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Encyclopedia > Aldosterone
Aldosterone
IUPAC name a
Identifiers
CAS number [52-39-1]
MeSH Aldosterone
SMILES OCC(=O)[C@H]4CC[C@@H]2[C@@]4
(C[C@H](O)[C@@H]1C3[C@H](C)CC
(=O)/C=C3/CC[C@H]12)C=O
Properties
Molecular formula C21H28O5
Molar mass 360,44 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Aldosterone, is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland, and acts on the kidney nephron to conserve sodium, secrete potassium,increase water retention, and increase blood pressure. It is reduced in Addison's disease and increased in Conn syndrome. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Addisons disease(also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). ... Conns syndrome is overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands. ...


It was first isolated by Simpson and Tait in 1953.[1]

Contents

Synthesis

The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Most steroidogenic reactions are catalysed by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family. They are located within the mitochondria and require adrenodoxin as a cofactor (except 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase). Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... Simplified version of the steroid synthesis pathway with the intermediates isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and squalene shown. ... Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport or catalyse reductive/oxidative reactions. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated fd) are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions. ... 21-Hydroxylase (or Steroid 21-β-Monooxygenase) is an enzyme which is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol. ... CYP17A1 (also known as 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme which acts upon pregnenolone and progesterone to add a hydroxyl (-OH) group at carbon 17 of the steroid D ring (the hydroxylase activity), or acts upon 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone to split the side chain...


Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is either mediated by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they share 11β-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation functions). But aldosterone synthase is also able to perform a 18-oxidation. Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex; 11β-hydroxylase is found in the zona fasciculata and reticularis. Corticosterone is a 21 carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. ... Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona fasciculata. ... Corticosterone is a 21 carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. ... Aldosterone synthase (or 18-hydroxylase) is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme involved in the generation of aldosterone. ... Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... The innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis sits beneath the zona fasciculata and atop the adrenal medulla. ...

Steroidogenesis, showing aldosterone synthesis at top.

Note: aldosterone synthase is absent in other sections of the adrenal gland. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (804 × 1044 pixel, file size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/gif)self created I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (804 × 1044 pixel, file size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/gif)self created I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... Steroidogenesis is the process of steroid production in living organism. ... Aldosterone synthase (or 18-hydroxylase) is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme involved in the generation of aldosterone. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines...


Stimulation

Aldosterone synthesis is stimulated by several factors:

  • by increase in the plasma concentration of Angiotensin III, a metabolite of Angiotensin II.
  • The ACTH stimulation test is sometimes used to stimulate the production of aldosterone along with cortisol to determine if primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency is present.
  • by the stretch receptors located in the atria of the heart. If decreased blood pressure is detected, the adrenal gland is stimulated by these stretch receptors to release aldosterone, which increases sodium reabsorption from the urine, sweat and the gut. This causes increased osmolarity in the extracellular fluid which will eventually return blood pressure toward normal.

The secretion of aldosterone has a diurnal rhythm.[2] Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands or colloquially as kidney hats) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of... Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in excitable cells (neurons, glial cells, muscle cells, etc. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Angiotensinogen, angiotensin I and angiotensin II are peptides involved in maintenance of blood volume and pressure. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... In medicine, adrenal insufficiency (or hypocortisolism) is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. ... For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. ... Stretch receptor are mechanoreceptors responsive to distenstion. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) refers to a chamber or space. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Function

Aldosterone is the primary of several endogenous members of the class of mineralocorticoids in human. Deoxycorticosterone is another important member of this class. At the late distal tubule & collecting duct, aldosterone has two main actions: Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... Deoxycorticosterone Deoxycorticosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that posses mineralocorticoid activity and acts as a precursor to aldosterone. ... Kidney nephron The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system. ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of: The connecting tubule The cortical collecting duct The medullary collecting duct Categories: Urinary system ...

  1. Acting on mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) on principal cells in the collecting duct of the kidney nephron, it increases the permeability of their apical (luminal) membrane to potassium and sodium and activates their basolateral Na+/K+ pumps, stimulating ATP hydrolysis leading to phosphorylation of the pump and a conformational change in the pump exposes the Na+ ions to the outside. The phosphorylated form of the pump has a low affinity for Na+ ions, hence reabsorbing sodium (Na+) ions and water into the blood, and secreting potassium (K+) ions into the urine. (Chlorine anions are also reabsorbed in conjunction with sodium cations to maintain the system's electrochemical balance.)
  2. Aldosterone stimulates H+ secretion by intercalated cells in the collecting duct, regulating plasma bicarbonate (HCO3) levels and its acid/base balance.[3]
  3. Aldosterone may act on the central nervous system via the posterior pituitary gland to release vasopressin (ADH) which serves to conserve water by direct actions on renal tubular resorption.

Aldosterone is responsible for the reabsorption of about 2% of filtered sodium in the kidneys, which is nearly equal to the entire sodium content in human blood under normal GFR (glomerular filtration rate).[4] The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, MLR, MCR), also aldosterone receptor, is officially labelled nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) and is a receptor with high affinity for mineralocorticoids. ... Alpha intercalated cell The apical membrane of a polarized cell is the part of the plasma membrane that forms its lumenal surface, distinct from the basolateral membrane. ... The basolateral membrane of an epithelial cell is the part of the plasma membrane that forms its basal and lateral (not apical) surfaces. ... Simplified Diagram of the sodium pump Na+/K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+/K+ pump or Na+/K+ exchanger) is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ...


Aldosterone, most probably acting through mineralocorticoid receptors, may positively influence neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. [5]


Location of receptors

Unlike neuroreceptors, classic steroid receptors are intracellularly located. The aldosterone/MR receptor complex binds on the DNA to specific hormone response element, which leads to gene specific transcription. In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Hormone response elements (HRE) are located on DNA and act as receptors for steroid hormone receptor complexes. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ...


Some of the transcribed genes are crucial for transepithelial sodium transport, including the three subunits of the epithelial sodium channel, the Na+/K+ pumps and their regulatory proteins serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase, and channel-inducing factor respectively. In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a single protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... Sodium channels (also known as voltage-gated sodium channels) are integral membrane proteins that are localized in and conduct sodium ions (Na+) through a cells plasma membrane. ... Simplified Diagram of the sodium pump Na+/K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+/K+ pump or Na+/K+ exchanger) is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Serum and glucocorticoid induced kinase is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase which interacts with the mineralocorticoid receptor. ... Channel-inducing factor is a regulatory protein for aldosterone receptors. ...


Control of aldosterone release from the Adrenal Cortex

  • The role of the renin-angiotensin system:

Angiotensin is involved in regulating aldosterone and is the core regulation.[6] Angiotensin II acts synergistically with potassium, and the potassium feedback is virtually inoperative when no angiotensin II is present.[7] A small portion of the regulation resulting from angiotensin II must take place indirectly from decreased blood flow through the liver due to constriction of capillaries.[8] When the blood flow decreases so does the destruction of aldosterone by liver enzymes. Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. ...

The aldosterone production is also affected to one extent or another by nervous control which integrates the inverse of carotid artery pressure,[9] pain, posture,[10] and probably emotion (anxiety, fear, and hostility) [11] (including surgical stress).[12] Anxiety increases aldosterone,[13] which must have evolved because of the time delay involved in migration of aldosterone into the cell nucleus.[14] Thus, there is an advantage to an animal anticipating a future need from interaction with a predator since too high a serum content of potassium has very adverse effects on nervous transmission. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one half of the autonomic nervous system; the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is the other. ...

Pressure in the carotid artery decreases aldosterone [15]*The role of the juxtaglomerular apparatus: Baroreceptors (or baroceptors) in the human body detect the pressure of blood flowing though them, and can send messages to the central nervous system to increase or decrease total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. ... The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a renal structure consisting of the macula densa, mesangial cells, and juxtaglomerular cells. ...

The amount of aldosterone secreted is a direct function of the serum potassium [16] [17] as probably determined by sensors in the carotid artery.[18][19] General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...

  • The plasma concentration of sodium:

Aldosterone is a function of the inverse of the sodium intake as sensed via osmotic pressure.[20] The slope of the response of aldosterone to serum potassium is almost independent of sodium intake.[21] Aldosterone is much increased at low sodium intakes, but the rate of increase of plasma aldosterone as potassium rises in the serum is not much lower at high sodium intakes than it is at low. Thus, the potassium is strongly regulated at all sodium intakes by aldosterone when the supply of potassium is adequate, which it usually is in primitive diets. For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ...

  • Miscellaneous regulation:

ACTH, a pituitary peptide, also has some stimulating effect on aldosterone probably by stimulating DOC formation which is a precursor of aldosterone.[22] Aldosterone is increased by blood loss,[23] pregnancy,[24] and possibly by other circumstances such as physical exertion, endotoxin shock, and burns.[25]

  • Aldosterone feedback:

Feedback by aldosterone concentration itself is of a non morphological character (that is other than changes in the cells' number or structure) and is poor so the electrolyte feedbacks predominate short term.[26]


Additional images

See also

Aldosterone antagonist refers to drugs which antagonise the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors. ...

References

  1. ^ Williams JS, Williams GH. 50th anniversary of aldosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun;88(6):2364-72. Full text. PMID 12788829.
  2. ^ Hurwitz S, Cohen R, & Williams GH. Diurnal variation of aldosterone and plasma renin activity: timing relation to melatonin and cortisol and consistency after prolonged bed rest. 2004 J Appl Physiol 96: 1406-1414. Full Text
  3. ^ Brenner & Rector's The Kidney, 7th ed. Saunders, 2004.
  4. ^ Sherwood, L. Human Physiology, from Cells to Systems, 4th Ed., Brooks/Cole, 2001
  5. ^ Fischer AK, von Rosenstiel P, Fuchs E, Goula D, Almeida OF, Czéh B, 2002 Aug
  6. ^ Williams GH Dluhy RG 1972 Am. J. Med. 53; 595.
  7. ^ Pratt JH 1982 Angiotensin II in potassium mediated stimulation of aldosterone secretion in the dog. Journal of Clin. Invest. 70; 667.
  8. ^ Messerli PT Wojciech N Masanobu H Genest J Boucher R Kuchel O Rojoortega JM 1977 Effects of angiotensin II on steroid metabolism and hepatic blood flow in man. Circulation Research 40; 204-207.
  9. ^ Gann DS Mills IH Bartter 1960 On the hemodynamic parameter mediating increase in aldosterone secretion in the dog. Fed. Proceedings 19; 605-610.
  10. ^ Farrell G 1958 Regulation of aldosterone secretion. Phys. Rev. 38; 709.
  11. ^ Venning EH Dyrenfurthen JC Beck J 1957 Effect of anxiety upon aldosterone excretion in man. J.Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 17;10.
  12. ^ Elman, R., et al. 1952 Intracellular and Extracellular Potassium Deficits in Surgical Patients. Ann. Surgery 136; 111.
  13. ^ Venning EH Dyrenfurthen JC Beck J 1957 Effect of anxiety upon aldosterone excretion in man. J.Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 17;10.
  14. ^ Sharp GUG Leaf A 1966 in; Recent Progress in Hormone Research.(Pincus G, ed.
  15. ^ Gann DS Mills IH Bartter 1960 On the hemodynamic parameter mediating increase in aldosterone secretion in the dog. Fed. Proceedings 19; 605-610.
  16. ^ Bauer JH & Gauntner WC 1974 Effect of potassium chloride on plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone during sodium restriction in normal man. Kidney International 15; 286.
  17. ^ Linas SL Peterson LN Anderson RJ Aisenbrey GA Simon FR Berl T 1979 Mechanism of renal potassium conservation in the rat. Kidney International 15; 601-611.
  18. ^ Gann DS Mills IH Bartter 1960 On the hemodynamic parameter mediating increase in aldosterone secretion in the dog. Fed. Proceedings 19; 605-610.
  19. ^ Gann DS Cruz JF Casper AGT Bartter FC 1962 Mechanism by which potassium increases aldosterone secretion in the dog. American Journal Phys. 202; 991.
  20. ^ Schneider EG Radke KJ Ulderich DA Taylor RE 1985 Effect of osmolality on aldosterone secretion. Endocrinology 116; 1621-1626.
  21. ^ Dluhy RG Axelrod L Underwood RH & Williams GH 1972 Journal of Clinical Investigation 51; 1950.
  22. ^ Brown RD & Strott CA Liddle GW 1972 Site of stimulation of aldosterone biosynthesis by angiotensin and potassium. Journal of Clinical Investigation 51; 1413-1418.
  23. ^ Ruch TC Fulton JF 1960 Medical Physiology and Biophysics. W.B. Saunders and Co., Phijl & London. On p1099.
  24. ^ Farrell G 1958 Regulation of aldosterone secretion. Phys. Rev. 38; 709.
  25. ^ Glaz E & Vecsei P 1971 Aldosterone, Pergamon Press, NY

    +Rauschkolb EW & Farrell GL 1956 Evidence for diencephatic regulation of aldosterone secretion. Endocrinology 59; 526-531, on o529. Bed rest is a doctors prescription to spend a longer period of time in bed. ...

  26. ^ Glaz E & Vecsei P 1971 Aldosterone, Pergamon Press, NY
The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF or GHRF), is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The Alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones is a peptide formed by gene found on chromosome 6. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ... Lipotropin is a pituitary hormone It comes in two forms: gamma lipotropin (γ-LPH) beta lipotropin (β-LPH) It is derived from proopiomelanocortin. ... It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis for short) is part of the endocrine system responsible in part for the regulation of metabolism. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot na Refseq Location Pubmed search Parathyroid hormone (PTH), or parathormone, is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Human placental lactogen (HPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone. ... Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin family of hormones. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Grays Fig. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Adiponectin (also referred to as Acrp30, apM1) is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. ... Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Osteocalcin is a protein found in bone and dentin; that plays a role in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is a protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is exactly as it states; a neurotrophic factor usually derived in the brain. ... Neurotrophin-3, or NT-3 is a neurotrophic factor, in the NGF (Nerve Growth Factor)-family of neurotrophins. ... The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... This illustration demonstrates the normal kidney physiology. ... Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. ... This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ... In the physiology of the kidney, renal blood flow (RBF) is the volume of blood delivered to the kidney per unit time. ... In biological terms, Ultrafiltration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the renal corpuscle or Bowmans capsule in the kidneys. ... Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism used to transfer some component of a fluid from one flowing current of fluid to another across a permeable barrier between them. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... In medicine, the clearance, also renal clearance or renal plasma clearance (when referring to the function of the kidney), of a substance is the inverse of the time constant that describes its removal rate from the body divided by its volume of distribution (or total body water). ... Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ... The renal clearance ratio is found with the following equation: X is the analyte substance Cx is the renal plasma clearance of X Cin is the renal plasma clearance of inulin. ... For the Scottish river see: Urr Water The urea reduction ratio (URR), is a dimensionless number used to quantify hemodialysis treatment adequacy. ... In medicine, Kt/V is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy. ... Standardized Kt/V, also std Kt/V, is a way of measuring (renal) dialysis adequacy. ... Hemodialysis product (HDP) - is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy. ... Acid-base physiology is the study of the acids, bases and their reactions in the body. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Darrow Yannet diagram is a schematic used in physiology to identify how the volumes of extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid alter in response to conditions such as adrenal insufficiency and SIADH. It was developed in 1935. ... A significant fraction of the human body is water. ... Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. ... In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ... The cytosol (cf. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Transcellular fluid is the portion of total body water contained within epithelial lined spaces. ... In human physiology, the base excess (see: base) excess refers to the amount of acid required to return the blood pH of an individual to the normal value. ... In acid base physiology, the Davenport Diagram is a graphical tool, developed by Horace Davenport, that allows a clinician or investigator to describe blood bicarbonate concentrations and blood pH following a respiratory and/or metabolic acid-base disturbance. ... The anion gap is used to aid in the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis. ... Arterial blood gas measurement is a blood test that is performed to determine the concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, as well as the pH, in the blood. ... The Bicarbonate buffering system is the most important buffer for mantaining a relatively constant pH in the plasma. ... Respiratory compensation is a mechanism by which plasma pH can be altered by varying the respiratory rate. ... Renal compensation is a mechanism by which the kidneys can regulate the plasma pH. It is slower than respiratory compensation, but has a greater ability to restore normal values. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... The ‘’’glucocorticoid receptor’’’ (GR) is a ligand-activated intracytoplasmatic transcription factor that interacts with high affinity to cortisol and other glucocorticoids. ... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, MLR, MCR), also aldosterone receptor, is officially labelled nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) and is a receptor with high affinity for mineralocorticoids. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A07A Intestinal anti-infectives A07AA Antibiotics A07AA01 Neomycin A07AA02 Nystatin A07AA03 Natamycin A07AA04 Streptomycin A07AA05 Polymyxin B A07AA06 Paromomycin A07AA07 Amphotericin B A07AA08 Kanamycin A07AA09 Vancomycin A07AA10 Colistin A07AA11 Rifaximin A07AA51 Neomycin, combinations A07AA54 Streptomycin, combinations... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Cortisone (IPA:ˈkôrtəˌsōn) is a steroid hormone. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Desoxycorticosterone (11-deoxycorticosterone) is a mineralocorticoid secreted from Zona reticularis and Zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland. ... Alclometasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid steroid, available in cream or ointment form, for topical dermatologic use. ... Amcinonide is a corticosteroid. ... Beclometasone dipropionate (INN, Beclomethasone dipropionate (BAN) is a corticosteroid drug. ... Betamethasone dipropionate is a corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive abilities, used especially where water retention is undesirable. ... Budesonide is a glucocorticoid steroid for the treatment of asthma, non-infectious rhinitis (including hay fever and other allergies), and for treatment and prevention of nasal polyposis. ... Ciclesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat obstructive airway diseases. ... Clobetasol Propionate comes in ointment and emollient cream presentations. ... Clobetasone is a corticosteroid used in dermatology and ophthalmology. ... Clocortolone (or clocortolone pivalate) is a corticosteroid. ... Cloprednol is a glucocorticoid. ... Cortivazol is a glucocorticoid. ... Deflazacort is a glucocorticoid. ... Deoxycorticosterone Deoxycorticosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that posses mineralocorticoid activity and acts as a precursor to aldosterone. ... Desonide is an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid typically used topically. ... Topicort is a medication belonging to the family of medications known as topical corticosteroids. ... Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid hormones. ... Diflorasone is a corticosteroid. ... Diflucortolone is a corticosteroid. ... Difluprednate is a corticosteroid. ... Fluclorolone is a corticosteroid. ... Fludrocortisone acetate is a synthetic corticosteroid with moderate glucocorticoid potency and much greater mineralocorticoid potency. ... Fludroxycortide (or Flurandrenolone or Flurandrenolide ) is a synthetic steroid and is used as an anti-inflammatory treatment for use on skin irritations. ... Flumethasone (or flumetasone) is a corticosteroid. ... Flunisolide is a corticosteroid often prescribed as treatment for allergic rhinitis. ... Fluocinolone acetonide is a corticosteroid primarily used in dermatology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fluocortin is a corticosteroid. ... Fluocortolone is a glucocorticoid used in the treatment of several conditions, including hemorrhoids. ... Fluorometholone is a corticosteroid, most often used after Laser Eye Surgery. ... Fluperolone acetate is a corticosteroid. ... Fluprednidene acetate is a corticosteroid. ... Fluticasone proprionate is a glucocorticoid often prescribed as treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis. ... Formocortal is a corticosteroid used in ophthalmology. ... Halcinonide is a corticosteroid. ... Halometasone is a corticosteroid. ... Hydrocortisone aceponate is a corticosteroid. ... Hydrocortisone buteprate (or hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate) is a corticosteroid. ... Steroid skeleton. ... Loteprednol (or loteprednol etabonate) is a corticosteroid used in ophthalmology. ... Medrysone is a corticosteroid used in ophthalmology. ... Meprednisone is a glucocorticoid. ... Methylprednisolone (molecular weight 374. ... Methylprednisolone aceponate is a corticosteroid. ... Mometasone furoate (also referred to as Mometasone) is a moderately potent glucocorticoid steroid used in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders (such as eczema and psoriasis), allergic rhinitis (such as hay fever), and asthma for patients unresponsive to less potent corticosteroids. ... Paramethasone is a fluorinated glucocorticoid used as an anti-inflammatory. ... Prednicarbate is a corticosteroid. ... Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally but can be delivered by intramuscular injection and can be used for a great number of different conditions. ... Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone. ... Prednylidene is a glucocorticoid for systemic use. ... Rimexolone (Vexol®) is a corticosteroid, often used in eye drops to treat inflammation in the eye. ... Tixocortol is a corticosteroid used as a intestinal anti-inflammatory and decongestant. ... Triamcinolone (trade names Kenalog, Aristocort, Nasacort, Tri-Nasal, Triderm, Azmacort, Trilone, Volon A, Tristoject, Fougera;) is a synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream. ... Ulobetasol (or halobetasol) is a corticosteroid. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Aldosterone (534 words)
Aldosterone is a hormone released by the adrenal glands.
Aldosterone is the main sodium-retaining hormone from the adrenal gland.
Frequently, blood aldosterone levels are combined with other blood tests (plasma renin activity) or provocative tests (captopril test, intravenous saline infusion test or ACTH infusion test) in order to diagnosis over- or under-production of the hormone.
Endotext.com - Adrenal Physiology And Diseases, Aldosterone Excess (5199 words)
Abnormal overproduction of aldosterone, due to either primary or secondary disorders, is prevalent in the general population, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (also known as familial hyperaldosteronism type I) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a chimeric duplication whereby the 5’-promotor region of the 11 B-hydroxylase gene (regulated by ACTH) is fused to the coding sequences of the aldosterone synthase gene (29).
Aldosterone excretion greater than 39 nmol/d (14 ug/d), in the presence of a urinary sodium excretion greater than 200 mmol per 24 hour, is 96% sensitive and 93% specific for the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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