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Encyclopedia > Alessandro Volta
Born Alessandro Volta Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (1745-1827) February 18, 1745 Como, Duchy of Milan March 5, 1827 (aged 82) Como, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Physicist Invention of the electric cell (battery= two or more cells

## Life

Alessandro Volta, an Italian physicist, is known best for his pioneering work in electricity. Volta was born in Como and educated in the public schools there. In 1774 he became professor of physics at the Royal School in Como; in the following year, he devised the electrophorus, an instrument that produced charges of static electricity. Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Como (disambiguation). ... For the genus of fish family Electrophoridae, see electric eel An electrophorus is a single-plate capacitor used to produce imbalances of electric charge via the proces of electrostatic induction. ...

In 1776-77 he applied himself to chemistry, studying atmospheric electricity and devising experiments such as the ignition of gases by an electric spark in a closed vessel. In 1779 he became professor of physics at the University of Pavia, a chair he occupied for 25 years. By 1800 he had developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery, which produced a steady stream of electricity. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The University of Pavia is a university in Pavia, Italy. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...

In honor of his work in the field of electricity, Napoleon made him a count in 1810. A museum in Como, the Voltian Temple, has been erected in his honor and exhibits some of the original instruments he used to conduct experiments. Near Lake Como stands the Villa Olmo, which houses the Voltian Foundation, an organization which promotes scientific activities. Volta carried out his juvenile studies and made his first inventions in Como. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Lake Como (Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. ...

## Inventions and discoveries

In 1775, Volta improved and popularized the electrophorus, a device that produces a static electric charge. His promotion of it was so extensive that he is often credited with its invention, although it had actually been invented in 1764 by Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke[1] In 1776-77 he studied the chemistry of gases, discovered methane, and devised experiments such as the ignition of gases by an electric spark in a closed vessel. Volta also studied what we now call capacitance, developing separate means to study both electrical potential V and charge Q, and discovering that for a given object they are proportional. This may be called Volta's Law of Capacitance, and likely for this work the unit of electrical potential has been named the volt. In 1779 he became professor of experimental physics at the University of Pavia, a chair he occupied for almost 40 years. In 1794, Volta married the daughter of Count Ludovico Peregrini, Teresa, with whom he raised three sons. For the genus of fish family Electrophoridae, see electric eel An electrophorus is a single-plate capacitor used to produce imbalances of electric charge via the proces of electrostatic induction. ... Johan Carl Wilcke (September 6, 1732 â€“ April 18, 1796) was a Swedish physicist. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Look up Spark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ...

Around 1791 he began to study the "animal electricity" noted by Galvani when two different metals were connected in series with the frog's leg and to one another. He realized that the frog's leg served as both a conductor of electricity (we would now call it an electrolyte) and as a detector of electricity. He replaced the frog's leg by brine-soaked paper, and detected the flow of electricity by other means familiar to him from his previous studies of electricity. In this way he discovered the electrochemical series, and the law that the electromotive force (emf) of a galvanic cell, consisting of a pair of metal electrodes separated by electrolyte, is the difference of their two electrode potentials. That is, if the electrodes have emfs $mathcal{E}_{1,2}$, then the net emf is $mathcal{E}_{2}-mathcal{E}_{1}$. (Thus, two identical electrodes and a common electrolyte give zero net emf.) This may be called Volta's Law of the electrochemical series. Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737 â€“ December 4, 1798) Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... It has been suggested that Electrode potential be merged into this article or section. ... Electromotive force (emf) is the amount of energy gained per unit charge that passes through a device in the opposite direction to the electric field existing across that device. ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge or a porous disk between the individual half-cells. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ...

In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, he invented the voltaic pile, an early electric battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. Initially he experimented with individual cells in series, each cell being a wine goblet filled with brine into which the two dissimilar electrodes were dipped. The electric pile replaced the goblets with cardboard soaked in brine. (The number of cells, and thus the voltage it could produce, was limited by the pressure, exerted by the upper cells, that would squeeze all of the brine out of the cardboard of the bottom cell.) Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737 â€“ December 4, 1798) Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ... A copper-zinc Voltaic pile A Voltaic pile on display in the Tempio Voltiano The Voltaic pile is the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... A battery is of one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available in an electrical form. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...

In announcing his discovery of the pile, Volta paid tribute to the influences of William Nicholson, Tiberius Cavallo and Abraham Bennet.[2] William Nicholson, (1753-1815), English writer on natural philosophy. ... Tiberius Cavallo (1749–1809), Anglo-Italian electrician and natural philosopher, was born on the 30th of March 1749 at Naples, where his father was a physician. ... Portrain of Bennet by an unknown artist (Wirksworth Church) Abraham Bennet FRS (baptised 20 December 1749 - buried 9 May 1799) was an English clergyman and physicist, the inventor of the gold-leaf electroscope and developer of an improved magnetometer. ...

## The Voltaic battery

The battery made by Volta is credited as the first electrochemical cell. It consists of two electrodes: one made of zinc, the other of copper. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid or a brine mixture of salt and water. The electrolyte exists in the form 2H+ and SO4 2-. The zinc, which is higher than both copper and hydrogen in the electrochemical series, reacts with the negatively charged sulphate. ( SO4 ) The positively charged hydrogen bubbles start depositing around the copper and take away some of its electrons. This makes the zinc rod the negative electrode and the copper rod the positive electrode. General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, Îµr, etc. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ...

We now have 2 terminals, and the current will flow if we connect them. The reactions in this cell are as follows:

 zinc Zn -> Zn2+ + 2e- copper Cu -> Cu2+ + 2e- sulfuric acid H2SO4 -> H2 + SO4

However, this cell also has some disadvantages. It is unsafe to handle, as sulfuric acid, even if dilute, is dangerous. Also, the potential difference in the terminals finishes after some time. So it is not durable, and therefore, not a suitable choice.

## Honors

Before 1796, Lombardy was ruled by Austria. From 1796 to 1815, Lombardy came under Napoleon's rule. After 1815, Lombardy was once again under Austrian rule. Thus Volta was once a subject of the Emperor of Austria, later a subject of Napoleon and then later a subject of the Emperor of Austria again.[3] For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ...

The Tempio Voltiano, Como

He was a long-time correspondent of the Royal Society and was made a fellow (FRS). He received the Society's 1794 Copley Medal. He published his invention of the Voltaic pile battery in 1800 in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. He was in correspondence with scientists in Austria, which ruled Lombardy in his day, and in France. His 1800 paper was written in French. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... A copper-zinc Voltaic pile A Voltaic pile on display in the Tempio Voltiano The Voltaic pile is the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ...

Volta is buried in the city of Como. At the Tempio Voltiano near Lake Como there is a museum devoted to explaining his work. Count Volta's original instruments and papers are on display there. The building, along with his portrait, appeared on Italian 10.000 lira banknote, before the introduction of the euro. For other uses, see Como (disambiguation). ... Lake Como (Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. ... ISO 4217 Code ITL User(s) Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, but not Campione dItalia Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...

In 1881 an important electrical unit, the volt, was named in his honor. There have also been innovations and discovories named after Alessandro Volta including the Toyota Alessandro Volta, the Volta Crater on the Moon and in 2006 a technology company named their loan origination platform Volta. SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... The Toyota Alessandro Volta is a concept car developed in the collaboration of the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and the Italian design company Italdesign Giugiaro. ...

## Retirement

Volta entered retirement in Spain.

## References

1. ^ Pancaldi, Giuliano (2003). Volta, Science and Culture in the Age of Enlightenment. Princeton Univ. Press. , p.73
2. ^ *Elliott, P. (1999). "Abraham Bennet F.R.S. (1749-1799): a provincial electrician in eighteenth-century England" (PDF). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 53(1): 59-78.  (
3. ^ Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.

Results from FactBites:

 Inventor Alessandro Volta Biography (1110 words) Volta was born in Como and educated in the public schools there. The "Alessandro Volta" Centre for Scientific Culture is a non profit organization acting since 1982, supported by the local Administrations of Region Lombardy and Province Como, the Como Town Council and the Chambers of Commerce of Milano and Como. In his research, Volta placed together several pairs of alternating copper (or silver) and zinc discs separated by cloth and soaked the cloth in brine (salt water) to increase conductivity, and an electrical current was produced.
 Alessandro Volta (655 words) In seeking further experimental evidence in favour of his contact theory, Volta was led to the greatest of his inventions, the voltaic "pile", which he described in a communication of 20 March, 1800, to Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society of London. The voltaic battery of 1800 marks an epoch in physical theory as well as in the application of science to the welfare of mankind. In the summer of 1899, the centenary of the invention of the voltaic battery, an exposition was held in Como of electrical apparatus constructed and used by Volta in his investigations, but unfortunately a fire broke out and many of these heirlooms of science were destroyed.
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