FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Alexander Agricola

Alexander Agricola (1445 or 1446August 15, 1506) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. A prominent member of the Grande chapelle, the Habsburg musical establishment, he was a renowned composer in the years around 1500, and his music was widely distributed throughout Europe. He composed music in all of the important sacred and secular styles of the time.[1] Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In music, the Dutch School refers, somewhat imprecisely, to the style of polyphonic vocal music composition in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...

Contents

Life

As is common with composers of the period, very little is known of his early life, not even his place of birth. He may have been born in present-day Germany, since he is referred to in some Italian documents as d'Allemagno or d'Allemagna. Most of his life he spent in posts in Italy, France and the Low Countries, though there are gaps where his activities are not known, and he seems to have left many of his posts without permission. He was a singer for Duke Sforza of Milan from 1471 to 1474, during the period when the Milanese chapel choir grew into one of the largest and most famous ensembles in Europe; Loyset Compère, Johannes Martini, Gaspar van Weerbeke, and several other composer-singers were also in Milan during those years.[2] It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... Manuscript of Omnium bonorum plena, a motet by Compère, and possibly his earliest surviving work; the exact date is uncertain, but it was possibly written for the dedication of Cambrai Cathedral on July 2, 1472. ... Johannes Martini (c. ... Gaspar van Weerbeke (c. ...


In 1474 Duke Sforza wrote a letter of recommendation for him to Lorenzo de' Medici, and Agricola accordingly went to Florence. In 1476 he is known to have been in Cambrai, in the Low Countries, where he probably was employed as a singer. For the long period from 1476 to 1491 nothing definite is known except that he spent part of the time in the French royal chapel, and he must have been building his reputation as a composer during this time, for he was much in demand in the 1490s, with France and Naples competing for his services. In 1500 he took a position with Philip the Handsome, who was Duke of Burgundy and King of Castile. He apparently accompanied the Duke on his travels through his empire; by this time he was one of the most esteemed composers in Europe. He was in Valladolid, Spain, in August 1506, where he died during an outbreak of the plague on August 15 of that year. For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... // Events December 6 - King Charles VIII marries Anne de Bretagne, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip the Handsome (July 22, 1478 – September 25, 1506; Spanish: ; German: ; French: ) was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Through his mother Mary of Burgundy he inherited the greater part of the Burgundian state the Burgundian Netherlands and through his wife Joanna the Mad he briefly succeeded... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ...


Musical style

Agricola's style is related to that of Johannes Ockeghem, especially early in his career, and towards the end of his life he was writing using the pervasive imitation characteristic of Josquin des Prez. While few of his works can be dated precisely, he does use many of the non-imitative, complex, rhythmically diverse contrapuntal procedures more often associated with Ockeghem. Unlike Ockeghem, however, he was willing to employ repetition, sequence, and increasingly imitation in the manner of the other composers who were working around 1500 when the technique became widespread. Ockeghem (with glasses) and his singers Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (c. ... 1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, copied from a now-lost oil painting done during his lifetime. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Sequence can refer to: sequence, a logical and mathematical notion In biochemistry, a biopolymers sequence is synonymous with its primary structure: the list of basic building blocks constituting the polymer (for example a DNA sequence). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Agricola wrote masses, motets, motet-chansons, secular songs in the prevailing formes fixes such as (rondeaux and bergerettes, other chansons), and instrumental music. Much of his instrumental music was based on secular music by Gilles Binchois or Ockeghem. Many of these pieces had become quite popular in the late 15th century. The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... The motet-chanson was a specialized musical form of the Renaissance, developed in Milan during the 1470s and 1480s, which combined aspects of the contemporary motet and chanson. ... Formes fixes (English: fixed forms) are French poetic forms of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries which were translated into musical forms, particularly the forms of songs. ... A Rondeau is a form of French poetry with 13 lines written on two rhymes, as well as a corresponding musical form developed to set this characteristic verse structure. ... Chanson is a French word for song, and in English-language contexts is often applied to any song with French words, particularly a cabaret song. ... Gilles de Binchois or Bins (c. ...


Agricola is one of the few transitional figures between the Burgundian style and the style of the Josquin generation of Netherlanders who actually wrote music in both styles. Composer Guillaume Dufay (left) and Gilles Binchois (right), Martin le Franc, Champion des Dames The Burgundian School is a term used to denote a group of composers active in the 15th century in what is now eastern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, centered on the court of the Dukes of...


Above all the variants in his general musical style over his working life, Agricola himself wrote in a highly distinctive style, taking the mysteriously sinuous lines of Ockeghem as his point of departure. His music is often very busy and extraorinarily detailed, with repeated sequence, repetition of terse rhythmic and motivic units, and a desire to usurp the underlying pulse, sometimes seeming to border on the perverse, either by prolonging cadential figures to cadence on the "wrong" beat, or by shifting the metrical beat of some parts against others (eg. the closing Agnus Dei of his extraordinarily extended Missa 'In myne zin' features the cantus firmus stated in equal notes of eleven quavers' duration each in first statement, followed by a statement of five quavers' duration each, or in the second Salve Regina setting, offsetting part of the statement of the cantus firmus by a quaver for its entire duration, in both cases with the other voices proceeding in a more strict quadruple meter above.) Other "games" played in the music include posing puzzles of mode and musica ficta for the performers (eg. the Kyrie of the Missa Le serviteur plays with the expectations of the very well-known plainchant cantus firmus by setting up some knotty issues of the implied possibility of modal inflection with consistent extra flats.) The music is characteristically athletic in all voice parts, with the lower parts in particular featuring much that requires very fine singers, and not representing the normal simply harmonic function of the tenor-bass combinations used by most of his contemporaries. Often a highly elaborate set of quick motifs will spring unexpected from a previous slow-moving texture (eg. the eruption of detailed duos beginning at Glorificamus te and climaxing at Adoramus te in the Gloria of the Missa In myne zin). His music was very highly regarded in its day, the very distinctive style leading to one contemporary commentator referring to it as "crazy", and another as "sublime". Look up Cadence, cadence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A lamb holding a Christian banner is a typical symbol for Agnus Dei. ... In music, a cantus firmus (fixed song) is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition, often set apart by being played in long notes. ... The Salve Regina or is one of four Marian antiphons sung at different seasons. ... In music, a cantus firmus (fixed song) is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition, often set apart by being played in long notes. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... In European music prior to about 1600, musica ficta (from Latin, false or feigned music) referred to chromatically altered pitches, not notated in the music, which were to be supplied by singers. ... Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison which is Greek for Lord, have mercy. ... In music, a cantus firmus (fixed song) is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition, often set apart by being played in long notes. ... Gloria may be: Gloria (song), any one of several songs from the history of popular music Gloria in Excelsis Deo, the main doxology of the Roman Catholic Mass Vivaldis Gloria, a musical setting of the doxology Gloria Patri, a relatively short, common doxology Gloria, Oriental Mindoro, a municipality in...


Other Agricolas

There are other composers named Agricola who sometimes are confused with Alexander:

  • Georg Ludwig Agricola (1643 - 1676) (also an important writer)
  • Johannes Agricola (c1560 - 1601)
  • Johann Friedrich Agricola (1720 - 1774) (also musicographer, organist and singing master)
  • Johann Paul Agricola (1638 or 1639 - 1697)
  • Martin Agricola (1486 - 1556) (More important as a theorist and teacher)
  • Wolfgang Christoph Agricola (c1600 - c1659)

Johannes Agricola (originally Schneider, then Schnitter) (April 20, 1494 - September 22, 1566) was a German Protestant reformer. ... Johann Friedrich Agricola (January 4, 1720 – December 2, 1774) was a German composer, organist, singer, teacher and writer on music. ... Martin Agricola (January 6, 1486 – June 10, 1556) was a German composer of Renaissance music and a music theorist. ...

References

  • Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance. New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1954. (ISBN 0-393-09530-4)
  • Rob Wegman/Fabrice Fitch, "Alexander Agricola". Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed June 4, 2007), (subscription access)
  • Edward R. Lerner, "Alexander Agricola." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. (ISBN 1-56159-174-2)
  • Honey Meconi, Pierre de la Rue and Musical Life at the Habsburg-Burgundian Court. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-19-816554-4

Gustave Reese (November 29, 1899 – September 7, 1977) was an American musicologist and teacher. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Wegman/Fitch, Grove online
  2. ^ Lerner, Grove

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alexander Agricola - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (638 words)
Alexander Agricola (1445 or 1446 – August 1506) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance.
Agricola's style is related to that of Johannes Ockeghem, especially early in his career, and towards the end of his life he was writing using the pervasive imitation characteristic of Josquin des Prez.
Agricola is one of the few transitional figures between the Burgundian style and the style of the Josquin generation of Netherlanders who actually wrote music in both styles.
ALEXANDER AGRICOLA, Biography, Discography (140 words)
Agricola's output consists of sacred and secular vocal music, as well as several pieces in chanson-style which survive without text.
While Agricola's music uses some of the same structural principles as Josquin's, including a telling ability for working out all voices concurrently, he does not use imitation to the same degree and so looks back somewhat to the previous generation of Ockeghem.
Agricola's compositions are all highly polished, with a fine sense of harmony and voice-leading.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m