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Encyclopedia > Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza

Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (1545 - 1592) was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma and Margaret, the illegitimate daughter of the Habsburg Emperor Charles V. Thus Alessandro was the nephew of Philip II of Spain and of Don John of Austria. He led a significant military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain. He fought in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and then in the Netherlands against anti-Spanish rebels. The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 - 18 January 1586), duchess of Parma and regent of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567, was the illegitimate daughter of Charles V. Her mother, Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, was a Fleming. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Look up Career in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Holy League: Republic of Venice Habsburg Spain Papal States Kingdom of Naples Genoa Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha Strength 206 galleys 6 galleasses 220-230 galleys 50-60 galliots Casualties 9,000 dead or wounded 12 galleys lost 30,000 dead...

Alessandro Farnese as a boy
Alessandro Farnese as a boy

He accompanied his mother to Brussels when she was appointed Governor of the Netherlands. In 1565 his marriage with the princess Maria of Portugal was celebrated in Brussels with great splendour. Alexander Farnese had been brought up in Spain with his cousin, the ill-fated Don Carlos, and Don John, both of whom were about the same age as himself, and after his marriage he took up his residence at once in the court of Madrid. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Hotel de Ville de Bruxelles Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, pronounced ; French: Bruxelles, pronounced in Belgian French and often by non-Belgian speakers of French; German: Brüssel) is the capital of... The Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands ruled the Seventeen Provinces, after 1581 only the Southern Netherlands as a representative of the Duke of Burgundy (until 1555), the King of Spain (1555-1706) or the Archduke of Austria (1716-1794), all from the house of Habsburg. ... Events The pencil is first documented by Conrad Gesner March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... Maria of Portugal (English: Mary) is the name of several Portuguese Queens, Queens consort and Princesses: Queens Maria I of Portugal Maria II of Portugal Queens consort Maria of Aragon Marie-Françoise of Savoy Mary Anne of Austria Maria Leopoldina, Empress of Brazil Maria Pia of Savoy Princesses Maria...


It was seven years, however, before he had again the opportunity to display his great military talents. In the meantime the provinces of the Netherlands had revolted against the arbitrary and oppressive Spanish rule. Don John, who had been sent as governor-general to restore order, had found himself helpless in face of the superior talent and personal influence of William the Silent, who had succeeded in uniting all the provinces in common resistance to the civil and religious tyranny of Philip. In the autumn of 1577, Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of reinforcements, and it was mainly his prompt decision at a critical moment that won the Battle of Gembloux in 1578. Shortly afterwards Don John, whose health had broken down through disappointment and ill-health, died. Farnese was appointed to take his place. William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spain Commanders Unknown John of Austria Strength Casualties 10,000 dead, wounded, or captured 100 dead or wounded The Battle of Gembloux marked a terrible defeat for the Protestant rebels fighting against Spain in the Eighty Years War. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ...


He was confronted with enormous difficulties, but he proved himself more than equal to the task. In military ability he was inferior to none of his contemporaries. As a skilful diplomatist he was the match even of his great antagonist, William the Silent. And, like most of the leading statesmen of his day, he was unscrupulous as to the means he employed so long as he achieved his ends.


Perceiving that there were divisions and jealousies in the ranks of his opponents between Catholic and Protestant, Fleming and Walloon, he set to work by persuasion, address and bribery, to successfully foment the growing discord, and bring back the Walloon provinces' allegiance to the king. By the treaty of Arras, January 1579, he was able to secure the support of the 'Malcontents', as the Catholic nobles of the south were styled, to the royal cause. The reply to the treaty of Arras was the Union of Utrecht, concluded a few weeks later between the seven northern provinces, who abjured the sovereignty of King Philip and bound themselves to use all their resources to maintain their independence of Spanish rule. Map of the Spanish Netherlands, the Union of Utrecht and the Union of Arras (1579) The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed on January 6, 1579 in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ...


As soon as he had obtained a secure basis of operations in Hainaut and Artois, Farnese set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell into his power. Tournai, Maastricht, Breda, Bruges and Ghent opened their gates. Hainaut (French; English traditionally Hainault, Dutch: Henegouwen, German: Hennegau, Walloon: Hinnot) is the westernmost province of Wallonia, in Belgium. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ... Historically, Brabant has been the name of several administrative entities in the Low Countries with quite different geographical extent: as Carolingian shire (pagus Bracbatensis), located between the rivers Scheldt and Dijle (between 9th-11th century); as landgraviat: the part of the shire between the rivers Dender and Dijle (from 1085... Flanders (Flemish, Fleming) (Dutch: Vlaanderen (Vlaams, Vlaming)) has two main designations: a geographical region in the north of Belgium, corresponding to the Flemish region, a constituent part of the federal Belgian state. ... The cathedral of Notre Dame de Tournai Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik) is located 85 kilometers southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Maastricht (Dutch: Maastricht; Limburgish and city dialect: Mestreech) is a municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg. ... Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... Gent at Night Ghent (Gent in Dutch, Gand in French, formerly Gaunt in English) is a city located in Flanders, Belgium. ...


He finally laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp. The town was open to the sea, strongly fortified, and defended with resolute determination and courage by the citizens. They were led by the famous Marnix van St. Aldegonde and assisted by an ingenious Italian engineer named Gianibelli. The siege began in 1584 and called forth all of Farnese's military genius. He cut off all access to Antwerp from the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the Scheldt from Calloo to Oordam, in spite of the desperate efforts of the besieged townspeople to prevent its completion. At last, on the August 15, 1585, Antwerp was compelled by famine to capitulate. Favourable conditions were granted to the vanquished, but all Protestants were required to leave the town within two years. With the fall of Antwerp, and with Mechelen and Brussels already in the hands of Farnese, the whole of the southern Netherlands was once more placed under the authority of Philip. Holland and Zeeland, whose geographical position made them unassailable except by water, were able to hold out and defy Farnese's further advance through the courage and skill of their hardy seafaring population and the help of English auxiliaries sent by Queen Elizabeth I. For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Portret by Jacques de Gheyn II Philips van Marnix, heer van St Aldegonde (1538 - December 15, 1598), was a Dutch writer and statesman, and the probable author of the text of the Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmus. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A bridge of boats over the Scheldt River, during World War I A bridge of boats over the Ravi River in Pakistan, 1895 A bridge of boats is a temporary type of bridge which floats on the river instead of having permanent pillars. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river that finds its origin in the north of France, enters Belgium and near Antwerp flows west into the Netherlands towards the North Sea. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Mechelen: Grote Markt square, with St. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Capital Middelburg Queens Commissioner drs. ... Elizabeth I, (7 September 1533–24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


In 1586 Alexander Farnese became Duke of Parma by the death of his father. He applied for leave to visit his paternal territory, but Philip would not permit him. He could not replace him in the Netherlands. However, while retaining him in his command at the head of a formidable army, the king would not give his sanction to his great general's desire to use it for the reconquest of England. Farnese at first believed it possible to successfully invade England with a force of 30,000 troops, without significant naval protection, relying mainly on the hope of a native Catholic insurrection. Philip overruled him, and began the work that led to the Spanish Armada. As part of the general campaign preparations, Farnese moved against Ostend and Sluis. Sluis was taken in August 1587. The Armada reached the area a year later. After its defeat, Farnese broke up his camp in Dunkirk in September. 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 merchant vessels Casualties 500 dead or wounded 600 dead, 397 captured 3 merchant ships sunk 1 merchant ship captured The Spanish Armada or Great/Grand Armada... Ostend (Dutch: Oostende, French: Ostende) is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Sluis is a municipality and a town in the southwestern Netherlands in the west of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ...


Farnese was to have turned his attention back to the northern Netherlands, where the Dutch had regrouped, but on December 23, 1589, the French king Henry III was assassinated, and Farnese was ordered into France. He fought in France (1590 - 1592) in support of the Catholic opposition to Henry IV of France, and died in Arras in 1592. December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Henry III (French: Henri III) (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; April 1, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ...


Farnese became Duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1586. Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, with splendid architecture and a fine countryside around it. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ...

Preceded by:
Don John of Austria
Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands Succeeded by:
Count Peter Ernst von Mansfeld
Preceded by:
Ottavio
Duke of Parma Succeeded by:
Ranuccio I
Duke of Piacenza

The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands ruled the Seventeen Provinces, after 1581 only the Southern Netherlands as a representative of the Duke of Burgundy (until 1555), the King of Spain (1555-1706) or the Archduke of Austria (1716-1794), all from the house of Habsburg. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... Ranuccio Farnese (March 28, 1569 — March 5, 1622) or Ranuccio I, was the fourth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1592 until his death. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ...

External links

  • Farnese is a leading player in John Lothrop Motley's The Rise of the Dutch Republic, the etext of which can be found at ftp://sailor.gutenberg.org/pub/gutenberg/etext04/jm36v10.txt

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1003 words)
Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (1545 - 1592) was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma and Margaret, the illegitimate daughter of the Habsburg Emperor Charles V.
Thus Alessandro was the nephew of Philip II of Spain and of Don John of Austria.
Farnese became Duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1586.
Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (910 words)
Alessandro Farnese, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1545 – 92), the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma and Margaret of Parma[?], and the cousin of Philip II of Spain and of Don John of Austria[?], led a significant military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain.
In the autumn of 1577 Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of reinforcements, and it was mainly his prompt decision at a critical moment that won the Battle of Gemblours[?] in 1578.
Farnese had become Duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1586.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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