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Encyclopedia > Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Born: December 11, 1918 (1918-12-11) (age 88)
Kislovodsk, Russia
Occupation: Writer

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: Алекса́ндр Иса́евич Солжени́цын, IPA: [ʌlʲɪˈksandr ɘˈsaə̟vʲə̟ʨ səlʐɘˈnʲitsən] ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. Through his writings, he made the world aware of the Gulag, the Soviet labour camp system, and, for these efforts, Solzhenitsyn was both awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970 and exiled from the Soviet Union in 1974. He returned to Russia in 1994. In 1994, he was elected as a member of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in the Department of Language and Literature. Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Image File history File links Summary From http://www. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Kislovodsk (Russian: ) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia. ... This article is about work. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Serbian: Српска академија наука и уметности) was founded in 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts. ...

Contents

Biography

While in the Soviet Union

Gulag, 1953

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was born in Kislovodsk, Russia, the son of a young widowed mother, Taisia Solzhenitsyn (née Scherbak), whose father had risen, it seems, from humble beginnings, much of a self-made man, and acquired a large estate in the Kuban region by the northern foothills of the Caucasus. During World War I, the daughter had gone to study in Moscow, where she met Isaaky Solzhenitsyn, a young army officer, also from the Caucasus region (the family background of his parents is vividly brought alive in the opening chapters of August 1914, and later on in the Red Wheel novel cycle). In 1918, his young wife became pregnant, but soon after this was confirmed, Isaaky was killed in a hunting accident. Aleksandr was raised by his mother and aunt in lowly circumstances; his earliest years coincided with the Russian Civil War and the family property was turned into a kolkhoz by 1930. Solzhenitsyn has stated that his mother was fighting for survival and that they had to keep his father's background in the old Imperial Army a secret. His mother encouraged his literary and scientific leanings; she died shortly before 1940. Image File history File linksMetadata Aleksandr_solzhenitsyn_gulag_mugshot_1953. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Aleksandr_solzhenitsyn_gulag_mugshot_1953. ... Kislovodsk (Russian: ) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... August 1914 is a novel by Russian novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn about Imperial Russias defeat in 1914s Battle of Tannenberg. ... The Red Wheel is a cycle of novels by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, retelling and exploring the passing of Imperial Russia and the birth-pangs of the Soviet Union. ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... A kolkhoz (Russian: IPA: ), plural kolkhozy, was a form of collective farming in the Soviet Union that existed along with state farms (sovkhoz). ...


Solzhenitsyn studied mathematics at Rostov State University, while at the same time taking correspondence courses from the Moscow Institute of Philosophy, Literature, and History (at this time heavily ideological in scope; as he himself makes clear, he did not question the state ideology or the superiority of the Soviet Union before he had spent some time in the camps). During World War II, he served as the commander of an artillery position finding company in the Red Army, was involved in major action at the front, and was twice decorated. In February 1945, while serving in East Prussia he was arrested for criticising Joseph Stalin in private correspondence with a friend and sentenced to an eight-year term in a labour camp, to be followed by permanent internal exile. Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Rostov State University is the university in Rostov-on-Don, Russia founded in 1915 as a successor to Warsaw Russian University (founded 1869). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ...


The first part of Solzhenitsyn's sentence was served in several different work camps; the "middle phase", as he later referred to it, was spent in a sharashka, special scientific research facilities run by Ministry of State Security: these formed the experiences distilled in The First Circle, published in the West in 1968. In 1950, he was sent to a "Special Camp" for political prisoners. During his imprisonment at the camp in the town of Ekibastuz in Kazakhstan, he worked as a miner, bricklayer, and foundryman. His experiences at Ekibastuz formed the basis for the book One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. While there he had a tumor removed, although his cancer was not then diagnosed. Sharashka (sometimes Sharaga or Sharazhka, Russian: ) was an informal name for secret research and development laboratories in the Soviet Gulag labor camp system. ... The First Circle (В круге первом, V kruge pervom) is a novel by Alexander Solzhenitsyn released in 1968, the title of which is based on a quotation from Dante. ... Ekibastuz is a town in Kazakhstan. ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam. ... A bricklayer or mason is a tradesman who lays bricks to construct brickwork. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Russian: ) is a story by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, originally published in November 1962 in the Soviet literary magazine Novy Mir. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


From March 1953, Solzhenitsyn began a sentence of internal exile for life at Kok-Terek in southern Kazakhstan. His undiagnosed cancer spread, until, by the end of the year, he was close to death. However, in 1954, he was permitted to be treated in a hospital in Tashkent, where he was cured. These experiences became the basis of his novel Cancer Ward and also found an echo in the short story The right hand. It was during this decade of imprisonment and exile that Solzhenitsyn abandoned Marxism and developed the philosophical and religious positions of his later life; this turn has some interesting parallel streaks to Dostoevsky's time in Siberia and his quest for faith a hundred years earlier. Solzhenitsyn's gradual turn to a philosophically-minded Christianity is described at some length in the fourth part of The Gulag Archipelago. ("The Soul and Barbed Wire.") Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Cancer Ward is a 1968 novel by Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Gulag Archipelago. ...


During his years of exile, and following his reprieve and return to European Russia, Solzhenitsyn was, while teaching at a secondary school during the day, spending his nights secretly engaged in writing. He later wrote, in the short autobiography composed at the time of his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, that "during all the years until 1961, not only was I convinced that I should never see a single line of mine in print in my lifetime, but, also, I scarcely dared allow any of my close acquaintances to read anything I had written because I feared that this would become known." Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ...


Finally, when he was 42 years old, he approached a poet and the chief editor of the Noviy Mir magazine Alexander Tvardovsky with the manuscript of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. It was published in edited form in 1962, with the explicit approval of Nikita Khrushchev. This would be Solzhenitsyn's only book-length work to be published in the Soviet Union until 1990. Aleksandr Trifonovich Tvardovsky (Александр Трифонович Твардовский) (1910— 1971) was a Soviet poet, chief editor of Novy Mir literary magazine (1950-1954, 1958-1970). ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich brought the Soviet system of prison labor to the attention of the West. It caused as much a sensation in the Soviet Union as it did the West—not only by its striking realism and candour, but also because it was the first major piece of Soviet literature since the twenties on a politically charged theme, written by a non-party member, even by a man who had been to Siberia for "libellous speech" about the leaders, and still it had not been censored. In this sense, the publication of Solzhenitsyn's story was an almost unheard-of instance of free, unrestrained discussion of politics through literature. Most Soviet readers realized this, but after Khrushchev had been ousted from power in 1964, the time for such raw exposing works came quietly, but perceptibly, to a close. Solzhenitsyn did not give in but tried, with the help of Tvardovsky, to get his novel, The Cancer Ward, legally published in the Soviet Union. This had to get the approval of the Union of writers, and though some there appreciated it, the work ultimately was denied publication if it were not revised and cleaned of suspect statements and anti-soviet insinuations (these turnings are recounted and documented in The Oak and the Calf).


The printing of his work quickly stopped; as a writer, he became a non-person, and, by 1965, the KGB had seized some of his papers, including the manuscript of The First Circle. Meanwhile Solzhenitsyn continued to secretly and feverishly work upon the most subversive of all his writings, the monumental Gulag Archipelago. The seizing of his novel manuscript first made him desperate and frightened, but gradually he realized that it had set him free from the pretences and trappings of being an "officially acclaimed" writer, something that had come close to second-nature, but which was getting increasingly irrelevant (the circumstances of how he actually survived in this period, without any income from his books, are obscure; he had quit his teaching post when he broke through as a writer). This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The Gulag Archipelago (Архипелаг ГУЛаг), probably the most powerful and famous book about the Soviet prison system, is a three-volume history written by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn based on extensive research as well as his own experiences as a...


In 1970, Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He could not receive the prize personally in Stockholm at that time, since he was afraid that he would not be let back into the Soviet Union to his family once he had left it. Instead, it was suggested that he should receive the prize in a special ceremony at the Swedish embassy in Moscow instead. The Swedish government refused to accept this solution, since such a ceremony and the ensuing media coverage might upset the Soviet Union and damage Sweden's relations to the superpower. Instead, Solzhenitsyn received his prize at the 1974 ceremony after he had been deported from the Soviet Union. Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


The Gulag Archipelago was a three volume work on the Soviet prison camp system. It was based upon Solzhenitsyn's own experience as well as the testimony of 227 former prisoners and Solzhenitsyn's own research into the history of the penal system. It discussed the system's origins from Lenin and the very founding of the Communist regime, detailing everything from interrogation procedures and prisoner transports, to camp culture, prisoner uprisings and revolts, and the practice of internal exile. The appearance of the book in the West put the word gulag into the Western political vocabulary and guaranteed swift retribution from the Soviet authorities. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Combatants Red Army, MVD, Gulag authorities Kengir resistance Commanders Sergei Yegorov, Ivan Dolgikh Kapitan Kuznetsov Strength 1,700 8,000 Casualties 40 wounded1 500–700 killed/wounded,2 37 killed,1 106 wounded1 1 Official Soviet figure 2 Prisoner-provided figure Prisoner labor at construction of Belomorkanal at a different... Internal Exile (A Collection of a Boys Own Stories) was Fishs second solo album after leaving Marillion in 1988. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


In the West

Solzhenitsyn became a cause célèbre in the West, earning him the enmity of the Soviet regime. He could have emigrated at any time, but always expressed the desire to stay in his motherland and work for change from within. During this period, he was sheltered by the cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, who suffered considerably for his support of Solzhenitsyn and was eventually forced into exile himself. Alternate meaning: Cello web browser A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The cello (also violoncello or cello) is a stringed instrument and part of the violin family. ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ...


However, on February 13, 1974, Solzhenitsyn was deported from the Soviet Union to West Germany and stripped of his Soviet citizenship. The KGB had found the manuscript for the first part of The Gulag Archipelago. Less than a week later, the Soviets carried out reprisals against Yevgeny Yevtushenko for his support of Solzhenitsyn. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Yevgeny Yevtushenko Yevtushenko represents Russias new generation on the cover of Time magazine, April 13, 1962 Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko (Russian: , Evgenij Aleksandrovič Evtušenko; born July 18, 1933) is a Russian poet. ...


After a time in Switzerland, Solzhenitsyn was invited to Stanford University in the United States to "facilitate your work, and to accommodate you and your family." He stayed on the 11th floor of the Hoover Tower, part of the Hoover Institution. Solzhenitsyn moved to Cavendish, Vermont in 1976. He was given an honorary Literary Degree from Harvard University in 1978 and on Thursday, June 8, 1978 he gave his Commencement Address condemning modern western culture. “Stanford” redirects here. ... Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... Cavendish, Vermont Cavendish is a town located in Windsor County, Vermont. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Over the next 17 years, Solzhenitsyn worked hard on his historical cycle of the Russian Revolution of 1917 The Red Wheel, four "knots" (parts of the whole) of which had been completed by 1992, and outside of this, several shorter works. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Red Wheel is a cycle of novels by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, retelling and exploring the passing of Imperial Russia and the birth-pangs of the Soviet Union. ...


Despite an enthusiastic welcome on his first arrival in America, followed by respect for his privacy, he had never been comfortable outside his homeland. He did not become fluent in spoken English despite spending two decades in the United States; he has read works in English since his teens however, something his mother encouraged him to do. More important, he resented the idea of becoming a media star and of tempering his ideas or ways of talking to fit television.


Solzhenitsyn's warnings about the dangers of Communist aggression and the weakening of the moral fiber of the West were generally well received in conservative circles in the West, and fit very well with the toughening-up of foreign policy under Reagan. But liberals and secularists were increasingly critical of what they perceived as his reactionary preference for Russian patriotism and the Russian Orthodox religion. He also harshly criticised what he saw as the ugliness and spiritual vapidity of the dominant pop culture of the modern West, including television and rock music: "…the human soul longs for things higher, warmer and purer than those offered by today's mass living habits … by TV stupor and by intolerable music." Reagan, an Irish surname, may refer to: // Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of The United States Nancy Reagan, the wife of Ronald Reagan and influential First Lady Ron Reagan, President Reagans son and liberal journalist Michael Reagan, President Reagans son and conservative talk show host Maureen Reagan, President... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ...


Return to Russia

Solzhenitsyn boards a train in Vladivostok after returning to Russia from exile. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
Solzhenitsyn boards a train in Vladivostok after returning to Russia from exile. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev

In 1990, his Soviet citizenship was restored, and, in 1994, he returned to Russia with his wife, Natalia, who had become a United States citizen. Their sons stayed behind in the United States (later, his oldest son Ermolay returned to Russia, to work for the Moscow office of a leading management consultancy firm). Since then, he has lived with his wife in a dacha in Troitse-Lykovo (Троице-Лыково) in west Moscow between the dachas of Mikhail Suslov and Konstantin Chernenko. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Suslov. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Since returning to Russia in 1994, Solzhenitsyn has published eight two-part short stories, a series of contemplative "miniatures" or prose poems, a literary memoir on his years in the West (The Grain Between the Millstones) and a two-volume work on the history of Russian-Jewish relations (Two Hundred Years Together 2001, 2002). In it, Solzhenitsyn emphatically repudiates the idea that the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917 were the work of a "Jewish conspiracy" (see chapters 9, 14, and 15 of that work). At the same time, he calls on both Russians and Jews to come to terms with the members of their peoples who acted in complicity with the Communist regime.


The reception of this work confirms that Solzhenitsyn remains a polarizing figure both at home and abroad. According to his critics, the book confirmed Solzhenitsyn's anti-semitic views as well as his ideas of Russian supremacy to other nations. Professor Robert Service of Oxford University has defended Solzhenitsyn as being "absolutely right", noting that Trotsky himself claimed Jews were disproportionately represented in the Soviet bureaucracy.[1] Robert Service (born 1947) is a historian of Russia. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051...


Another famous Russian dissident writer, Vladimir Voinovich, wrote a polemic study "A Portrait Against the Background of a Myth" ("Портрет на фоне мифа", 2002.), in which he had tried to prove Solzhenitsyn's egoism, anti-semitism and lack of writing skills. Voinovich had already mocked Solzhenitsyn in his novel Moscow 2042, portraying him by the self-centered egomaniac Sim Simich Karnavalov, an extreme and brutal dictatorial writer who tries to destroy the Soviet Union and, eventually, to become the king of Russia. Using a more circuitous line of argument, Joseph Brodsky in his essay Catastrophes in the Air (in Less than One) argued that Solzhenitsyn, while a hero in showing up the brutalities of Soviet Communism, failed to discern that the historical crimes he unearthed might be the outcome of authoritarian traits that were really part of the heritage of Old Russia and of "the severe spirit of Orthodoxy" (lionized by Solzhenitsyn) and not so much to do with political ideology. Vladimir Voinovich Vladimir Nikolayevich Voinovich (alternatively spelled Voynovich, ru: Владимир Войнович, born September 26, 1932 in Dushanbe) is a prominent Russian writer and a dissident. ... Moscow 2042 is a 1986 novel (translated from Russian 1987) by Vladimir Voinovich. ... Bookcover of Works and Days in Russian Joseph Brodsky (May 24, 1940 – January 28, 1996), born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Russian: ) was a Russian-born poet and essayist who won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987) and was chosen Poet Laureate of the United States (1991-1992). ...


In his recent political writings, such as Rebuilding Russia (1990) and Russia in Collapse (1998)' Solzhenitsyn has criticized the oligarchic excesses of the new Russian 'democracy' while opposing any nostalgia for Soviet communism. He has defended moderate and self-critical patriotism (as opposed to extreme nationalism), argued for the indispensability of local self-government to a free Russia, and expressed concerns for the fate of 25 million ethnic Russians in the "near abroad" of the former Soviet Union. He has also sought to "protect" the national character of the Russian Orthodox church and fought against the admission of Catholic priests and Protestant pastors to Russia from other countries. For a brief period, he had his own TV show where he freely expressed his views. The show was cancelled because of low ratings, but Solzhenitsyn continued to maintain a relatively high profile in the media.


All of Solzhenitsyn's sons became U.S. citizens. One, Ignat, has achieved acclaim as a pianist and conductor in the United States. Maestro Ignat Solzhenitsyn. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...


Since the death of Naguib Mahfouz in 2006, Solzhenitsyn is the oldest living Nobel laureate in literature. This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...


The most complete 30-volume edition of Solzhenitsyn’s selected works is soon to be published in Russia. The presentation of its first three published volumes has recently taken place in Moscow. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


On June 5, 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree which conferred an award for Solzhenitsyn. President Putin personally visited the writer at his home on June 12, 2007 to give the award. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ...


Historical and political views

Historical views

During his years in the west, Solzhenitsyn was very active in the historical debate, discussing the history of Russia, the Soviet Union and communism. He tried to correct what he considered to be western misconceptions. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Communism, Russia and nationalism

It is a popular view that the October revolution of 1917 resulting in a violent totalitarian regime was closely connected to Russia's earlier history of tsarism and culture, especially that of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great. Solzhenitsyn claims that this is fundamentally wrong and has famously denounced the work of Richard Pipes as "the Polish version of Russian history". Solzhenitsyn argues that Tsarist Russia did not have the same violent tendencies as the Soviet Union. For instance, in Solzhenitsyn's view, Imperial Russia did not practise censorship; political prisoners were not forced into labour camps and in Tsarist Russia numbered only one ten-thousandth of those in the Soviet Union; the Tsar's secret service was only present in the three largest cities, and not at all in the army. The violence of the Communist regime was in no way comparable to the lesser violence of the tsars. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Also spelled Czarism, a system of government ruled by a Tsar, an autocratic ruler with broad powers. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to... For other uses, see Censor. ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ...


He considered it far fetched to blame the catastrophes of the 20th century on one 16th century and one 18th century tsar, when there were many other examples of violence that could have inspired the Bolshevik in other countries earlier in time, especially mentioning similarities with the Jacobins of the Reign of Terror of France. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... For the Doctor Who British TV serial, see The Reign of Terror (Doctor Who). ...


Instead of blaming Russian conditions, he blamed the teachings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, arguing that Marxism itself is violent. His conclusion is that Communism will always be totalitarian and violent, wherever it is practiced. There was nothing special in the Russian conditions that affected the outcome. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 – August 5, 1895) was a German social scientist and philosopher, who developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ...


He also criticized the view that the Soviet Union was Russian in any way. He argued that Communism was international and only cared for nationalism as a tool to use when getting into power, or for fooling the people. Once in power, Communism tried to wipe clean every nation, destroying its culture and oppressing its people. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


According to Solzhenitsyn, the Russian culture and people were not the ruling national culture in the Soviet Union. In fact, there was no ruling national culture. All national cultures were oppressed in favour of an atheistic Soviet culture. In Solzhenitsyn's opinion, Russian culture was even more oppressed than the smaller minority cultures, since the regime was less afraid of ethnic uprisings among these. Therefore, Russian nationalism and the Orthodox Church should not be regarded as a threat by the west, but rather as allies that should be encouraged..[2] For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


World War II

Solzhenitsyn criticized the Allies for not opening a new front against Nazi Germany in the west earlier in World War II. This resulted in Soviet domination and oppression of the nations of Eastern Europe. Solzhenitsyn claimed the western democracies apparently cared little about how many died in the east, as long as they could end the war as quickly and painlessly for themselves in the west. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Stalinism

He also rejected the view that Stalin created the totalitarian state, while Lenin (and Trotsky) had been a "true communist". In proof of this, he argued that Lenin started the mass executions, wrecked the economy, founded the Cheka that would later be turned into the KGB, and started the Gulag even though it did not have the same name at that time. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... Cheka-KGB emblem: sword and shield The Cheka (ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия, extreme commission) was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


The Sino-Soviet Conflict

In 1973, near the height of the Sino-Soviet conflict, Solzhenitsyn sent a Letter to the Soviet Leaders to a limited number of upper echelon Soviet officials. This work, which was published for the general public in the Western world a year after it was sent to its intended audience, beseeched the Soviet Union's authorities to The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ...

Give them their ideology! Let the Chinese leaders glory in it for a while. And for that matter, let them shoulder the whole sackful of unfulfillable international obligations, let them grunt and heave and instruct humanity, and foot all the bills for their absurd economics (a million a day just to Cuba), and let them support terrorists and guerrillas in the Southern Hemisphere too if the like. The main source of the savage feuding between us will then melt away, a great many points of today's contention and conflict all over the world will also melt away, and a military clash will become a much remoter possibility and perhaps won't take place at all [author's emphasis].[3]

Vietnam

In his commencement address at Harvard University in 1978 (A World Split Apart), Solzhenitsyn alleges that many in the U.S. did not understand the Vietnam War. He argues that although many antiwar proponents were sincere about stopping all wars as soon as possible, they "became accomplices … in the genocide and the suffering today imposed on thirty million people there." He rhetorically asks if the American antiwar proponents now realize the effects that their actions had on Vietnam by inquiring, "Do these convinced pacifists now hear the moans coming from their Vietnam?"[citation needed] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


During his time in the West, Solzhenitsyn made a few surprising public statements: notably, he characterized Daniel Ellsberg as a traitor. Daniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg - 2006 Jacob Appelbaum Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War...


Kosovo War

Solzhenitsyn has strongly condemned the 1999 NATO bombing in Yugoslavia, saying that "there is no difference whatsoever between NATO and Hitler".[4] The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants NATO Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Various militias and paramilitaries, as well as international volunteers [1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR) Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Army of Yugoslavia) Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of Staff) Svetozar Marjanović (Deputy Chief of Staff) Casualties 2 confirmed... This article is about the military alliance. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


The West

Until I came to the West myself and spent two years looking around, I could never have imagined to what an extreme degree the West had actually become a world without a will, a world gradually petrifying in the face of the danger confronting it . . . All of us are standing on the brink of a great historical cataclysm, a flood that swallows up civilization and changes whole epochs.

from a BBC Address 26 March 1979 [citation needed] The West can refer to : The U.S. West or the American West The Western world, or Western Civilization. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Modern world

He described the problems of both East and West as "a disaster" rooted in agnosticism and atheism. He referred to it as "the calamity of an autonomous, irreligious humanistic consciousness."

It has made man the measure of all things on earth—imperfect man, who is never free of pride, self-interest, envy, vanity, and dozens of other defects. We are now paying for the mistakes which were not properly appraised at the beginning of the journey. On the way from the Renaissance to our days we have enriched our experience, but we have lost the concept of a Supreme Complete Entity which used to restrain our passions and our irresponsibility.

See also

The Mask of Sorrow monument is perched on a hill above Magadan, Russia. ... Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... Alexander Galich Aleksandr Galich (Russian: , October 19, 1918 – December 15, 1977), was a Russian poet, screenwriter, playwright and singer-songwriter. ...

Published works and speeches

Main article: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn bibliography
  • One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962; novel)
  • An Incident at Krechetovka Station (1963; novella)
  • Matryona's Place (1963; novella)
  • For the Good of the Cause (1964; novella)
  • The First Circle (1968; novel)
  • The Cancer Ward (1968; novel)
  • The Love-Girl and the Innocent (1969; play), aka The Prisoner and the Camp Hooker or The Tenderfoot and the Tart.
  • Nobel Prize delivered speech (1970)The speech was delivered only to the Swedish Academy and not actually given as a lecture.
  • August 1914 (1971). The beginning of a history of the birth of the USSR in an historical novel. The novel centers on the disastrous loss in the Battle of Tannenberg (1914) in August, 1914, and the ineptitude of the military leadership. Other works, similarly titled, follow the story: see The Red Wheel (overall title).
  • The Gulag Archipelago (three volumes) (1973–1978), not a memoir, but a history of the entire process of developing and administering a police state in the Soviet Union.
  • Prussian Nights (1974; poetry)
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's speech at the Nobel Banquet at the City Hall in Stockholm, December 10, 1974
  • Aleksandr Isaevich Solzhenitsyn, A Letter to the Soviet leaders, Collins: Harvill Press (1974), ISBN 0-06-013913-7
  • The Oak and the Calf (1975)
  • Lenin in Zürich (1976; separate publication of chapters on Lenin, none of them published before this point, from The Red Wheel. They were later incorporated into the 1984 edition of the expanded August, 1914.)
  • Warning to the West (1976; 5 speeches (translated to English), 3 to the Americans in 1975 and 2 to the British in 1976)
  • Harvard Commencement Address (1978) link
  • The Mortal Danger: Misconceptions about Soviet Russia and the Threat to America (1980)
  • Pluralists (1983; political pamphlet)
  • October 1916 (1983; novel)
  • Victory Celebration (1983)
  • Prisoners (1983)
  • Godlessness, the First Step to the Gulag. Templeton Prize Address, London, May 10 (1983)
  • August 1914 (1984; novel, much-expanded edition)
  • Rebuilding Russia (1990)
  • March 1917 (1990)
  • April 1917
  • The Russian Question (1995)
  • Invisible Allies (1997)
  • Russia under Avalanche (Россия в обвале,1998; political pamphlet) Complete text in Russian
  • Two Hundred Years Together (2003) on Russian-Jewish relations since 1772, aroused ambiguous public response. ([1], [2], [3])

This is a bibliography of works by and related to Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. ... One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (Russian: ) is a story by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, originally published in November 1962 in the Soviet literary magazine Novy Mir. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... The First Circle (Ð’ круге первом, V kruge pervom) is a novel by Alexander Solzhenitsyn released in 1968, the title of which is based on a quotation from Dante. ... The Cancer Ward is a 1968 novel by Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... The Love-Girl and the Innocent (also translated The Tenderfoot and the Tart) is a play in four acts by Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 on the personal initiative of King Gustav III The Swedish Academy in Stockholm The Swedish Academy or Svenska Akademien, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. ... August 1914 is a novel by Russian novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn about Imperial Russias defeat in 1914s Battle of Tannenberg. ... --70. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Red Wheel is a cycle of novels by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, retelling and exploring the passing of Imperial Russia and the birth-pangs of the Soviet Union. ... The Gulag Archipelago. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ... Prussian Nights is a poem by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, a captain in the Russian army during the second world war. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... The Red Wheel is a cycle of novels by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, retelling and exploring the passing of Imperial Russia and the birth-pangs of the Soviet Union. ... For events in the month of August 1914, see 1914. ... November 1916 is a novel by famed Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. ... August 1914 is a novel by Russian novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn about Imperial Russias defeat in 1914s Battle of Tannenberg. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Walsh, Nick Paton. "Solzhenitsyn breaks last taboo of the revolution", The Guardian, 2003-01-05. 
  2. ^ For Solzhenitsyn's connections with Russian nationalism, see e.g. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Russian Nationalism by David G. Rowley in Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 321–337
  3. ^ [Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr. Letter to the Soviet Leaders. Harper & Row, NY. p.18]
  4. ^ Solzenjicin: NATO isti kao Hitler (in Serbian)

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Persondata
NAME Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich; Алекса́ндр Иса́евич Солжени́цын (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Russian writer
DATE OF BIRTH December 11, 1918 (1918-12-11) (age 88)
PLACE OF BIRTH Kislovodsk, Russia
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Kislovodsk (Russian: ) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich (1055 words)
Solzhenitsyn was born into a family of Cossack intellectuals and brought up primarily by his mother (his father was killed in an accident before his birth).
In 1970 Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but he declined to go to Stockholm to receive the prize for fear he would not be readmitted to the Soviet Union by the government upon his return.
Solzhenitsyn produced two books of nonfiction in 1980: The Oak and the Calf, which portrayed literary life in the Soviet Union, and the brief The Mortal Danger, which analyzed what he perceived to be the perils of American misconceptions about Russia.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn - Encyclopedia.com (1012 words)
Solzhenitsyn grew up in Rostov-na-Donu, where he studied mathematics at Rostov State Univ. During World War II he served in the Red Army, rising to the rank of artillery captain, and was decorated for bravery.
Stalin died in 1953 and Solzhenitsyn's citizenship was restored in 1956.
Solzhenitsyn ultimately settled in the United States, living in rural Vermont, and in 1980 The Oak and the Calf and The Mortal Danger were published.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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