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Encyclopedia > Aleppo
مدينة حلب
City of Aleppo
Citadel of Aleppo
General Information
Country: Syria
Governorate: Aleppo
Area code: 21
Website: eAleppo
Aleppo in Syria
Aleppo (Syria)
Aleppo
Aleppo (Syria)
Governor Tamer Alhajeh
Population
Population: 1 671 673 (2008 est.) [1]
Geography
Location: 36° 12' N, 37° 9'E
Elevation: 390 m
Ancient City of Aleppo*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Skyline of Aleppo
State Party Flag of Syria Syria
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Reference 21
Region Arab States
Inscription history
Inscription 1986  (10th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Aleppo (Arabic: حلب‎ ['ħalab], 36°13′N, 37°10′E) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). Aleppo is one of the oldest inhabited cities, it knew human settlement since the eleventh millennium B.C. through the residential houses which were discovered in Tell Qaramel[2]. It was known to antiquity as Khalpe, Khalibon, to the Greeks as Beroea (Veroea), and to the Turks as Halep; during the French Mandate, the name Alep was used. It occupies a strategic trading point midway between the Mediterranean Sea and the Euphrates. Initially, Aleppo was built on a small group of hills surrounding the a prominent hill where the castle is erected.[3] The small river Quweiq (قويق) runs through the city. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Syria has fourteen governorates, or muhafazat (singular: muhafazah). ... Aleppo Governorate Aleppo Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة حلب) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) www. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arab world. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Arabic redirects here. ... Aleppo Governorate Aleppo Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة حلب) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


The main role of the city was as a trading place, as it sat at the crossroads of two trade routes and mediated the trade from India, the Tigris and Euphrates regions and the route coming from Damascus in the South, which traced the base of the mountains rather than the rugged seacoast. Although trade was often directed away from the city for political reasons, it continued to thrive until the Europeans began to use the Cape route to India and later to utilize the route through Egypt to the Red Sea. Since then the city has declined and its chief exports now are the agricultural products of the surrounding region, mainly wheat, cotton, pistachios, olives, and sheep. The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pistacia vera L. The Pistachio (Pistacia vera, Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to southwestern Asia (Iran west to the Levant). ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ... Species See text. ...

Contents

History

The ancient name of Aleppo, Halab, is of obscure origin. Some have proposed that Halab means 'iron' or 'copper' in Amorite languages since it was a major source of these metals in antiquity. Halaba in Aramaic means white, referring to the color of soil and marble abundant in the area. Another proposed etymology is that the name Halab means "gave out milk," coming from the ancient tradition that Abraham gave milk to travelers as they moved throughout the region. The colour of his cows was ashen (Arab. shaheb), therefore the city is also called "Halab ash-Shahba'" (he milked the ash-coloured). For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ...


Because the modern city occupies its ancient site, Aleppo has scarcely been touched by archaeologists. The site has been occupied from around 5000 BC, as excavations in Tallet Alsauda show. It grew as the capital of the kingdom of Yamkhad until the ruling Amorite Dynasty was overthrown around 1600 BC. The city remained under Hittite control until perhaps 800 BC before passing through the hands of the Assyrians and the Persian Empire and being captured by the Greeks in 333 BC, when Seleucus Nicator renamed the settlement Beroea, after Beroea in Macedon. The city remained in Greek or Seleucid hands until 64 BC, when Syria was conquered by the Romans. Yamkhad (also written Jamhad) was an ancient Syrian kingdom centered around Aleppo. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... Persia redirects here. ... Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... Veria is also a settlement in the prefecture of Laconia, see Veria, Laconia, and a commune in France, see Véria, Jura. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The city remained part of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire before falling to Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid in 637; in the 10th century a resurgent Byzantine Empire briefly regained control from 974 to 987, and remained an Imperial vassal until the Byzantine-Seljuk Wars. The city was twice besieged by Crusaders — in 1098 and in 1124 — but was not conquered. Byzantine redirects here. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-ullah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God, Gods Withdrawn Sword, or simply Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals of the Rashidun army during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Crusader States Seljuq Turks Strength Potential to raise 100,000 c. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


On August 9, 1138, a deadly earthquake ravaged the city and the surrounding area. Although estimates from this time are very unreliable, it is believed that 230,000 people died, making it the fourth deadliest earthquake in recorded history. is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Robert Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was an earthquake that was located near the town of Aleppo in northern Syria on in 11 October 1138. ... The following is a list of major earthquakes. ...


The city came under the control of Saladin and then the Ayyubid Dynasty from 1183. Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


On January 24,[4] 1260 the city was taken by the Mongols under Hulagu in alliance with their vassals the Frank knights of the ruler of Antioch Bohemond VI and his father-in-law the Armenian ruler Hetoum I.[5] The city was bravely defended by Turanshah, but the walls fell after six days of bombardment, and the citadel fell four weeks later. The Muslim population was massacred, though the Christians were spared. Turanshah was shown unusual respect by the Mongols, and was allowed to live because of his age and bravery. The city was then given to the former Emir of Homs, al-Ashraf, and a Mongol garrison was established in the city. Some of the spoils were also given to Hethoum I for his assistance in the attack. The Mongol Army then continued on to Damascus, which surrendered, and the Mongols entered the city on March 1, 1260. is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Demonym French Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Prime Minister François Fillon Formation  -  French State 843 French State Formed   -  Current... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Coat of Arms of Bohemond VI of Antioch. ... Capital Sis Language(s) Armenian, Latin, French Religion Armenian Apostolic Church Government Monarchy King  - 1080 Ruben I of Armenia Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 1080  - Leon II becomes the first King of Armenian Cilicia. ... Hetoum I (Armenian: Õ€Õ¥Õ©Õ¸Ö‚Õ´ Ô±) ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1226 to 1270. ... Homs (Arabic: , transliteration: ) is a western city in Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


In September, the Egyptian Mamluks negotiated a treaty with the Franks of Acre which allowed them to pass through Crusader territory unmolested, and engaged the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut on September 3, 1260. The Mamluks won a decisive victory, killing the Mongols' Nestorian Christian general Kitbuqa, and five days later they had re-taken Damascus. Aleppo was recovered by the Muslims within a month, and a Mamluk governor placed to govern the city. Hulagu sent troops to try and recover Aleppo in December. They were able to massacre a large number of Muslims in retaliation for the death of Kitbuqa, but after a fortnight could make no other progress and had to retreat.[6] Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Kitbuqa Noyen was the Christian lieutenant and confidant of Hulagu Khan, assisting him in his conquests in Persia and the Middle East. ...


The Mamluk governor of the city became insubordinate to the central Mamluk authority in Cairo, and in Autumn 1261 the Mamluk leader Baibars send an army to reclaim the city. In October 1271, the Mongols took the city again, attacking with 10,000 horsemen from Anatolia, and defeating the Turcoman troops who were defending Aleppo. The Mamluk garrisons fled to Hama, until Baibars came north again with his main army, and the Mongols retreated.[7] al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... There are several meanings to Turkmen: Related to the country Turkmenistan Turkmen language Turkmen people A breed of horse called the Turkoman This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the city in Syria. ...


On October 20, 1280, the Mongols took the city again, pillaging the markets and burning the mosques. The Muslim inhabitants fled for Damascus, where the Mamluk leader Qalawun assembled his forces. When his army advanced, the Mongols again retreated, back across the Euphrates. Aleppo returned to native control in 1317,[citation needed]. Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Events The Great Famine of 1315-1317. ...


In 1400, the Mongol leader Tamerlane captured the city again from the Mamluks.[8]. He massacred many of the inhabitants, infamously ordering the building of a tower of 20,000 skulls outside the city.[9] For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ...


The city became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, when the city had around 50,000 inhabitants. Reference is made to the city in 1606 in William Shakespeare's 'Macbeth.' The witches torment the captain of the ship the Tiger which was headed to Aleppo from England but endured a 567 day voyage before returning unsuccessfully to port. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


The city remained Ottoman until the empire's collapse, but was occasionally riven with internal feuds as well as attacks of the plague and later cholera from 1823. By 1901 its population was around 125,000. The city revived when it came under French colonial rule but slumped again following the decision to give Antioch to Turkey in 1938-1939. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ...


Aleppo was named by the Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) as the capital of Islamic culture in 2006.[1]


Design

Inside the suq
Inside the suq

There is a relatively clear division between old and new Aleppo. The older portions were contained within a wall, 3 miles in circuit with seven gates. The medieval castle in the city -- known as the Citadel of Aleppo -- is built atop a huge, partially artificial mound rising 50 m above the city. The current structure dates from the 13th century and had been extensively damaged by earthquakes, notably in 1822. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x853, 238 KB) Summary I took this picture myself with my own camera (Canons Digital 20D) in 2005, March 23rd. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x853, 238 KB) Summary I took this picture myself with my own camera (Canons Digital 20D) in 2005, March 23rd. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... View of the citadel of Aleppo with the entrance bridge. ...


As an ancient trading centre, Aleppo also has impressive suqs (shopping streets) and khans (commercial courtyards). The city was significantly redesigned after World War II; in 1952 the French architect Andre Gutton had a number of wide new roads cut through the city to allow easier passage for modern traffic. In the 1970s, large parts of the older city were demolished to allow for the construction of modern apartment blocks. A souk (سوق, also sook, souq, or suq) is a commercial quarter in an Arab city. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Gates of Aleppo

  • Bab al-Hadid (Iron Gate).
  • Bab al-Maqam (Gate of the Shrine).
  • Bab Antakeya (Gate of Antioch).
  • Bab al-Nasr (Gate of Victory).
  • Bab al-Faraj (Gate of Deliverance).
  • Bab Qinnasrin (Gate of Qinnasrin).
  • Bab al-Jnean (Gate of Gardens).
  • Bab al-Ahmar (Gate of Red).

Bab al-Hadid (the Iron Gate) is a shrine located in Aleppo, Syria, was planned during the reign of al-Zahir Ghazi and built by his son Mohammed as Bab al-Qanat (the Aqueduct Gate). ... Bab Antakiya was an important defense gates of the city of Aleppo, in Syria. ... Bab al-Nasr (Gate of Victory), originally called Bab al-Yahud because of its location next to the Jewish Quarter, is an important northern gate of the city of Aleppo. ...

Population and religion

Narrow street in the Christian quarter
Narrow street in the Christian quarter

While more than 70% of Aleppo's inhabitants are Sunni Muslims (mainly Arabs, but also Kurds, and other diverse ethnicities relocated there during the Ottoman period, most notably Circassians, Adyghe, Albanians, Bosnians, Bulgars, Turks, Kabardins, Chechens, and others), Aleppo is home to one of the richest and most diversified Christian communities of the Orient. Christians belonging to a dozen different congregations (with prevalence of the Armenian and Syriac Orthodox Church and other Orthodox denominations) represent between 15% and 20% of its population, making it the city with the second biggest Christian community in the Middle East after Beirut, Lebanon. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 747 KB) Summary en: Aleppo, Syria - a narrow street in the Christian quarter Al Jdeida. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 747 KB) Summary en: Aleppo, Syria - a narrow street in the Christian quarter Al Jdeida. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as Cherkes). Shapsug National District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...

A Jewish woman and a couple of Bedouins, 1873.
A Jewish woman and a couple of Bedouins, 1873.

The city had a large Jewish population in ancient times, traditionally since the period of King David. The great synagogue housed the famous Aleppo codex, dating back to the ninth century. The codex is now housed in Jerusalem. The vast majority of Aleppo's 10,000 Jewish residents preferred to go to the state of Israel upon its formation, as part of the Jewish exodus from Arab lands. The Syrian government imposed a ban on emigration, and to break or circumvent the ban took the covert effort of Syrian Jews and their rescuers in other countries, including Kurdish smugglers and Jewish philanthropists. Emigration began in earnest in 1948 and continued to the 1990's. Besides for the pogroms and riots in 1947, further pogroms proved to be falsely anticipated, and there was virtually no such backlash from the already religiously diverse Aleppan residents in response to Israel's controversial formation. There was, however extensive Syrian government repression of the Jewish community, coupled with demonization of the Jews on part of the Syrian government-controlled media. To this day, the properties and houses of the Jewish families which were not sold after the migration remain uninhabited. The Syrian Government is currently protecting the properties, mostly in the areas of Al-Jamiliah and Bab Al-Naser and the neighbourhoods around the Central synagogue of Aleppo. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic badawi بدوي, a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the eastern coast of the Arabian desert. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... The Aleppo Codex (the Keter (Crown) Aram Tzova) is the oldest complete manuscript Hebrew Bible, though scrolls of individual books of the Tanakh are much older (see Dead Sea scrolls). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Exodus (disambiguation). ...


There are only a handful of Jewish families still living in Aleppo today, and the synagogue remains virtually empty.[citation needed] At one point it was a thriving Jewish community, especially under the guidance of the Chief Rabbi Jacob Dwek and his brother in law Rabbi Ezra Soued. Their offspring have since settled around the world in such places as the United States (Syrian Jews mostly moved to Brooklyn, New York, where there is still an ethnic community called Little Syria), Mexico, Brazil and other countries, by dint of the efforts of the Canadian musician Judy Feld Carr, which secured the rescue of almost all Syrian Jews from the pressures of the Syrian government and population.[citation needed] Currently hundreds of buildings, many of beautiful late Ottoman style stand empty and deteriorating in many sections of town, chained symbolically against repossession by Christians or Muslims. A Jewish family in Damascus, pictured in their ancient Damascene home, in Ottoman Syria, 1901. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ... Judith Feld Carr is a musician and humanitarian, who resides in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


The city has many mosques including the Madrasa Halawiya. A temple that once stood on the site was rebuilt as Aleppo's great Byzantine cathedral founded by Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, which contains a tomb associated with Zachary, father of John the Baptist. During the Crusades, when the invaders pillaged the surrounding countryside, the city's chief judge converted St. Helena's cathedral into a mosque, and in the middle of the 12th century the famous leader Nur al-Din founded the madrasa or religious school that has encompassed the former cathedral. The Jami al-Kabir or "Great Mosque" was originally built by the Umayyads, although the present structure begun for Nur al-Din dates from 1158 and a rebuilding after the Mongol invasion of 1260. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. ... Constantine. ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Nur ad-din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (also Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, or Nureddin) (1118 - May 15, 1174) was a member of the Zengid dynasty, and ruled Syria from 1146 to 1174. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


Notable people

See also: Rulers of Aleppo

This is a list of rulers of Aleppo from ancient times to the present. ... Paul of Aleppo (Paul, Archdeacon of Aleppo) (d. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... 1705-1755, a native of Aleppo (Syria), later resident of England and France. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... Muhammed Faris (born May 26, 1951) is a former Syrian cosmonaut. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... Moustapha Akkad (Arabic: مصطفى العقاد) (July 1, 1930 – November 11, 2005) was a Syrian-American film producer and director, best known for producing the series of Halloween films and directing Mohammad, Messenger of God and Lion of the Desert. ... George Tutunjian, in his later days, performing to a young crowd. ... Armenian Revolutionary Songs (Armenian: ) are songs that promote Armenian patriotism. ... Levon Ter-Petrossian (Armenian: Լևոն Տեր-Պետրոսյան Russian: Левон Тер-Петросян) (born January 9, 1945 in Aleppo, Syria in a family of a Syrian Communist) was the President of Armenia from 1991 to 1998. ... Mu’ayyad al-Din al-’Urdi was one of the astronomers of the Maragha observatory in Persia. ...

See also

  • Aleppo Codex
  • Central Synagogue of Aleppo
  • Program for Sustainable Urban Development in Syria - Aleppo component

The “Program for Sustainable Urban Development in Syria” (UDP) is a joint undertaking of the German Development Cooperation (BMZ/GTZ), the Syrian Ministry for Local Administration and Environment (MLAE), and several other Syrian partner institutions. The program promotes capacities for sustainable urban management and development at the national and municipal level. Four components have been agreed as major fields of cooperation during the first phase (2007 – 2009): The Aleppo Codex (the Keter (Crown) Aram Tzova) is the oldest complete manuscript Hebrew Bible, though scrolls of individual books of the Tanakh are much older (see Dead Sea scrolls). ...


1. Urban development in the City of Aleppo; this includes further support to the rehabilitation of the Old City, as well as to a long-term oriented city development strategy (cds) and the management of informal settlements; 2. Rehabilitation of the Old City of Damascus; this will build on instruments and experiences established during the urban rehabilitation support for Old Aleppo; 3. Promoting support structures for municipalities; this includes capacity building, networking, and promoting municipal strength in the national development dialogue; 4. Policy advise on urban development; rapid urbanization in Syria requires adequate legislative and institutional frame-conditions as well as specific promotional programs for urban development.


The UDP cooperates closely with other interventions in the sector, namely the EU-supported 'Municipal Administration Modernization' program.


Planned operational period: 2007 – 2016.


Photo gallery

References

  1. ^ Syria: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population
  2. ^ Polish Centre of Mediterranear Archeology. Pre- and Protohistory in the Near East: Tell Qaramel (Syria). Retrieved on 2008-03-23.
  3. ^ (1856) in Alexander Russell: The Natural History of Aleppo, 1st ed. (in English), London: Unknown, 266. 
  4. ^ Jackson, Peter (July 1980). "The Crisis in the Holy Land in 1260". The English Historical Review 95: 481-513. 
  5. ^ "Histoire des Croisades", René Grousset, p581, ISBN 226202569X
  6. ^ Runciman, p. 314
  7. ^ Runciman, pp. 336-337
  8. ^ Runciman, p. 463
  9. ^ Battle of Aleppo@Everything2.com

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English Historical Review is an academic journal published by Oxford University Press. ...

External links

  • Lynn Simarski, 'The lure of Aleppo" history and architecture.
  • Armenian history and presence in Aleppo
  • University of Aleppo
  • Rehabilitation of Old Aleppo
  • Aleppo Citadel Friends - Local non-profit with information on old city and citadel.
  • A walk through Aleppo from a travelogue, with pictures (2006).
  • Keith David Watenpaugh, Being Modern in the Middle East: Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism and the Arab Middle Class (Princeton: 2006)

(a comprehensive account of Aleppo's diverse middle class in the early-20th Century)

  • Heghnar Zeitlian Watenpaugh, The Image of an Ottoman City Imperial Architecture and Urban Experience in Aleppo in the 16th and 17th Centuries (Leiden: 2005)

Photography

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Aleppo
  • A large picture gallery about Aleppo, sorted after the old, the modern city and the souk.
  • Citadel of Aleppo, inside and outside.
  • A collection of pictures made in 2003 on Aleppo (a mosque, the Citadel, the souk).
  • Pictures of Aleppo

Local

  • 'Ittihad club of Aleppo" forum for local sport and Aleppo community .
  • 'Jalaa Club of Aleppo" local basketball team and rivals of Ittihad .

  Results from FactBites:
 
The lure of Aleppo (2926 words)
The Aleppo a ccent is graceless and clipped, says a Damascus merchant in all earnestness, because the city lacks the bountiful flowing water that formed the fluent Damascene people.
Converted from a palace by Arghun al-Ka mili, a governor of Aleppo, its courtyard may have served as a waitingroom, and the iwans - outdoor livingrooms with one face open to the courtyard- probably doubled as stages, for records show that musicians' salaries were provided as part of health care.
The dazzling diamonds of the ladies, and the various colours of their dresses, the lights, the singing of the birds, and the trickling of the water falling on the marble basins, made one fancy it to be Fairyland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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