FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aleksandr Kolchak
Admiral Kolchak
Admiral Kolchak

Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Russian: Александр Васильевич Колчак, November 16 [O.S. November 4] 1874February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. Image File history File links Image taken from http://www. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... White Army redirects here. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Far Eastern Republic Chinese Volunteers White Movement Allied Intervention: Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania  Turkey UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist movements  German Empire  Mongolia Warlords Commanders Vladimir Lenin...

Contents

Biography

Early life and career

Kolchak was born in St. Petersburg, the son of a naval officer. He was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval college in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion of the city. He was soon transferred to the Far East, serving in Vladivostok from 1895 to 1899. He returned to western Russia and was based at Kronstadt, joining the Polar expedition of Toll in 1900 as leader of one of the two groups. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: Кронштадт; also Kronshtadt, Cronstadt) is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at 59°5930 N and 29°4630 E. It lies... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...

Kolchak on Zarya

After considerable hardship, Kolchak returned in December 1902; the other group, including Toll, was lost. He took part in three Arctic expeditions and for a while was nicknamed "Kolchak-Poliarnyi" ("Kolchak the Polar"). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... // A nickname is a name of a person or thing other than its proper name. ...


When the Russo-Japanese War began, Kolchak was sent to Port Arthur in March 1904. He commanded a cruiser and won a valour medal. As the siege of the port intensified, he was given a land command. Later wounded, he became a prisoner of war. His poor health led to his repatriation before the end of the war. He became one of the modernisers in the Russian military. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... USS Port Royal, a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1994. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Kolchak was on the Naval General Staff from 1906 and joined the Baltic Fleet upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Initially on the flagship Pogranichnik, Kolchak oversaw the extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga. He was promoted to Vice-Admiral in August 1916, the youngest man at that rank, and made commander of the Black Sea Fleet, replacing Admiral Eberhart (Note: the reason for this replacement is unclear at present, as Admiral Eberhart had been considered a successful commander). 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Gulf of Riga The Gulf of Riga (or Bay of Riga, Latvian Rīgas jūras līcis, Estonian Liivi Laht) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ...


Kolchak's primary mission was to support General Yudenich in his operations against the Ottoman Empire. He also was tasked with the job of countering any U-boat threat and to begin planning an invasion of the Bosporus (which was never carried out). Kolchak's fleet was successful at sinking Turkish colliers. Because there was no railroad linking the coal mines of eastern Turkey with Constantinople, the Russian fleet attacks on the Turkish coal ships caused the Ottoman government much hardship. In 1916, in a model combined Army-Navy assault, the Russian Black Sea fleet helped the Russian army to take the Ottoman city of Trebizond (modern Trabzon). General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ...


One notable disaster took place under his watch as the great Russian dreadnought Empress Maria blew up in the port of Sevastopol on October 7, 1916. A careful investigation failed to determine the cause of the explosion, it could have been accidental or sabotage. HMS Audacious, a British super-dreadnought launched in 1912 A dreadnought was a battleship of the early 20th century, of a type modelled after the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought of 1906. ... The Imperatritsa Mariya (Императрица Мария) was an Imperatritsa Mariya-class Dreadnought battleship of the Imperial Russian Navy. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ...


After the February Revolution in 1917, the Black Sea fleet descended into political chaos. Kolchak was removed from command of the fleet in June and travelled to Britain and the USA as a quasi-official military observer. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Russian Civil War

At the time of the revolution in November 1917, he was in Japan and then Manchuria. Kolchak was a supporter of the Provisional Government and returned to Russia, through Vladivostok, in 1918. Kolchak was an absolute supporter of the Allied cause against Germany, and initially hearing of the Bolshevik coup on November 7, 1917, he offered to enlist in the British Army to continue the struggle. Initially, the British were inclined to accept Kolchak’s offer, and there were plans to send Kolchak to Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), but London decided that Kolchak could do more for the Allied cause by overthrowing the Bolsheviks and bringing Russia back into the war on the Allied side. Reluctantly, Kolchak accepted the British suggestions and with a heavy sense of foreboding, Kolchak returned to Russia. Arriving in Omsk, Siberia, en route to enlisting with the Volunteer Army, he agreed to become a minister in the (White) Siberian Regional Government. Joining a fourteen man cabinet, he was a prestige figure; the government hoped to play on the respect he had with the Allies, especially the head of the British military mission General Alfred Knox. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Volunteer Army (Добровольческая армия in Russian, or Dobrovolcheskaya armiya) was a counterrevolutionary army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia (PGAS), or in full the Social Revolutionary-Menshevik Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia, was an ephemeral puppet government for Siberia created by the White movement. ... Alfred Knox (born in Ulster 1870 - 1964) was a career British military officer. ...


In November 1918, the unpopular regional government was overthrown in a military coup d'etat. Kolchak had returned to Omsk on November 16 from an inspection tour. He was approached and refused to take power. The Socialist-Revolutionary (SR) Directory leader and members were arrested on November 18 by a troop of Cossacks under ataman Krasilnikov. The remaining cabinet members met and voted for Kolchak to become the head of government with dictatorial powers. He was named Supreme Ruler (Verkhovnyi Pravitel), and he promoted himself to Admiral. The arrested SR politicians were expelled from Siberia and ended up in Europe. The SR leaders in Russia denounced Kolchak and called for him to be killed. Their activities resulted in a small revolt in Omsk on December 22, 1918, which was quickly put down by Cossacks and the Czech Legion, who summarily executed almost 500 rebels. The SRs opened negotiations with the Bolsheviks and in January 1919 the SR People's Army joined with the Red Army. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Socialist-Revolutionary election poster, 1917. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Ataman (variants: wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian), ватаман (Russian, regional), отаман (Ukrainian)) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Kolchak instituted a tough military dictatorship, imprisoning his opponents and forcing workers who had socialised their factories out. He saw his role in military terms – he needed a strong army, regular supplies, and victories, and he did what he saw as necessary to enforce the preconditions to this. He later claimed he "had absolutely no... political objectives... [but tried] only to create an army of the regular type" "...capable of victory over Bolshevism".


He was a political innocent and a patriotic idealist,[neutrality disputed] awkward outside of military issues and with other people and always seeking the simplest explanations. "He does not know life in its severe practical reality and lives in a world of... borrowed ideas" recorded Aleksei Budberg, a contemporary official. Whatever his military successes, he was a poor and careless administrator, his government was notoriously corrupt, and, unchecked, representatives acting in his name did much harm.


Other sources however depict a different perspective on him : "At west, Kolchak did have some victories, but in the end, due to his cruel behavior towards his political opponents and his savage attempts for reappraisals in which he endeavored all the Russian parties turned against him except the ultra-right wing ones." (EH Carr, History of the Soviet Union, vol1. , Greek edition p.465)


Dictatorship

Initially the White forces under his command had some success. Kolchak was uncertain about combat on land and gave the majority of the strategic planning to D. A. Lebedev, Paul J. Bubnar a Czech General, and his staff. The northern army under the Russian Anatoly Pepelyayev and the Czech Rudolf Gajda seized Perm in late December 1918 and after a pause other forces spread out from this strategic base. The plan was for three main advances – Gajda to take Archangel, Khanzhin to capture Ufa and the Cossacks under Alexander Dutov to capture Samara and Saratov. Kolchak had put around 110,000 men into the field facing roughly 95,000 Bolshevik troops. Kolchak's good relations with General Knox meant that his forces were almost entirely armed, munitioned and uniformed by the British (up to August 1919 the British spent an official $239 million aiding the Whites, although Churchill disputed this figure at the time as an "absurd exaggeration"). Anatoly Pepelyayev, 1918. ... Radola Gajda Radola Gajda (born Rudolf Geidl, February 14, 1892, Kotor, in Montenegro – April 15, 1948, Prague) was a Czech military commander and politician. ... Location Position of Perm in Russia Government Country Federal district Federal subject Russia Volga Federal District Perm Krai Mayor Igor Nikolayevich Shubin Geographical characteristics Area  - City    - Land    - Water 799. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Ataman Alexander Dutov Dutov, Alexander Ilyich (Дутов, Александр Ильич in Russian) (1879—1921), one of the leaders of the Cossack counterrevolution in the Urals, Lieutenant General (1919). ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in Russia. ...


The White forces took Ufa in March 1919 and pushed on from there to take Kazan and approach Samara on the Volga River. Anti-Bolshevik risings in Simbirsk, Kazan, Viatka, and Samara assisted their endeavours. The newly-formed Red Army proved unwilling to fight and retreated, allowing the Whites to advance to a line stretching from Glazov through Orenburg to Uralsk. Kolchak's territories covered over 300,000 km² and held around 7 million people. In April, the alarmed Bolshevik Central Committee made countering Kolchak their top priority. But as the spring thaw arrived Kolchak's position degenerated – his armies had outrun their supply lines, they were exhausted and the Red Army was pouring newly raised troops into the area. This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Glazov (Russian: , Udmurt: Глазкар) is a small city located in the North of Udmurtia, Russia. ... Orenburg (Russian: ) is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast in the Volga Federal District of Russia. ... Oral (formerly Uralsk) is a city in west Kazakhstan on the Ural River. ...

Emblem of the Kolchak government
Emblem of the Kolchak government

Kolchak had also aroused the dislike of potential allies including the Czech Legion and the Polish 5th Rifle Division. They withdrew from the conflict in October 1918 but remained a presence, their new leader Maurice Janin regarded Kolchak as an instrument of the British and was pro-SR. Kolchak could not count on Japanese aid either; they feared he would interfere with their occupation of Far Eastern Russia and refused him assistance, creating a 'buffer state' to the east of Lake Baikal under Cossack control. The 7,000 or so American troops in Siberia were strictly neutral regarding "internal Russian affairs" and served only to maintain the operation of the Trans-Siberian railroad in the Far East. The American commander William S. Graves personally disliked the Kolchak government, which he saw as royalist and autocratic, a view that was shared by the American President, Woodrow Wilson. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Czech Legion, also called Czech-Slovak Legion was an armed force attached to the Russian army during the World War I. It played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Pierre-Thiébaut-Charles-Maurice Janin (October 19, 1862 – April 28, 1946) was a French general (since April 20, 1916) and military commander who was the chief of the French military mission in Siberia during the Russian civil war. ... “Baikal” redirects here. ... For the Fabergé egg, see Trans-Siberian Railway (Fabergé egg). ... General William S. Graves (Russian: Уйллиам Грейвс) was the commander of American forces in Siberia during the Allied Intervention in Russia. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


Defeat and death

Postal stamp issued in 1919 with the inscription "For United Russia - Supreme leader of Russia Kolchak"

When the Red forces managed to reorganise and turn the attack against Kolchak from 1919 he quickly lost ground. The Red counter-attack began in late April at the centre of the White line, aiming for Ufa. The fighting was fierce as, unlike earlier, both sides fought hard. Ufa was taken by the Red Army on June 9 and later that month the Red forces under Tukhachevsky broke through the Urals. Freed from the geographical constraints of the mountains, the Reds made rapid progress, capturing Chelyabinsk on July 25 and forcing the White forces to the north and south to fall back to avoid being isolated. The White forces re-established a line along the Tobol and the Ishim rivers to temporarily halt the Reds. They held that line until October, but the constant loss of men killed or wounded was beyond the White rate of replacement. Reinforced, the Reds broke through on the Tobol in mid-October and by November the White forces were falling back towards Omsk in a disorganised mass. The Reds were sufficiently confident to start redeploying some of their forces southwards to face Anton Denikin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Chelyabinsk (Russian: ) is a Russian city just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on Miass River, at to . ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during...


Kolchak also came under threat from other quarters, local opponents began to agitate and international support began to wane, with even the British turning more towards Denikin. Gajda, dismissed from command of the northern army, staged an abortive coup in mid-November. Omsk was evacuated on November 14 and the Red Army took the city without any serious resistance, capturing large amounts of ammunition, almost 50,000 soldiers, and ten generals. As there was a continued flood of refugees eastwards, typhus became a serious problem. Radola Gajda Radola Gajda (born Rudolf Geidl, February 14, 1892, Kotor, in Montenegro – April 15, 1948, Prague) was a Czech military commander and politician. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


Kolchak had left Omsk on the 13th for Irkutsk along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Travelling a section of track controlled by the Czecho-Slovaks he was sidetracked and stopped, by December his train had only reached Nizhneudinsk. In late December Irkutsk fell under the control of a leftist group (including SRs) and formed a 'Political Centre'. One of their first actions was to dismiss Kolchak. When he heard of this on January 4, 1920, he announced his resignation, giving his office to Denikin and passing control of his remaining forces around Irkutsk to the ataman, G. M. Semyonov. The transfer of power to Semenov proved a particularly ill-considered move. Irkutsks location Kazansky Church in Irkutsk Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia. ... Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ataman (variants: wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian), ватаман (Russian, regional), отаман (Ukrainian)) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. ... Grigory Mikhailovich Semenov (Семёнов, Григорий Михайлович in Russian) (September 13(25), 1890 – August 30, 1946), leader of the counterrevolution in the Baikal region and beyond in 1917...

Last photo of Admiral Kolchak taken before his execution in 1920
Last photo of Admiral Kolchak taken before his execution in 1920

It appears that Kolchak was then promised safe passage by the Czecho-Slovaks to the British military mission in Irkutsk. Instead, he was handed over to the leftist authorities in Irkutsk on January 14. On January 20 the government in Irkutsk gave power to a Bolshevik military committee. White Army under command of Vladimir Kappel rushed toward Irkutsk while Kolchak was "investigated" before a commission of five men from January 21 to February 6. Following the arrival of an order from Moscow, he was summarily sentenced to death along with his Prime Minister, Viktor Pepelyayev. They were executed by firing squad in the early morning and the bodies were disposed of in a local river, the Ushakovka. The White Army learned about execution and decision was made to withdraw farther East. The Great Siberian Ice march followed. The Red Army did not enter Irkutsk until March 7, and only then was the news of Kolchak's death officially released. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Oskarovich Kappel (Russian: , April 28 [O.S. April 16] 1883—January 25, 1920) was a White Russian military leader. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (Russian: Виктор Николаевич Пепеляев, 8 January 1885 - 7 February 1920) was a Russian politician associated with the White movement. ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... This article is about the White Armys retreat across lake Baikal. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legacy

Admiral Kolchak was a failure at nearly every level from the time of his taking the position of Supreme Ruler until his death, though it must be borne in mind that he operated under very difficult circumstances. As a military commander he was unable to make successful strategic plans or to manage to coordinate with other White Army generals such as Yudenich or Denikin. General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... General Anton Denikins Volunteer Army and regional Armed forces after Armistice of Mudros Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 – August 8, 1947) was Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and one of the foremost leading generals of the anti-Bolshevik White Russians in the civil war. ...


As the leader of a political movement and the chief of state for a territory, he must bear some responsibility for the many acts of brutality, theft, rape, and murder which took place in areas nominally under his military and political control.


As a diplomat his failures were even more serious. Kolchak failed to convince the potentially friendly states of Finland, Poland, or the Baltic states to join with him against the Bolsheviks. He was unable to win diplomatic recognition from any nation in the world, even England (though they did support him to some degree). He alienated the very powerful Czech Legion, which for a time was the most powerful organized military force in all of Siberia and very strongly anti-Bolshevik. As was mentioned above, the American commander, General Graves, disliked Kolchak and refused to lend him any military aid at all. Given how hated the Bolsheviks were at this time, Kolchak's inability in this area is striking. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


After decades of being vilified by the Soviet government, Kolchak is now a controversial historic figure in post-Soviet Russia. The "For Faith and Fatherland" movement has attempted to rehabilitate his reputation. However, two rehabilitation requests have been denied, by a regional military court in 1999 and by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in 2001. In 2004, the Constitutional Court of Russia returned the Kolchak case to the military court for another hearing. Monuments dedicated to Kolchak were built in St. Petersburg in 2002 and in Irkutsk in 2004, despite objections from some former Communist and left-wing politicians and former Soviet army veterans. There is also a Kolchak Island. A movie about his life will be released in Russia on 2008. It's called ´´Admiral Kolchak´´ Soviet redirects here. ... This article is about the year. ... The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is the final instance in administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Constitutional Court of Russian Federation (Russian: Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court which is empowered to rule on whether or not certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kolchak Island is part of the Kamenyye group Kolchak Island (Russian: ) is the thirst largest island of the Kamennyye Islands. ...


See also

White Army redirects here. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Far Eastern Republic Chinese Volunteers White Movement Allied Intervention: Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania  Turkey UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist movements  German Empire  Mongolia Warlords Commanders Vladimir Lenin...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aleksandr Kolchak - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1908 words)
Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War.
Kolchak was a absolute supporter of the Allied cause against Germany, and initially hearing of the Bolshevik coup on November 7, 1917, he offered to enlist in the British Army to continue the struggle.
Kolchak could not count on Japanese aid either; they feared he would interfere with their occupation of Far Eastern Russia and refused him assistance, creating a 'buffer state' to the east of Lake Baikal under Cossack control.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m