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Encyclopedia > Aldohexose

An aldohexose is a hexose with an aldehyde group on one end. A hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms having the chemical formula C6H12O6. ... An aldehyde. ...


The aldohexoses have four chiral centres for a total of 16 possible aldohexose stereoisomers (24). Of these, only three commonly occur in nature: D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. The D/L configuration is based on the orientation of the hydroxyl at position 3, and does not refer to the direction of optical activity. A stereocenter, or stereogenic centre, is any atom in a molecule bearing groups such that an interchanging of any two groups leads to a stereoisomer [1]. In organic chemistry this usually refers to a carbon, phosphorus or sulfur atom, though it is also possible for other atoms to be stereocenters... Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Mannose is a sugar, one of the hexose series of carbohydrates. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... When polarized light is passed through a substance containing chiral molecules (or nonchiral molecules arranged asymmetrically), the direction of polarization can be changed. ...


There are eight D-aldohexoses:

 CH=O CH=O CH=O CH=O | | | | HC-OH HO-CH HC-OH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HO-CH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH | | | | CH2-OH CH2-OH CH2-OH CH2-OH D-Allose D-Altrose D-Glucose D-Mannose 
 CH=O CH=O CH=O CH=O | | | | HC-OH HO-CH HC-OH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HO-CH HO-CH | | | | HO-CH HO-CH HO-CH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH | | | | CH2-OH CH2-OH CH2-OH CH2-OH D-Gulose D-Idose D-Galactose D-Talose 

Allose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Altrose is an aldohexose sugar. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Mannose is a sugar, one of the hexose series of carbohydrates. ... Gulose is an aldohexose sugar. ... L-Idose is a 6 carbon monosaccharide(a hexose) It has an aldehyde group and is an aldose. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Talose is an aldohexose sugar. ...

Deoxyaldohexoses :)

Aldohexoses can have one or more of their hydroxyl groups replaced by hydrogens to form deoxyaldohexoses. The following are well known cases of such compounds :

  • L-Fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose)
  • L-Rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose)
  • D-Quinovose (6-deoxy-D-glucose)
    Quinovose is found as part of the sulfolipid SQDG.
  • L-Pneumose (6-deoxy-L-talose)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Glucose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1205 words)
Glucose contains six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose.
The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal.
In this ring, each carbon is linked to an hydroxyl side group with the exception of the fifth atom, which links to a sixth carbon atom outside the ring, forming a CH OH group.
Carbohydrate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1147 words)
For instance, glucose is an aldohexose, fructose a ketohexose, and ribose an aldopentose.
Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is a stereogenic centre, allowing a number of different enantiomers and stereoisomers for carbohydrates with the same basic structure.
For instance, galactose is an aldohexose but has different properties from glucose because the atoms are arranged differently.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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