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Encyclopedia > Aldus Manutius

Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press. He was born at Sermoneta in the Papal States. Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aldine Press was the printing office started by Aldus Manutius in 1494 in Venice, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the classics of that time. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ...

Manutius received a scholar's training, studying Latin at Rome under Gasparino da Verona, and Greek at Ferrara under Guarino da Verona. In 1482 he went to reside at Mirandola with his old friend and fellow-student, the illustrious Giovanni Pico. There he stayed two years, pursuing his studies in Greek literature. Before Pico removed to Florence, he procured for Manutius the post of tutor to his nephews Alberto and Lionello Pio, princes of Carpi. Alberto Pio supplied Aldo with funds for starting his printing press, and gave him lands at Carpi. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... Ferrara is a town, an archiepiscopal see and a province in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... Guarino da Verona (1370 - December 14, 1460) was an early figure in the Italian Renaissance. ... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Mirandola is a city of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, in the province of Modena, 19 miles (31 km) northeast of it by railway, 59 ft. ... Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (February 24, 1463 - November 17, 1494) was an Italian humanist philosopher and scholar. ... Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ...


It was Manutius' ambition to secure the literature of Greece from further loss by committing its chief masterpieces to type. Before his time four Italian towns had won the honors of Greek publications: Milan, with the grammar of Lascaris, Aesop, Theocritus, a Greek Psalter, and Isocrates, between 1476 and 1493; Venice, with the Erotemata of Chrysoloras in 1484; Vicenza, with reprints of Lascaris' grammar and the Erotemata, in 1488 and 1490; Florence, with Alopa's Homer, in 1488. MILAN Type anti-tank Nationality joint France/German Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3... Constantine Lascaris (d. ... Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Manuel (or Emmanuel) Chrysoloras (c. ... Events January 25 - Peter Arbues, chief of the Spanish Inquisition, is assassinated when he is praying in the cathedral at Saragossa, Spain July 6 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River December 5 - Pope Innocent VIII gives the inquisition a mission to hunt heretics and... Vicenza by night Vicenza (population 107,223) is the capital of the province of Vicenza in the Veneto region, northern Italy at the northern base of the Monti Berici, straddling the Bacchiglione. ... // Events February 3 - Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, at the tip of Africa becoming the first known European to travel this far south. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ... Bust of Homer in the British Museum For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...


Of these works, only three, the Milanese Theocritus and Isocrates and the Florentine Homer, were classics. Manutius selected Venice as the most appropriate station for his labours. He settled there in 1490, and soon afterwards gave to the world editions of the Hero and Leander of Musaeus, the Galeomyomachia, and the Greek Psalter. These have no date; but they are the earliest tracts issued from his press, and are called by him "Precursors of the Greek Library." Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Musaeus was the name of three Greek poets. ...


At Venice Manutius gathered an army of Greek scholars and compositors around him. His trade was carried on by Greeks, and Greek was the language of his household. Instructions to typesetters and binders were given in Greek. The preface to his editions were written in Greek. Greeks from Crete collated manuscripts, read proofs, and gave models of calligraphy for casts of Greek type. Not counting the craftsmen employed in merely manual labour, Manutius entertained as many as thirty of these Greek assistants in his family. His own industry and energy were unremitting. In 1495 he issued the first volume of his edition of Aristotle. Four more volumes completed the work in 14971498. Nine comedies of Aristophanes appeared in 1498. Thucydides, Sophocles and Herodotus followed in 1502; Xenophon's Hellenics and Euripides in 1503; Demosthenes in 1504. It is possible that during this period, in his printing works, Hieromonk Makarije was educated, who would later find Obod printing works of Cetinje and print the first book in Serbian and Romanian. Crete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bust of Aristophanes Aristophanes (c. ... Bust of Thucydides Thucydides (between 460 and 455 BC–circa 400 BC, Greek Θουκυδίδης, Thoukudídês) was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens. ... A Roman bust of Sophocles. ... Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ήροδοτος, Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... 1502 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (c. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Demosthenes statue, Roman copy of a Greek bronze original in marble about 380 BC, Rome, Vatican Museum, Braccio Nuovo Demosthenes (384 BC–322 BC) is generally considered the greatest of the Attic orators, and thus one of the greatest of all Ancient Greek orators. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hieromonk Makarije (lived in late 15th and early 16th century) is the founder of Serbian and Romanian printing, having printed the first book in Serbian language and Romanian language. ... Mayor Milo Janković Area  - city  - municipality km² km² Population  - city  - municipality 14,700 in 2003 18,749 in 2003 Time zone Summer Time CET (UTC +1) CEST (UTC +2) Founded Unknown Latitude Longitude ° N ° E Area code +381 86 Car plates CT Official Website Cetinje (Цетиње) is a small city located... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect (former standard was known as Serbo-Croatian language). ...

A page from Francesco Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, printed by Aldus Manutius

The Second Italian War, which pressed heavily on Venice at this epoch, suspended Manutius' labours for a period. But in 1508 he resumed his series with an edition of the minor Greek orators; and in 1509 appeared the lesser works of Plutarch. Then came another stoppage when the League of Cambray drove Venice back to her lagoons, and all the forces of the republic were concentrated on a life or death struggle with the allied powers of Europe. In 1513 Manutius reappeared with an edition of Plato, which he dedicated to Leo X in a preface eloquently and earnestly comparing the miseries of warfare and the woes of Italy with the sublime and tranquil objects of the student's life. Pindar, Hesychius, and Athenaeus followed in 1514. Image File history File linksMetadata Manutius. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Manutius. ... The Second Italian War (1499 – 1503) occured when Louis XII of France invaded Italy, capturing Milan and Naples. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... The League of Cambrai was a league against Venice formed in 1508 under the leadership of Pope Julius II. It included, besides the Pope, Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand of Aragon. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Plato Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (c. ... Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475, Florence – 1 December 1521, Rome), pope between 1513 and his death, is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther first accused the Roman Catholic Church of corruption. ... Pindar Pindar (or Pindarus / Pindaros) (522 BC – 443 BC), considered the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... Hesychius of Miletus, Greek chronicler and biographer, surnamed Illustrius, son of an advocate, flourished at Constantinople in the 5th century AD during the reign of Justinian. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


These complete the list of Manutius' prime services to Greek literature. But it may be well in this place to observe that his successors continued his work by giving Pausanias, Strabo, Aeschylus, Galen, Hippocrates and Longinus to the world in first editions. Omission has been made of Manutius' reprints, in order that the attention of the reader might be concentrated on his labours in editing Greek classics from manuscripts. Other presses were at work in Italy; and, as the classics issued from Florence, Rome or Milan, Manutius took them up, bestowing in each case fresh industry upon the collation of codices and the correction of texts. Nor was the Aldine press idle in regard to Latin and Italian classics. The Asolani of Bembo, the collected writings of Poliziano, the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, Dante's Divine Comedy, Petrarch's poems, a collection of early Latin poets of the Christian era, the letters of the younger Pliny, the poems of Pontanus, Sannazaro's Arcadia, Quintilian, Valerius Maximus, and the Adagia of Erasmus were printed, either in first editions, or with a beauty of type and paper never reached before, between the years 1495 and 1514. For these Italian and Latin editions Manutius had the elegant type struck which bears his name. It is said to have been copied from Petrarch's handwriting, and was cast under the direction of Francesco da Bologna, who has been identified by Panizzi with Francia the painter. Pausanias was Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Strabo (squinty) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. ... Aeschylus This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (131-201 AD), better known as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. ... Hippocrates: a conventionalized image in a Roman portrait bust (19th century engraving) Hippocrates of Cos (c. ... Longinus (Λογγινος) is a conventional name applied to a Greek teacher of rhetoric or literary critic who may have lived in the 1st century, and is known only for his treatise On the Sublime (Περι υψους). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ... Angelo Polizian (Angelo Ambrogini) (1454 - 1494) was a Florentine classical scholar and poet, one of the revivers of Humanist Latin. ... Poliphilo kneels before Queen Eleuterylida The Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (or The Strife of Love in a Dream) is an unusual book. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... From the c. ... Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (63-ca. ... Jovianus Pontanus (It. ... Jacopo Sannazaro (1458 - April 27, 1530), Italian poet of the Renaissance, was born in 1458 at Naples of a noble family, said to have been of Spanish origin, which had its seat at San Nazaro near Pavia. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Antonio Genesio Maria Panizzi (1797 - 1879), better known as Anthony Panizzi, was a British librarian of Italian birth. ...


Manutius' enthusiasm for Greek literature was not confined to the printing-room. Whatever the students of this century may think of his scholarship, they must allow that only vast erudition and thorough familiarity with the Greek language could have enabled him to accomplish what he did. In his own days Manutius' learning won the hearty acknowledgment of ripe scholars. To his fellow workers he was uniformly generous, free from jealousy, and prodigal of praise. While aiming at that excellence of typography which renders his editions the treasures of the book-collector, he strove at the same time to make them cheap. His great undertaking was carried on under continual difficulties, arising from strikes among his workmen, the piracies of rivals, and the interruptions of war. When he died, bequeathing Greek literature as an inalienable possession to the world, he was a poor man. In order to promote Greek studies, Manutius founded an academy of Hellenists in 1500 under the title of the New Academy. Its rules were written in Greek. Its members were obliged to speak Greek. Their names were Hellenized, and their official titles were Greek. The biographies of all the famous men who were enrolled in this academy must be sought in the pages of Didot's Aide Manuce. It is enough here to mention that they included Erasmus and the English Linacre. At the moment this page contains a list of links. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Didot is the name of a family of French printers and publishers. ... Thomas Linacre (or Lynaker) (c. ...


In 1499 Manutius married Maria, daughter of Andrea Torresano of Asola. Andrea had already bought the press established by Nicholas Jenson at Venice. Therefore Manutius' marriage combined two important publishing firms. Henceforth the names Aldus and Asolanus were associated on the title pages of the Aldine publications; and after Manutius' death in 1515, Andrea and his two sons carried on the business during the minority of his children. The device of the dolphin and the anchor, and the motto festina lente, which indicated quickness combined with firmness in the execution of a great scheme, were never wholly abandoned by the Aldines until the expiration of their firm in the third generation. 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aldus Manutius created the italic typeface style, for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent, though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his typefounder, Franciso de Bologna, than to him. However, he did not use his italic typeface for emphasis as we do today, but rather for its narrow and compact letterforms, which allowed the printing of pocket-sized books. In typography, italic type refers to cursive typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. ...


References

  • This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain.

The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) is the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Progetto Manuzio

Aldus Manutius' name is the inspiration for Progetto Manuzio, an Italian free text project similar to Project Gutenberg. Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aldus Manutius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1152 words)
Aldus Manutius (1449/50 - February 6, 1515), the Latin form of Aldo Manuzio (born Teobaldo Mannucci) was the founder of the Aldine Press.
Manutius' enthusiasm for Greek literature was not confined to the printing-room.
Aldus Manutius created the italic typeface style, for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent, though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his typefounder, Franciso de Bologna, than to him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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