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Encyclopedia > Aleksandr Pushkin
Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin
Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin

Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin, listen ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26]February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian literature.[4][5] Pushkin pioneered the use of vernacular speech in his poems and plays, creating a style of storytelling—mixing drama, romance, and satire—associated with Russian literature ever since and greatly influencing later Russian writers. Image File history File links Aleksander_Puszkin. ... Image File history File links Aleksander_Puszkin. ... Portrait of Alexander Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Vasily Andreevich Tropinin (Russian: ) (March 30 (O.S. March 19) 1776 – May 16 (O.S. May 4) 1857) was a Russian painter who worked in the Romantic movement. ... Image File history File links Ru-Pushkin. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... | Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... The World According To Ronald Reagan, a satirical map by Pulitzer Prize-winning editorial cartoonist David Horsey Satire is a technique of writing or art which exposes the follies of its subject (for example, individuals, institutions, organizations, or states) to ridicule, often as an intended means of provoking or preventing...

Contents

Life

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The 16-year old Pushkin recites a poem before Gavrila Derzhavin. Painting by Ilya Repin (1911).
The 16-year old Pushkin recites a poem before Gavrila Derzhavin. Painting by Ilya Repin (1911).

Pushkin's father descended from a distinguished family of the Russian nobility which traced its ancestry back to the 12th century, while his mother's grandfather was Abram Petrovich Gannibal, an Ethiopian who was abducted as a child by the Turks during their rule of the coast of Eritrea[verification needed]. A less popular theory, however, posits that Gannibal might have been from an ancient sultanate near or around the present day Chad. He was brought to Russia and became a great military leader, engineer and nobleman under the auspices of his adoptive father Peter the Great. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links Pushkin_derzhavin. ... Image File history File links Pushkin_derzhavin. ... Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (Гаврила Романович Державин, 1743 – 1816) was the greatest Russian poet before Alexander Pushkin. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic... Abram (Ibrahim) Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, (1696 - 1781) was an African slave who was brought to Russia by Peter the Great and became major-general, military engineer and governor of Reval. ... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ...


Born in Moscow, Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen. By the time he finished as part of the first graduating class of the prestigious Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo near St. Petersburg, the Russian literary scene recognized his talent widely. After finishing school, Pushkin installed himself in the vibrant and raucous intellectual youth culture of the capital, St. Petersburg. In 1820 he published his first long poem, Ruslan and Lyudmila, amidst much controversy about its subject and style. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... A lyceum is most often used today to denote either an educational institution (most often a school of secondary education in parts of Europe) or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Pushkin's self-portrait on a one rouble coin, 1999
Pushkin's self-portrait on a one rouble coin, 1999

Pushkin gradually became committed to social reform and emerged as a spokesman for literary radicals. This angered the government, and led to his transfer from the capital. He went first to Kishinev in 1820, where he became a Freemason. Here he joined the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and establish an independent Greek state. He was inspired by the Greek Revolution and when the war against the Ottoman Turks broke out he kept a diary with the events of the great national uprising. He stayed in Kishinev until 1823 and—after a summer trip to the Caucasus and to the Crimea—wrote two Romantic poems which brought him wide acclaim, The Captive of the Caucasus and The Fountain of Bakhchisaray. In 1823 Pushkin moved to Odessa, where he again clashed with the government, which sent him into exile at his mother's rural estate in north Russia from 1824 to 1826. However, some of the authorities allowed him to visit Tsar Nicholas I to petition for his release, which he obtained. But some of the insurgents in the Decembrist Uprising (1825) in St. Petersburg had kept some of his early political poems amongst their papers, and soon Pushkin found himself under the strict control of government censors and unable to travel or publish at will. He had written what became his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, while at his mother's estate but could not gain permission to publish it until five years later. Image File history File links Russian coin (1999) about Alexander Pushkin File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... Image File history File links Russian coin (1999) about Alexander Pushkin File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... Chişinău (Russian Кишинёв, Kishinyov, also Kishinev; Moldovan Cyrillic Кишинэу), estimated population 920,000 (2002), is the capital of Moldova. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ... Combatants Greek guerilla forces Ottoman Empire forces Commanders Kolokotronis Vrionis, Ibrahim Pasha Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war waged by the Greeks between 1821 and 1827 to win independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Chişinău (Russian Кишинёв, Kishinyov, also Kishinev; Moldovan Cyrillic Кишинэу), estimated population 920,000 (2002), is the capital of Moldova. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... Nicholas I of Russia (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 and king of Poland from 1825 until 1831. ... This article is about the failed Russian revolt. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ...

Alexander Pushkin by Orest Kiprensky
Alexander Pushkin by Orest Kiprensky

In 1831, highlighting the growth of Pushkin's talent and influence and the merging of two of Russia's greatest early writers, he met Nikolai Gogol. The two would become good friends and would support each other. Pushkin would be greatly influenced in the field of prose from Gogol's comical stories. After reading Gogol's 1831-2 volume of short stories Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka, Pushkin would support him critically and later in 1836 after starting his magazine, The Contemporary, would feature some of Gogol's most famous short stories. Later, Pushkin and his wife Natalya Goncharova, whom he married in 1831, became regulars of court society. When the Tsar gave Pushkin the lowest court title, the poet became enraged: He felt this occurred not only so that his wife, who had many admirers—including the Tsar himself—could properly attend court balls, but also to humiliate him. In 1837, falling into greater and greater debt amidst rumors that his wife had started conducting a scandalous affair, Pushkin challenged her alleged lover, Georges d'Anthès, to a duel which left both men injured, Pushkin mortally. He died two days later. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x723, 72 KB) Alexander Pushkin 1827 Tretyakov Gallery Downloaded from http://artportret. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x723, 72 KB) Alexander Pushkin 1827 Tretyakov Gallery Downloaded from http://artportret. ... Self Portrait 1828 Orest Adamovich Kiprensky (Russian: 24 March (O.S. 13 March) 1782-17 October (O.S. 5 October) 1836) was a leading Russian portraitist in the Age of Romanticism. ... Nikolai Gogol Gogol redirects here. ... Natalia Pushkina, portrait by Alexander Brullov, 1831. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Georges-Charles de Heeckeren dAnthès Georges-Charles de Heeckeren dAnthès, baron (1812–1895). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The government feared a political demonstration at his funeral, which it moved to a smaller location and made open only to close relatives and friends. His body was spirited away secretly at midnight and buried on his mother's estate.


There were 4 children of Pushkin's marriage to Natalya: Alexander, Grigory, Maria, and Natalia (who would marry into the royal house of Nassau and become the Countess of Merenberg). The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organised the Dutch revolt against... Count of Merenberg (German: Graf von Merenberg) is Nassauer the title bestowed upon the wife and the male-line descendants of the morganatic marriage (1868) of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau-Weilburg (1832-1905) and Natalia Alexandrovna Pushkina (1836-1913). ...


His last words were: "Try to be forgotten. Go live in the country. Stay in mourning for two years, then remarry, but choose somebody decent."


Literary legacy

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Critics consider many of his works masterpieces, such as the poem The Bronze Horseman and the drama The Stone Guest, a tale of the fall of Don Juan. His poetic short drama "Mozart and Salieri" was the inspiration for Peter Shaffer's Amadeus. Pushkin himself preferred his verse novel Eugene Onegin, which he wrote over the course of his life and which, starting a tradition of great Russian novels, follows a few central characters but varies widely in tone and focus. "Onegin" is a work of such complexity that, while only about a hundred pages long, translator Vladimir Nabokov needed four full volumes of material to fully render its meaning in English. Unfortunately, in so doing Nabokov, like all translators of Pushkin into English prose, totally destroyed the fundamental readability of Pushkin in Russian which makes him so popular, and Pushkin's verse remains largely unknown to English readers. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Alexandre Benoiss illustration to the poem (1904). ... The Stone Guest is a poetic drama by Aleksandr Pushkin based on the Spanish legend of Don Juan. ... Don Juan is a legendary fictional libertine, whose story has been told many times by different authors. ... Peter Shaffer (born May 15, 1926) is a English dramatist, author of numerous award-winning plays, several of which have been filmed. ... Amadeus is the title of a stage play written in 1979 by Peter Shaffer, loosely based on the lives of the composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri. ... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22, 1899 [O.S. April 10], Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American author. ...


Because of his liberal political views and influence on generations of Russian rebels, Pushkin was conveniently pictured by Bolsheviks as an opponent to bourgeois literature and culture and predecessor of Soviet literature and poetry.[5] They renamed Tsarskoe Selo after him. Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Pushkin is a town in Russia that is located 24 kilometres south of Saint Petersburg, at 59°44′N 30°23′E. The town was founded in the 18th century as the summer residence of the Russian tsars under the name Tsarskoye Selo (Royal Village). ...


Pushkin's works also provided fertile ground for Russian composers. Glinka's Ruslan and Lyudmila is the earliest important Pushkin-inspired opera. Tchaikovsky's operas Eugene Onegin (1879) and The Queen of Spades (1890) became perhaps better known outside of Russia than Pushkin's own works of the same name, while Mussorgsky's monumental Boris Godunov (two versions, 1868-9 and 1871-2) ranks as one of the very finest and most original of Russian operas. Other Russian operas based on Pushkin include Dargomyzhsky's Rusalka and The Stone Guest; Rimsky-Korsakov's Mozart and Salieri, Tale of Tsar Saltan, and The Golden Cockerel; Cui's Prisoner of the Caucasus, Feast in Time of Plague, and The Captain's Daughter; and Nápravník's Dubrovsky. This is not to mention ballets and cantatas, as well as innumerable songs set to Pushkin's verse. Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... Ruslan and Lyudmila (Руслан и Людмила in Russian, Ruslan i Lyudmila in transliteration) is an opera in five acts by Mikhail Glinka to a Russian libretto by Valerian Fyodorovich Shirkov and Nestor Kukolnik, based on a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... A young Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1874) Tchaikovsky redirects here. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan is one of the worlds most famous opera houses. ... Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин in Russian, Yevgeny Onegin in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Konstantin Shilovsky and the composer, based on the novel of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Modest Mussorgsky in 1870 Boris Godunov (Russian: , Borís Godunóv) is an opera by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky Александр Сергеевич Даргомыжский (February 14, 1813–May 17, 1869) was a 19th century Russian composer. ... Rusalka (Русалка in Cyrillic; stress on the second syllable) is an opera in four acts, six tableaux, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, composed during 1848-1855. ... The Stone Guest (Kamennïy gost in transliteration) is an opera in three acts, left incomplete, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky to Russian libretto by Alexander Pushkin, using the story of the same name from his collection The Little Tragedies. ... Portrait of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov by Valentin Serov (1898) Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6/18, 1844 – June 8/21, 1908) was a Russian composer and teacher of harmony and orchestration. ... Mozart and Salieri (Motsart i Sal’yeri in transliteration) is an opera in two acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to Russian libretto by the composer, based on a verse drama by Alexander Pushkin. ... The Tale of Tsar Saltan (Сказка о царе Салтане in Russian, Skazka o care Saltane in transliteration) is an opera in four acts (six tableaux) with a prologue, by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by Vladimir Ivanovich Belsky, based on the poem of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Golden Cockerel (Золотой Петушок in Russian, Zolotoy Petuschok in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by Vladimir Ivanovich Belsky, based on the 1834 poem by Pushkin. ... César Antonovitch Cui (Russian: Цезарь Антонович Кюи) (January 6/18, 1835 – March 13, 1918) was a Russian composer and music critic of French and Lithuanian descent. ... Prisoner of the Caucasus (Кавказский пленник in Cyrillic, Kavkazskij plennik in transliteration) is an opera in three acts, composed by César Cui. ... Feast in Time of Plague (Пир во время чумы in Cyrillic, Pir vo vremja čumy in transliteration) is an opera (literally labeled dramatic scenes) in one act by César Cui, composed in 1900. ... The Captains Daughter (Капитанская дочка in Cyrillic; Kapitanskaja dočka in transliteration) is an opera in four acts (eight tableaux) by César Cui, composed during 1907-1909. ... Eduard Frantsovitch Nápravník (24 August 1839, Býšť, Bohemia - 23 November 1916) was Czech/Russian conductor and composer. ... Leonid Sobinov as Vladimir Dubrovsky, Moscow Dubrovsky (Russian: Дубровский) is an opera in four acts (5 scenes) Op. ... The Waltz of the Snowflakes from Tchaikovskys The Nutcracker. ... Cantata (Italian for a song or story set to music), a vocal composition accompanied by instruments and generally containing more than one movement. ... An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one singer and often with piano accompaniment. ...


Influence on the Russian language

Enlarge
Statue of Pushkin in Tsarskoe Selo (1900).

Pushkin is usually credited with developing literary Russian. Not only is he seen as having originated the highly nuanced level of language which characterizes Russian literature after him, but he is also credited with substantially augmenting the Russian lexicon. Where he found gaps in the Russian vocabulary, he devised calques. His rich vocabulary and highly sensitive style are the foundation for modern literary Russian. Image File history File links Памятник_Пушкину_Царское_Село.jpg |} File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... Image File history File links Памятник_Пушкину_Царское_Село.jpg |} File links The following pages link to this file: Aleksandr Pushkin ... In linguistics, a calque (pronounced [kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) is a phrase borrowed from another language by literal word-for-word translation. ...


Sample of Pushkin's Work

The Arbat Monument to Pushkin and his wife.
The Arbat Monument to Pushkin and his wife.
Remembrance
Translated by Maurice Baring
When the loud day for men who sow and reap
Grows still, and on the silence of the town
The insubstantial veils of night and sleep,
The meed of the day's labour, settle down,
Then for me in the stillness of the night
The wasting, watchful hours drag on their course,
And in the idle darkness comes the bite
Of all the burning serpents of remorse;
Dreams seethe; and fretful infelicities
Are swarming in my over-burdened soul,
And Memory before my wakeful eyes
With noiseless hand unwinds her lengthy scroll.
Then, as with loathing I peruse the years,
I tremble, and I curse my natal day,
Wail bitterly, and bitterly shed tears,
But cannot wash the woeful script away.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1221x1950, 677 KB) en: A sculpture of Alexander Pushkin and Natalia Goncharova in Moscow, in Arbat street. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1221x1950, 677 KB) en: A sculpture of Alexander Pushkin and Natalia Goncharova in Moscow, in Arbat street. ... Melnikov House (1929), just a few steps away from the Arbat. ...

Works

The famous Pushkin Monument in Moscow, opened in 1880 by Turgenev and Dostoyevsky.
The famous Pushkin Monument in Moscow, opened in 1880 by Turgenev and Dostoyevsky.
Six winged Seraph (after Pushkin's poem Prophet), 1905. By Mikhail Vrubel.
Six winged Seraph (after Pushkin's poem Prophet), 1905. By Mikhail Vrubel.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x762, 160 KB) 19th-century postcard of Alexander Pushkin Monument and Strastnoy Monastery in Moscow. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x762, 160 KB) 19th-century postcard of Alexander Pushkin Monument and Strastnoy Monastery in Moscow. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (Ива́н Серге́евич Турге́нев, November 9, 1818 - September 3, 1883) was a major Russian novelist and playwright. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2139x1520, 1333 KB) Mikhail Vrubel. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2139x1520, 1333 KB) Mikhail Vrubel. ... A seraph (Hebrew שרף, SRF; in the plural seraphim, שרפים, SRFYM) is one of a class of celestial beings mentioned once in the Old Testament (Tanakh), in Isaiah. ... In religion, a prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Self-portrait, 1885 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Russian: Михаил Александрович Врубель;March 17, 1856 - April 14, 1910, all n. ... Ruslan and Lyudmila (Руслан и Людмила in Russian, Ruslan i Lyudmila in transliteration) is an opera in five acts by Mikhail Glinka to a Russian libretto by Valerian Fyodorovich Shirkov and Nestor Kukolnik, based on a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Boris Godunov (Russian: , Borís Godunóv) [Variant Title: Драматическая повесть, Комедия o настоящей беде Московскому государству, o царе Борисе и о Гришке Отрепьеве, A Dramatic Tale, The Comedy of the Distress of the Muscovite State, of Tsar Boris, and of Grishka Otrepyev] is a drama by Aleksandr Pushkin, written in 1825, published in 1831, but not approved for performance by the censor... The Priest and Balda (1939 animated film) The Tale of the Priest and of his Workman Balda (Сказка о попе и о его работнике Балде) is a 1830 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Tales of the late Ivan Petrovich Belkin is a series of 5 short stories and a fictional editorial by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Tale of Tsar Saltan is a 1831 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin, written after the Russian fairy tale edited by Vladimir Dahl. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Dubrovsky and Egyptian Nights Cover, Hesperus Press, ISBN:1843910535 Dubrovsky (Russian: Дубровский) is a prose novel by Alexander Pushkin (1799 – 1837), written in 1832 and published after Pushkin’s death in 1841. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Tale of the Dead Princess (1951 animated film) The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights (Сказка о мертвой царевне и о семи богатырях) is a 1833 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Golden Cockerel (Золотой Петушок in Russian, Zolotoy Petuschok in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by Vladimir Ivanovich Belsky, based on the 1834 poem by Pushkin. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (1950 animated film) The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (Сказка о рыбаке и рыбке) is a 1835 poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Alexandre Benoiss illustration to the poem (1904). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Emelyan Pugachov Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev (Russian: ), born in 1740 or 1742 and executed in 1775, was a pretender to the Russian throne who led a great Cossack insurrection during the reign of Catherine II. Alexander Pushkin wrote a remarkable history of the rebellion; and he recounted some of the events... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Captains Daughter (Russian: Капитанская дочка - Kapitanskaya Dochka) is a novel by the Russian writer Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Gavriiliada (Гавриилиада, Saga of Gabriel in Russian) is an anonymous sexually explicit work. ...

Hoaxes and other attributed works

In the late 1980s, a book entitled Secret Journal 1836–1837 was published by a Minneapolis publishing house (M.I.P. Company), claiming to be the decoded content of an encrypted private journal kept by Pushkin. Promoted with little details about its contents, and touted for many years as being 'banned in Russia', it was an erotic novel narrated from Pushkin's perspective. Some mail-order publishers still carry the work under its fictional description. In 2006 a bilingual Russian-English edition was published in Russia by Retro Publishing House. In cryptography, encryption is the process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

The Pushkin Prize was established in 1881 by Russian Academy of Sciences to honor one of the greatest Russian poets Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Allan Reid, "Russia's Greatest Poet/Scoundrel", retrieved on 2 September 2006.
  2. ^ BBC News, 5 June 1999, "Pushkin fever sweeps Russia", retrieved 1 September 2006.
  3. ^ BBC News, 10 June 2003, "Biographer wins rich book price", retrieved 1 September 2006.
  4. ^ Biography of Pushkin at the Russian Literary Institute "Pushkin House", retrieved 1 September 2006.
  5. ^ a b Maxim Gorky, "Pushkin, An Appraisal", retrieved 1 September 2006

References

  • Elaine Feinstein (ed.): After Pushkin: versions of the poems of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin by contemporary poets. Manchester: Carcanet Press; London: Folio Society, 1999 ISBN 1-85754-444-7
  • Serena Vitale: Pushkin's button; transl. from the Italian by Ann Goldstein. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1998 ISBN 0-374-23995-5
  • Markus Wolf: Freemasonry in life and literature. With an introduction to the history of Russian Freemasonry (in German). Munich: Otto Sagner publishers, 1998 ISBN 3-87690-692-X

Further reading

  • T. J. Binyon has written an English biography: Pushkin: A Biography (London: HarperCollins, 2002) (ISBN 0-00-215084-0; US edition: New York: Knopf, 2003; ISBN 1-4000-4110-4).
  • Yuri Druzhnikov, Prisoner of Russia: Alexander Pushkin and the Political Uses of Nationalism, Transaction Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-56000-390-1

Timothy John Binyon (February 18, 1936 - October 7, 2004) was an English scholar and crime writer. ...

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