FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aldous Huxley
Aldous Huxley
Born Aldous Leonard Huxley
July 26, 1894(1894-07-26)
Godalming, Surrey, England
Died November 22, 1963 (aged 69)
Los Angeles, California
Occupation Writer, author
Notable work(s) Brave New World

Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 189422 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. He spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death in 1963. Best known for his novels and wide-ranging output of essays, he also published short stories, poetry, travel writing, and film stories and scripts. is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This article is about work. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Swami Prabhavananda was one of the senior monks at the Vedanta Society of Southern California. ... Jiddu Krishnamurti (May 11, 1895 Madanapalle, India - February 17, 1986 Ojai, California) was discovered as a young boy by C.W. Leadbeater in India on the private beach, that was part of the Theosophical headquarters in Adyar in Chennai. ... Frederick Matthias Alexander (January 20, 1869–October 10, 1955) was an Australian actor who developed the educational process that is today called the Alexander Technique—a method of helping people learn to free habitual reactions of moving, learned by improving ones kinesthetic judgment. ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... Dickens redirects here. ... Christopher Isherwood (left) and W.H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Christopher Isherwood (prior to 1946 Christopher William Bradshaw-Isherwood) (August 26, 1904 – January 4, 1986), Anglo-American novelist, was born in the ancestral seat of his family, Wybersley Hall, High Lane, in the north west of... Michel Houellebecq (pronounced ) (real name Michel Thomas), born 26 February 1958, on the French island of Réunion is a controversial, award-winning French novelist. ... For other persons named James or Jim Morrison, see James Morrison. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Huston Cummings Smith (born May 31, 1919) is among the preeminent religious studies scholars in the United States. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The Huxley family is a British family, consisting of several notables. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about the art form. ... Travel writing is a literary genre related to the essay and to the guidebook. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


Huxley was a humanist and pacifist, but was also latterly interested in spiritual subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism. By the end of his life Huxley was considered, in some academic circles, a leader of modern thought and an intellectual of the highest rank.[1] He was also well known for advocating and taking LSD, including on his death bed. Look up Humanist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... LSD redirects here. ...

Contents

Biography

Early years

Family tree
Family tree

Aldous Huxley was born in Godalming, Surrey, England in 1894. He was the third son of the writer and professional herbalist Leonard Huxley and first wife, Julia Arnold who founded Prior's Field School and also the niece of Matthew Arnold and sister of Mrs. Humphrey Ward. He was grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, one of the most prominent English naturalists of the 19th century, a man known as "Darwin's Bulldog." His brother Julian Huxley was also a noted biologist. Download high resolution version (1332x532, 59 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1332x532, 59 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... , The Pepperpot, Godalmings former town hall. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... See also Herbalism A Herbalist is: 1. ... Leonard Huxley (December 11, 1860 - 1933) was a British writer and editor. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... ... Thomas Henry Huxley PC, FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ...


Huxley began his learning in his father's well-equipped botanical laboratory, then continued in a school named Hillside. His teacher was his mother who supervised him for several years until she became terminally ill. After Hillside, he was educated at Eton College. Huxley's mother died in 1908, when he was fourteen. Three years later he suffered an illness (keratitis punctata) which "left [him] practically blind for two to three years".[2] Aldous's near-blindness disqualified him from service in World War I. Once his eyesight recovered sufficiently, he was able to study English literature at Balliol College, Oxford. He graduated in 1916 with First Class Honours. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... Keratitis is a condition in which the eyes cornea is inflamed. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... and of the Balliol College College name Balliol College Named after John de Balliol Established 1263 Sister college St Johns College, Cambridge Master Andrew Graham JCR President Helen Lochead Undergraduates 403 MCR President Chelsea Payne Graduates 228 Location of Balliol College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Balliol College (pronounced... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


Following his education at Balliol, Huxley was financially indebted to his father and had to earn a living. He taught French for a year at Eton, where Eric Blair (later known by the pen name George Orwell) was among his pupils, but was remembered by another as an incompetent and hopeless teacher who couldn’t keep discipline. Nevertheless, Blair and others were impressed by his use of words. [3] For a short while in 1918, he was employed acquiring provisions at the Air Ministry. Full name Balliol College Motto - Named after John de Balliol Previous names - Established 1263 Sister College St Johns College, Cambridge Master Andrew Graham (academic) Location Broad Street Undergraduates 403 Graduates 228 Homepage Boatclub Balliol College, founded in 1263, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ...


Significantly, Huxley also worked for a time in the 1920s at the technologically-advanced Brunner and Mond chemical plant in Billingham Teesside, and the most recent introduction to his famous science fiction novel Brave New World (1932) states that this experience of an ordered universe in a world of planless incoherence' was one source for the novel. Mustapha Mond is a character in the book. Brunner Mond is a British-based chemical company that is part of Tata Chemicals Limited, a subsidary of the Tata Group of India. ... For people named Billingham, see Billingham (surname). ... Arms of the County Borough of Teesside Teesside is the name given to the conurbation in northern England based on Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees and Redcar, along the banks of the River Tees with a resident population of over 388,000 in 2005. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ...


Never desiring a career in administration (or in business), Huxley's lack of inherited means propelled him into applied literary work.


Huxley completed his first (unpublished) novel at the age of seventeen and began writing seriously in his early twenties. His earlier work includes important novels on the dehumanizing aspects of scientific progress, most famously Brave New World, and on pacifist themes (for example, Eyeless in Gaza). In Brave New World Huxley portrays a society operating on the principles of mass production and Pavlovian conditioning. Huxley was strongly influenced by F. Matthias Alexander and included him as a character in Eyeless in Gaza. For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Pacifist redirects here. ... Eyeless in Gaza is a dense novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1936. ... Frederick Matthias Alexander (January 20, 1869–October 10, 1955) was an Australian actor who developed the educational process that is today called the Alexander Technique—a method of helping people learn to free habitual reactions of moving, learned by improving ones kinesthetic judgment. ...


Middle years

Left to right: Lady Ottoline Morrell, Maria Huxley, Lytton Strachey, Duncan Grant, and Vanessa Bell.
Left to right: Lady Ottoline Morrell, Maria Huxley, Lytton Strachey, Duncan Grant, and Vanessa Bell.

During World War I, Huxley spent much of his time at Garsington Manor, home of Lady Ottoline Morrell, working as a farm labourer. Here he met several Bloomsbury figures including D. H. Lawrence, Bertrand Russell and Clive Bell. Later, in Crome Yellow (1921) he caricatured the Garsington lifestyle. In 1919 he married Maria Nys, a Belgian woman he had met at Garsington. They had one child, Matthew Huxley (1920 – 2005), who had a career as an epidemiologist. The family lived in Italy part of the time in the 1920s, where Huxley would visit his friend D. H. Lawrence. Following Lawrence's death in 1930, he edited his letters (1933). Lady Ottoline Morrell (June 16, 1873 - April 21, 1938) was an English socialite, friend and patron of many artistic people, including Aldous Huxley, Siegfried Sassoon and D. H. Lawrence. ... Giles Lytton Strachey (March 1, 1880–January 21, 1932) was a British writer and critic. ... Self Portrait, 1920, National Gallery of Scotland. ... Vanessa Bell Vanessa Bell (May 28, 1879 – April 7, 1961), was an English painter and interior designer and a member of the Bloomsbury group. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Garsington Manor, in the village of Garsington, near Oxford, England, is a Tudor building, best known as the former home of Lady Ottoline Morrell. ... Lady Ottoline Morrell [1] (June 16, 1873 - April 21, 1938) was an English socialite, friend and patron of many artistic people, including Aldous Huxley, Siegfried Sassoon and D. H. Lawrence. ... The Bloomsbury Group was an English collective of loving friends and relatives who lived in or near London during the first half of the twentieth century. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Arthur Clive Heward Bell (September 16, 1881 – September 18, 1964) was an English Art critic, associated with the Bloomsbury group. ... Crome Yellow is the first novel by British author Aldous Huxley. ... Epidemiology (Greek epi = upon, among; demos = people, district; logos = word, discourse), defined literally, is the study of epidemics in humans. ...


In 1937 Huxley moved to Hollywood, California with his wife Maria, son Matthew, and friend Gerald Heard. At this time Huxley wrote Ends and Means, while living in Taos, New Mexico; in this work he explores the fact that although most people in modern civilization agree that they want a world of 'liberty, peace, justice, and brotherly love', they have not been able to agree on how to achieve it. Heard introduced Huxley to Vedanta, meditation and vegetarianism through the principle of ahimsa. In 1938 Huxley befriended J. Krishnamurti, whose teachings he greatly admired. He also became a Vedantist in the circle of Swami Prabhavananda, and introduced Christopher Isherwood to this circle. Not long after, Huxley wrote his book on widely held spiritual values and ideas, The Perennial Philosophy, which discussed the teachings of renowned mystics of the world. Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... Henry Fitzgerald Heard commonly called Gerald Heard (October 6, 1889 - August 14, 1971) was an historian, science writer, educator, and philosopher. ... Ends and Means (an Enquiry Into the Nature of Ideals and Into the Methods Employed for Their Realization) is a book of essays written by Aldous Huxley and published in 1937. ... For other uses, see Vedanta (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... Jiddu Krishnamurti (May 11, 1895 Madanapalle, India - February 17, 1986 Ojai, California) was discovered as a young boy by C.W. Leadbeater in India on the private beach, that was part of the Theosophical headquarters in Adyar in Chennai. ... Vedantist (or Vedantin) is the Anglicized term for an adherent to philosophy (or Vedanta) of the end section of the Vedas. ... Swami playing the Harmonium Swami is a primarily Hindu honorific, loosely akin to master. It is derived from the Sanskrit language and means owner of oneself, denoting complete mastery over instinctive and lower urges. ... Swami Prabhavananda was one of the senior monks at the Vedanta Society of Southern California. ... Christopher Isherwood (left) and W.H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Christopher Isherwood (prior to 1946 Christopher William Bradshaw-Isherwood) (August 26, 1904 – January 4, 1986), Anglo-American novelist, was born in the ancestral seat of his family, Wybersley Hall, High Lane, in the north west of... Perennial Philosophy is a term that is often used as a synonym for Sanatana Dharma (Sanskrit for Eternal or Perennial Truth). It was used by Leibniz to designate the common, eternal philosophy that underlies all religious movements, in particular the mystical streams within religions. ...


Aldous Huxley was close friends with Occidental College president Remsen Bird during Huxley's time living in Southern California. He spent much time at the college, which is located in the Eagle Rock neighborhood of Los Angeles, and the college is portrayed under the name of Tarzana College in his satirical novel After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (1939), for which he collected that year's James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction. Huxley also incorporated Bird into the novel. Occidental College is a small private coeducational liberal arts college located in Los Angeles, California. ... For the neighborhood in Los Angeles, see Eagle Rock, Los Angeles, California Eagle Rock, was an early name for Idaho Falls, Idaho. ... After Many a Summer is a novel by Aldous Huxley. ... Founded in 1919, the James Tait Black Memorial Prizes are among the oldest and most prestigious book prizes awarded for literature written in the English Language. ...


During this period he was also able to tap into some Hollywood income using his writing skills, thanks to an introduction into the business by his friend Anita Loos, the prolific novelist and screenwriter. He received screen credit for Pride and Prejudice (1940) and was paid for his work on a number of other films. However, his experience in Hollywood was not a success. When he wrote a synopsis of Alice in Wonderland, Walt Disney rejected it on the grounds that "he could only understand every third word". Huxley's leisurely development of ideas, it seemed, was not suitable for the movie moguls, who demanded fast, dynamic dialogue above all else. Anita Loos (April 26, 1888 – August 18, 1981) was an acclaimed American screenwriter, playwright and author. ... Screenwriters, scenarists, or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies and television programs are made. ... Jane Austens novel Pride and Prejudice (1813) has been the subject of numerous television and film adaptations. ... Alice in Wonderland is the widely known and used title for Alices Adventures in Wonderland, a book written by Lewis Carroll -- as well as several movie adaptations of the book -- and is also the setting for several short stories. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ...


For most of his life since the illness in his teens which left Huxley nearly blind, his eyesight was poor (despite the partial recovery which had enabled him to study at Oxford). Around 1939, Huxley encountered the Bates Method for better eyesight, and a teacher (Margaret Corbett) who was able to teach him in the method. In 1940, relocating from Hollywood to a forty-acre ranchito in the high desert hamlet of Llano, California, in northernmost Los Angeles County, Huxley claimed his sight improved dramatically as a result of using the Bates Method, particularly utilizing the extreme and pure natural lighting of the Southwestern American desert. He reported that for the first time in over 25 years, he was able to read without glasses and without strain. He even tried driving a car along the dirt road beside the ranch. He wrote a book about his successes with the Bates Method, The Art of Seeing which was published in 1942 (US), 1943 (UK). The Bates method of natural vision improvement is a program created by ophthalmologist William Horatio Bates, M.D., which aims to correct what Bates, and teachers of the Bates method, see as faulty vision habits through relaxation techniques, exercises and optional activities and games. ... Llano is a town located in Los Angeles County, California. ... A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... The Art of Seeing is a 1942 book by Aldous Huxley, which contains an explanation of the controversial Bates Method of eye exercises and an anecdotal account of how the author applied its principles to allegedly improve his own poor eyesight. ...


However, while Huxley undoubtedly believed his vision had improved, other evidence suggests that Huxley may have been fooling himself. In 1952, Bennett Cerf was reportedly present when Huxley spoke at a Hollywood banquet, wearing no glasses and apparently reading his paper from the lectern without difficulty: Bennett Cerf on Whats My Line?, 1962 Bennett Alfred Cerf (May 25, 1898 - August 27, 1971) was a publisher and co-founder of Random House, also known for his own compilations of jokes and puns, for regular personal appearances lecturing across the United States, and for his television appearances...

"Then suddenly he faltered — and the truth became obvious. He wasn't reading his address — he had learned it by heart. To refresh his memory he brought it closer and closer to his eyes. When it was only an inch away he still couldn't read it, and had to fish for a magnifying glass in his pocket to make the typing visible to him. It was an agonizing moment."[4] (p241: quotes Bennett Cerf re Huxley's vision in 1952)

On 21 October 1949 Huxley wrote to George Orwell, author of Nineteen Eighty-Four, congratulating Orwell on "how fine and how profoundly important the book is". His letter to Orwell contained the prediction that: "Within the next generation I believe that the world's leaders will discover that infant conditioning and narco-hypnosis are more efficient, as instruments of government, than clubs and prisons, and that the lust for power can be just as completely satisfied by suggesting people into loving their servitude as by flogging them and kicking them into obedience".[5] is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ...


Post-war

After World War II Huxley applied for United States citizenship, but because his application was continuously deferred on the grounds that he would not say he would take up arms to defend the USA, he withdrew it. Nevertheless, he remained in the country, and in 1959 he turned down an offer of a Knight Bachelor by the Macmillan government. During the 1950s Huxley's interest in the field of psychical research grew keener, and his later works are strongly influenced by both mysticism and his experiences with the psychedelic drugs. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The dignity of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Parapsychology is the study of the evidence involving phenomena where a person seems to affect or gain information about something through a means not currently explainable within the framework of mainstream, conventional science. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This entry pertains to the word psychedelic, its origin and uses. ...


In October 1930 the Mystic Aleister Crowley dined with Huxley in Berlin, and to this day rumours persist that Crowley introduced Huxley to peyote on that occasion. He was introduced to mescaline by the psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in 1953; on 24 December 1955 Huxley took his first dosage of LSD. Indeed, Huxley was a pioneer of self-directed psychedelic drug use "in a search for enlightenment", famously taking 100 micrograms of LSD as he lay dying. His psychedelic drug experiences are described in the essays The Doors of Perception (the title deriving from some lines in the book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell by William Blake) and Heaven and Hell. Some of his writings on psychedelics became frequent reading among early hippies. While living in Los Angeles, Huxley was a friend of Ray Bradbury. According to Sam Weller's biography of Bradbury, the latter was dissatisfied with Huxley, especially after Huxley encouraged Bradbury to take psychedelic drugs. Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Humphry Fortescue Osmond (July 1, 1917 - February 6, 2004) was a British psychiatrist, known for coining the word psychedelic and for his groundbreaking research in using psychedelic drugs in medical research. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... For psychedelics, see psychedelic drug. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... The Doors of Perception is a 1954 book by Aldous Huxley detailing his experiences when taking mescaline. ... The Marriage of Heaven and Hell is one of William Blakes books, a series of texts written in imitation of biblical books of prophecy, but expressing Blakes own intensely personal Romantic and revolutionary beliefs. ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... Heaven and Hell is a philosophical work by Aldous Huxley, published in 1956. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ...


In 1955 Huxley's wife, Maria, died of breast cancer. In 1956 he married Laura Archera (1911-2007), also an author. She wrote a biography of Huxley. In 1960 Huxley himself was diagnosed with cancer, and in the years that followed, with his health deteriorating, he wrote the Utopian novel Island, and gave lectures on "Human Potentialities" at the Esalen institute, which were fundamental to the forming of the Human Potential Movement. On his deathbed, unable to speak, Huxley made a written request to his wife for "LSD, 100µg, intramuscular.". According to her account of his death (in her book This Timeless Moment), she obliged with an injection at 11:45 am and another a couple of hours later. He died at 5:21 pm on 22 November 1963, aged 69. Media coverage of his death was overshadowed by news of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which occurred on the same day, as did the death of the Irish author C. S. Lewis. Huxley's ashes were interred in the family grave at the Watts Cemetery, Compton, Guildford, Surrey, England. Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... The Esalen Institute is a workshop and retreat center in Big Sur, California. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Kennedy Assassination redirects here. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... , For other places with the same name, see Guildford (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Huxley's only child, Matthew Huxley (d. 10 February 2005) was also an author, as well as an educator, anthropologist and prominent epidemiologist. His work ranged from promoting universal health care to establishing standards of care for nursing home patients and the mentally ill to investigating the question of what is a socially sanctionable drug.[6] Matthew's first marriage, to documentary filmmaker Ellen Hovde, ended in divorce. His second wife died in 1983. He was survived by his third wife, Franziska Reed Huxley; and two children from his first marriage, Trevenen Huxley and Tessa Huxley. is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Literary themes

Crome Yellow (1921) attacks Victorian and Edwardian social principles which led to World War I and its terrible aftermath. Together with Huxley's second novel, Antic Hay (1923), the book expresses much of the mood of disenchantment of the early 1920s. It was intended to reflect, as Huxley stated in a letter to his father, "the life and opinions of an age which has seen the violent disruption of almost all the standards, conventions and values current in the present epoch."


Huxley's reputation for iconoclasm and emancipation grew. He was condemned for his explicit discussion of sex and free thought in his fiction. Antic Hay, for example, was burned in Cairo and in the years that followed many of Huxley's books were received with disapproval or banned at one time or another. Following the exclusion of Brave New World, Point Counter Point and even Island from Time magazine's list of 'All-Time 100 Novels' there was uproar. One critic became particularly incensed, proclaiming such a decision to be "blasphemous". For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Point Counter Point, published in 1928, was Aldous Huxleys fourth novel. ... This article is about the concept of time. ...


Huxley, however, said that a novel should be full of interesting opinions and arresting ideas, describing his aim as a novelist as being 'to arrive, technically, at a perfect fusion of the novel and the essay'; and with Point Counter Point (1928), Huxley wrote his first true 'novel of ideas', the type of thought-provoking fiction with which he is now associated.


One of his main ideas was pessimism about the cultural future of society, a pessimism which sprang largely from his visit to the United States between September 1925 and June 1926. He recounted his experiences in Jesting Pilate (1926): 'The thing which is happening in America is a revaluation of values, a radical alteration (for the worse) of established standards', and it was soon after this visit that he conceived the idea of writing a satire of what he had encountered.".[7]


A widespread fear of Americanization had already existed in Europe since the mid-nineteenth century and Brave New World (1932) as well as Island (1962) form the cornerstone of Huxley's damning indictment of American commercialism. Brave New World (as well as Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and Yevgeni Zamyatin's We) helped form the anti-utopian or dystopian tradition in literature and has become synonymous with a future world in which the human spirit is subject to conditioning and control. Island acts as an antonym to Brave New World; it is described as "one of the truly great philosophical novels". [8] Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave...


He devoted his time at his small house at Llano in the Mojave Desert to a life of contemplation, mysticism and experimentation with hallucinogenic drugs. His suggestions in The Doors of Perception (1954) that mescalin and lysergic acid were 'drugs of unique distinction' which should be exploited for the 'supernaturally brilliant' visionary experience they offered provoked even more outrage than his passionate defense of the Bates method in The Art of Seeing (1942). However, the book went on to become a cult text in the psychedelic 1960s, being the inspiration for the name of the rock band, The Doors. Huxley also appears on the sleeve of the Beatles' landmark 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... Mescaline powder Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine family. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... For other uses, see Sgt. ...


Awards

In 1959 Aldous Huxley received the American Academy of Arts and Letters Award of Merit for the novel Brave New World. He received the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1939 for After Many a Summer Dies the Swan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... American Academy of Arts and Letters is an organization whose goal is to foster, assist, and sustain an interest in American literature, music, and art. ... Founded in 1919, the James Tait Black Memorial Prizes are among the oldest and most prestigious book prizes awarded for literature written in the English Language. ...


Films

Notable works include the original screenplay for Disney's animated Alice in Wonderland (which was rejected because it was too literary[9]), two productions of Brave New World, one of Point Counter Point, one of Eyeless in Gaza, and one of Ape and Essence. He was one of the screenwriters for Pride and Prejudice (1940), co-authored the screenplay for Jane Eyre (1944) with John Houseman, and worked on the screenplay of Madame Curie (1943) without credit. Disney redirects here. ... Alice in Wonderland is a 1951 animated feature film produced by Walt Disney and originally premiered in London, England on July 26, 1951 by RKO Radio Pictures. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Point Counter Point, published in 1928, was Aldous Huxleys fourth novel. ... Eyeless in Gaza is a dense novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1936. ... Ape and Essence (by Aldous Huxley, published 1948) is not about apes, its a dystopia like Brave New World. ... Jane Austens novel Pride and Prejudice (1813) has been the subject of numerous television and film adaptations. ... Charlotte Brontës novel Jane Eyre (1847) has been the subject of numerous television and film adaptations. ... John Houseman (September 22, 1902 – October 31, 1988) was a Romanian-born actor and film producer. ... Madame Curie is a 1943 biographical film made by MGM. It was directed by Mervyn LeRoy and produced by Sidney Franklin from a screenplay by Paul Osborn, Paul H. Rameau and Aldous Huxley (uncredited), adapted from the biography by Eve Curie. ...


Director Ken Russell's 1971 film The Devils, starring Vanessa Redgrave and Oliver Reed, was adapted from Huxley's The Devils of Loudun. A made-for-television adaptation of Brave New World was made in 1990. Henry Kenneth Alfred Russell, known as Ken Russell (born July 3, 1927), is an English film director, particularly well-known for his films about famous composers and his controversial, often outrageous pioneering work in film. ... The Devils is a 1971 film directed by Ken Russell and starring Oliver Reed and Vanessa Redgrave, based on the 1952 book The Devils of Loudun by Aldous Huxley and the 1960 play The Devils by John Whiting, also based on Huxleys book. ... Vanessa Redgrave, CBE (born 30 January 1937) is an Academy Award winning English actress and member of the Redgrave family, one of the enduring theatrical dynasties. ... Robert Oliver Reed (February 13, 1938 – May 2, 1999) was an English actor known for his macho image on and off screen. ... The Devils Of Loudun (1952) is a novel by Aldous Huxley. ...


Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • On truth: "Great is truth, but still greater, from a practical point of view, is silence about truth. By simply not mentioning certain subjects... totalitarian propagandists have influenced opinion much more effectively than they could have by the most eloquent denunciations."
  • On psychological totalitarianism [1] (1959): "And it seems to me perfectly in the cards that there will be within the next generation or so a pharmacological method of making people love their servitude, and producing … a kind of painless concentration camp for entire societies, so that people will in fact have their liberties taken away from them but will rather enjoy it, because they will be distracted from any desire to rebel by propaganda, brainwashing, or brainwashing enhanced by pharmacological methods."
  • On social organizations: "One of the many reasons for the bewildering and tragic character of human existence is the fact that social organization is at once necessary and fatal. Men are forever creating such organizations for their own convenience and forever finding themselves the victims of their home-made monsters."
  • On heroin: "Who lives longer: the man who takes heroin for two years and dies, or the man who lives on roast beef, water, and potatoes till ninety-five? One passes his twenty-four months in eternity. All the years of the beef-eater are lived only in time."
  • On experience: "Experience is not what happens to a man; it is what a man does with what happens to him." – Texts and Pretexts, 1932
  • "After silence, that which comes nearest to expressing the inexpressible is music." Music at Night, 1931
  • "Liberty? Why it doesn't exist. There is no liberty in this world, just gilded cages." Antic Hay, 1923
  • "Democracy and freedom will be the theme of every broadcast and editorial - but democracy and freedom in a strictly Pickwickian sense." - Brave New World Revisited
  • On religion: "You never see animals going through the absurd and often horrible fooleries of magic and religion. . . . Dogs do not ritually urinate in the hope of persuading heaven to do the same and send down rain. Asses do not bray a liturgy to cloudless skies. Nor do cats attempt, by abstinence from cat's meat, to wheedle the feline spirits into benevolence. Only man behaves with such gratuitous folly. It is the price he has to pay for being intelligent but not, as yet, quite intelligent enough." - Point Counter Point

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ... This is the article about the novel by Aldous Huxley. ... Point Counter Point, published in 1928, was Aldous Huxleys fourth novel. ...

Bibliography

Novels
Short stories
Poetry
  • The Burning Wheel (1916)
  • Jonah (1917)
  • The Defeat of Youth (1918)
  • Leda (1920)
  • Arabia Infelix (1929)
  • The Cicadas (1931)
  • First Philosopher's Song
Travel writing
  • Along The Road (1925)
  • Jesting Pilate (1926) The author recounts his experiences travelling through six countries, offering his observations on their people, cultures and customs.
  • Beyond the Mexique Bay (1934)
Drama
  • Mortal Coils - A Play
  • The World of Light
  • The Discovery, Adapted from Francis Sheridan
Essay collections
  • On the Margin (1923)
  • Along the Road (1925)
  • Essays New and Old (1926)
  • Proper Studies (1927)
  • Do What You Will (1929)
  • Vulgarity in Literature (1930)
  • Music at Night (1931)
  • Texts and Pretexts (1932)
  • The Olive Tree (1936)
  • Words and their Meanings (1940)
  • The Art of Seeing (1942)
  • The Perennial Philosophy (1945)
  • Science, Liberty and Peace (1946)
  • Themes and Variations (1950)
  • Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow (1952)
  • The Doors of Perception (1954)
  • Heaven and Hell (1956)
  • Adonis and the Alphabet (1956)
  • Collected Essays (1958)
  • Brave New World Revisited (1958)
  • Literature and Science (1963)
Philosophy
Biography and nonfiction
Children's literature
  • The Crows of Pearblossom (1967)
  • The Travails and Tribulations of Geoffrey Peacock (1967)
Collections
  • Texts and Pretexts (1933)
  • Collected Short Stories (1957)
  • Moksha: Writings on Psychedelics and the Visionary Experience (1977)
  • The Human Situation: Lectures at Santa Barbara, 1959 (1977)

Crome Yellow is the first novel by British author Aldous Huxley. ... Antic Hay is a novel by Aldous Huxley, published in 1923. ... Those Barren Leaves is a satire by Aldous Huxley, published in 1925. ... Point Counter Point, published in 1928, was Aldous Huxleys fourth novel. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Eyeless in Gaza is a dense novel by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1936. ... After Many a Summer is a novel by Aldous Huxley. ... Ape and Essence (by Aldous Huxley, published 1948) is not about apes, its a dystopia like Brave New World. ... The Genius and the Goddess is a novel by Aldous Huxley that was first published in 1955. ... Limbo (1920), Aldous Huxleys first collection of short fiction, consists of six short stories and a play. ... Mortal Coils is a collection of five short fictional pieces written by Aldous Huxley in 1922. ... Little Mexican (titled Young Archimedes in the U.S.) (1924), Aldous Huxleys third collection of short fiction, consists of the following six short stories: Uncle Spencer Little Mexican Hubert and Minnie Fard The Portrait Young Archimedes This short story-related article is a stub. ... Two or Three Graces (1926), Aldous Huxleys fourth collection of short fiction, consists of the following four short pieces: Two or Three Graces Half Holiday The Monocle Fairy Godmother This short story-related article is a stub. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... The Collected Short Stories of Aldous Huxley (1957) consists of twenty stories compiled from five of Huxleys earlier collections and one from his novel Crome Yellow. ... Leda, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia. ... This article can be confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ... The Art of Seeing is a 1942 book by Aldous Huxley, which contains an explanation of the controversial Bates Method of eye exercises and an anecdotal account of how the author applied its principles to allegedly improve his own poor eyesight. ... Perennial Philosophy is a term that is often used as a synonym for Sanatana Dharma (Sanskrit for Eternal or Perennial Truth). It was used by Leibniz to designate the common, eternal philosophy that underlies all religious movements, in particular the mystical streams within religions. ... The Doors of Perception is a 1954 book by Aldous Huxley detailing his experiences when taking mescaline. ... Heaven and Hell is a philosophical work by Aldous Huxley, published in 1956. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ends and Means (an Enquiry Into the Nature of Ideals and Into the Methods Employed for Their Realization) is a book of essays written by Aldous Huxley and published in 1937. ... Perennial Philosophy is a term that is often used as a synonym for Sanatana Dharma (Sanskrit for Eternal or Perennial Truth). It was used by Leibniz to designate the common, eternal philosophy that underlies all religious movements, in particular the mystical streams within religions. ... The Devils Of Loudun (1952) is a novel by Aldous Huxley. ... This is the title of a book by Aldous Huxley, possibly subtitled A Study in Religion and Politics, published 1941, a biography of French monk known as Père Joseph or François Joseph du Tremblay, adviser to Cardinal de Richelieu. ... The Collected Short Stories of Aldous Huxley (1957) consists of twenty stories compiled from five of Huxleys earlier collections and one from his novel Crome Yellow. ...

References

  1. ^ Thody, Philip (1973). Huxley: A Biographical Introduction. Scribner. 
  2. ^ Huxley, Aldous (1939). "biography and bibliography (appendix)", After Many A Summer Dies The Swan (1st Perennial Classic Ed.). Harper & Row, Publishers, 243. 
  3. ^ Crick, Bernard (1992). George Orwell: A Life. Penguin Books. 
  4. ^ Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Reprint: Courier Dover. 
  5. ^ Smith, Grover (1969). Letters of Aldous Huxley. Chatto & Windus. 
  6. ^ Author, NIMH Epidemiologist Matthew Huxley Dies at 84 (washingtonpost.com)
  7. ^ Huxley, Aldous (2003). "British Literature (1918-1945)", Words Words Words. La Spiga Languages, 217-218. 
  8. ^ The Times
  9. ^ Bradshaw, David (1993). "Introduction", Aldous Huxley's "Those Barren Leaves" (Vintage Classics Edn., 2005). Vintage, Random House, 20 Vauxhall Brigade Road, London, xii. 

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Aldous Huxley
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Aldous Huxley
Persondata
NAME Huxley, Aldous
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Writer; author
DATE OF BIRTH July 26, 1894(1894-07-26)
PLACE OF BIRTH Surrey, England
DATE OF DEATH November 22, 1963
PLACE OF DEATH Los Angeles, California
Ends and Means (an Enquiry Into the Nature of Ideals and Into the Methods Employed for Their Realization) is a book of essays written by Aldous Huxley and published in 1937. ... Aldous Huxley Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was a British writer who emigrated to the United States. ... This is the title of a book by Aldous Huxley, possibly subtitled A Study in Religion and Politics, published 1941, a biography of French monk known as Père Joseph or François Joseph du Tremblay, adviser to Cardinal de Richelieu. ... The Devils Of Loudun (1952) is a novel by Aldous Huxley. ... Perennial Philosophy is a term that is often used as a synonym for Sanatana Dharma (Sanskrit for Eternal or Perennial Truth). It was used by Leibniz to designate the common, eternal philosophy that underlies all religious movements, in particular the mystical streams within religions. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Erowid Aldous Huxley Vault (275 words)
Aldous Huxley was a novelist and essayist, born in Godalming, Surrey, England, the grandson of T.H. Huxley.
In May 1953, Huxley was introduced to mescaline by Humphry Osmond, an experience he described in his book The Doors of Perception.
Huxley had a great interest in the process of death and dying as well as in the mental states achieved through psychedelic drugs.
Aldous Huxley (200 words)
Huxley's original intent was to pursue medicine, however an eye ailment he acquired at age 16 prevented that pursuit and while still a student at Oxford, turned to literature, publishing two volumes of poetry.
Huxley was basically a moral philosopher, using his novels to put into the mainstream his ideas.
Huxley was dead-set against conformity and renounced the mainstream attitudes of his era while his tremendous intellect and and palpability of his writing make him a most memorable voice of the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m