manière de Borodine"). Download high resolution version (600x918, 92 KB)Bust of Borodin, St. ... Download high resolution version (600x918, 92 KB)Bust of Borodin, St. ... Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in St. ... The Polovetsian Dances are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodins opera Prince Igor. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period. ... Marie-Clotilde-Elisabeth Louise de Riquet was born on 3 June 1837 as Comtesse de Caraman-Chimay. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under... Achille-Claude Debussy (IPA ) (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a French composer. ... Joseph-Maurice Ravel (March 7, 1875 – December 28, 1937) was a French 20th century composer and pianist, known especially for the subtlety, richness and poignancy of his music. ...


The evocative characteristics of Borodin's music made possible the adaptation of his compositions in the 1953 musical Kismet, by Robert Wright and George Forrest, perhaps most notably in the song, Stranger In Paradise. In 1954, Borodin was posthumously awarded a Tony Award for this show. 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Kismet is a musical written in 1953 by Robert Wright and George Forrest, adapted from the music of Alexander Borodin. ... Robert Wright (born Daytona Beach, Florida, September 25, 1914; died Miami, Florida, October 10, 1999) was a United States writer of musical theatre best known for the show Kismet, adapted from the works of Alexander Borodin. ... George Forrest (born Brooklyn, New York, July 31, 1915) is an American writer of musical theatre best known for the show Kismet, adapted from the works of Alexander Borodin. ... Stranger in Paradise is a popular song. ... What is popularly called the Tony Award (formally, the Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre) is an annual award celebrating achievements in live American theater, including musical theater, primarily honoring productions on Broadway in New York. ...


Related information

The Borodin Quartet is string quartet that was founded in 1945 in the former Soviet Union. ... Alexander and Ann Shulgin, in a photo from their book TiHKAL, c. ... PiHKAL is a 1991 book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about psychedelic phenethylamines. ... TiHKAL is a 1997 book written by Dr Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about tryptamines. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Abraham, Gerald. Borodin: the Composer and his Music. London, 1927.
  2. ^ Dianin, Sergei Aleksandrovich. Borodin. London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1963.
  3. ^ Oldani, Robert, William. "Borodin, Aleksandr Porfir′yevich," Grove Music Online (Accessed 27 January 2006, subscription required)
  4. ^ Michael D. Gordin (2006). "Facing the Music: How Original Was Borodin’s Chemistry?". Journal of Chemical Education 83: 561-566.
  5. ^ E. J. Behrman (2006). "Borodin?". Journal of Chemical Education 83: 1138.
  • George Sarton (1939). "Borodin (1833-87)". Osiris 7: 224-260.
  • A. J. B. Hutchings (1936). "A Study of Borodin: I. The Man". The Musical Times 77 (1124): 881-883.
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Lesson Tutor: Biography of classical composer Alexander Borodin (1029 words)
In 1863 Borodin married Ekaterina Protopopova, a brilliant young pianist.
Alexander Borodin was a much loved and greatly respected figure, but heart attacks and a bout of cholera seriously undermined his health.
Borodin's music is full of romantic charm and enticing melody, and much of it also rings with the pageantry and landscape of old Russia; of onion-domed churches, richly decorated icons, and the vastness of the land.
Alexander Borodin biography - 8notes.com (577 words)
Borodin was born in Saint Petersburg, the illegitimate son of a Georgian Prince, Luka Gedevanishvili, who had him registered instead as the son of one of his serfs.
Borodin died on February 27, 1887 and was interred in Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in St.
Alexander Borodin: Eine Steppenskizze aus Mittelasien (In the Steppes of Central Asia) Transcribed by Theodore Jadoul, composed by Alexander Borodin (1833-1887).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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