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Encyclopedia > Alderney
Alderney
Flag of Alderney Coat of Arms of Alderney
Flag Coat of Arms
Capital St Anne
Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK
Official language(s) English
Head of Government Sir Norman Browse
Population 2,400
Currency Pound sterling (GBP). Local coinage is issued, including the pound note. See Alderney pound.
Alderney is also a suburb of Poole in Dorset, England, and a breed of cattle

Alderney (French: Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeur'gny) is the most northerly of the Channel Islands and a British crown dependency. It is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. It is 3 miles (5 km) long and 1.5 miles (2.5 km) wide making it the third largest island of the Channel Islands. It is around 10 miles (16 km) to the west of La Hague in the Cotentin Peninsula, Normandy, in France, 20 miles (32 km) to the north-east of Guernsey and 60 miles (97 km) from the south coast of England. It is the closest of the Channel Islands to France as well as being the closest to England. It is separated from Cap de la Hague by the dangerous Race of Alderney (Le Raz). Image File history File links Flag_of_Alderney. ... Image File history File links Alderney_coat_of_arms. ... Flag of Alderney The Flag of Alderney was granted on December 20, 1993. ... Locator map for Guernsey. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... St Anne is clearly marked on Alderney in the North East. ... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies of the United Kingdom. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, the British Indian Ocean Territory[1] Inflation 2. ... The pound is the currency used in Guernsey. ... Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination, situated on the shores of the English Channel, in the ceremonial county of Dorset in southern England. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Alderney is a breed of cattle from the British Channel Island of Alderney. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... This article is about the British dependencies, for the islands off Southern California, please see Channel Islands of California. ... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies of the United Kingdom. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... La Hague is a region on the tip of the Cotentin peninsula in Normandy, France. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


The island has a population of 2400 people, and they are traditionally nicknamed lapins after the number of rabbits seen in the island. The only parish of Alderney is the parish of St Anne, which doubles as the main town, and features a pretty church and cobbled high street. There are a primary school, a secondary school, a post office, hotels, restaurants, banks and shops. Alderney has a somewhat ageing population, being popular with people wanting somewhere quiet to retire. However contrary to common belief Alderney also has a vibrant and lively nightlife which is enjoyed by many especially in the summer. Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... St Anne is clearly marked on Alderney in the North East. ...

Contents

History

Alderney shares a history with the other Channel Islands, becoming an island in the Neolithic period as the waters of the Channel rose.

Panorama of Braye Beach
Panorama of Braye Beach

The etymology of the Island's name is obscure. It is known in Latin as Riduna (giving the rarely-used adjective Ridunian for inhabitants of Alderney), but as with the names of the all the Channel Islands in the Roman period there is a degree of confusion. Riduna may be the original name of Tatihou, while Alderney is conjectured to be identified with Sarmia. Alderney/Aurigny is variously supposed to be a Germanic or Celtic name. It may be a corruption of Adreni or Alrene, which is probably derived from an Old Norse word meaning "island near the coast". Alternatively it may derive from three Norse elements: alda (swelling wave, roller), renna (strong current, race) and oy or ey (island). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2944x1296, 1360 KB) I took this 80 degree panarama of braye beach in early August 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2944x1296, 1360 KB) I took this 80 degree panarama of braye beach in early August 2006. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Tatihou is an island of Normandy in France with an area of 290,000 square metres. ...


After choosing independence from France and loyalty to the English monarch in his role as the Duke of Normandy, in 1204, Alderney developed slowly and was not much involved with the rest of the world. That is, however, until the British government decided to undertake massive fortifications in the 19th century and to create a strategic harbour to deter attacks from France. These fortifications were presciently described by William Ewart Gladstone as "a monument of human folly, useless to us ... but perhaps not absolutely useless to a possible enemy, with whom we may at some period have to deal, and who may possibly be able to extract some profit in the way of shelter and accommodation from the ruins." An influx of English and Irish labourers, plus the sizable British garrison stationed in the island, led to rapid anglicization. The harbour was never completed - the remaining breakwater (designed by James Walker) is one of the island's landmarks, and is longer than any breakwater in the UK. Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... James Walker (September 14, 1781-October 8, 1862) was an influential Scottish civil engineer of the first half of the 19th century. ...


The last of the hereditary Governors, John Le Mesurier, resigned his patent to the Crown in 1825 since when authority has been exercised by the States of Alderney (as amended by the constitutional settlement of 1948).


The island was occupied by German forces during World War II. Before the Nazi Germany troops landed in June 1940, almost the entire Alderney population evacuated, leaving only 6 of the population. The Germans built four concentration camps on the island, dependent on Neuengamme. Each camp was named after one of the Frisian Islands and included Nordeney located at Saye, Borkum at Platte Saline, Sylt near the old telegraph tower at La Foulère, and Heligoland. Each camp was operated by the Nazi Organisation Todt and used forced labour to build bunkers, gun emplacements, air-raid shelters, and concrete fortifications. In 1942, the Norderney camp, containing Russian and Polish POWs, and Sylt camp, holding Jews, were placed under the control of the SS Haupsturmführer Max List. Over 700 of the inmates are said to have lost their lives before the camps were closed and the remaining inmates transferred to Germany in 1944. The German officer left in charge of the facilities, Kommandant Oberst Schwalm, burned the camps to the ground and destroyed all records connected with their use before the island was liberated by British forces on May 16, 1945. The German garrison on Alderney surrendered a week after the other Channel Islands, and was one of the last garrisons to surrender in Europe. The population was unable to start returning until December 1945. As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Neuengamme was a concentration camp near Hamburg, Germany during World War 2 [1]. The site is one of the few concentration camps in Germany where most of the buildings have been conserved and serves as a memorial today. ... Frisian Islands (without the islands in the german district Dithmarschen and in Denmark) The Frisian Islands form an archipelago in northwestern Europe that spreads across the coasts of three countries, from west to east, The Netherlands and Germany. ... Lager Nordeney was one of the four Nazi camps on the island of Alderney in the Channel Islands. ... Lager Borkum was one of the four Nazi labour camps on Alderney in the Channel islands. ... Lager Sylt was the name of the concentration camp on Alderney in the Channel Islands between March 1943 and June 1944. ... Lager Helgoland was one of the four Nazi labour camps in Alderney in the Channel Islands. ... Organisation Todt Flag Organisation Todt (OT) was a Nazi construction and engineering group during the years of the Third Reich, which enslaved over 1. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

Picture overlooking Braye Harbour
Picture overlooking Braye Harbour

For two years after the end of World War II, Alderney was operated as a communal farm. Craftsmen were paid by their employers, while others were paid by the local government out of the profit from the sales of farm produce. Remaining profits were put aside to repay the British Government for repairing and rebuilding the island. Resentment from the local population towards being unable to control their own land acted as a catalyst for the United Kingdom Home Office to set up an enquiry that led to the "Government of Alderney Law 1948", which came into force on 1 January 1949. The law organised the make up and election of the States of Alderney, the justice system and, for the first time in Alderney, the imposition of taxes. Due to the small population of Alderney, it was believed that the island could not be self-sufficient in running the airport and the harbour, as well as in providing services that would match those of the United Kingdom. The taxes were therefore collected into the general Bailiwick of Guernsey revenue funds (at the same rate as Guernsey) and administered by the States of Guernsey. Guernsey became responsible for providing many governmental functions and services. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (6400x1264, 2818 KB) Braye Harbour. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (6400x1264, 2818 KB) Braye Harbour. ... Braye Harbour is the main harbour of Alderney in the Channel Islands, a British dependency, not in the UK. It has one of the longest harbour walls in Europe. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


The 20th century saw a lot of change in Alderney, from the building of the airport in the late 1930s to the death of the last speakers of the island's language (Auregnais, a dialect of Norman language). The economy has gone from depending largely on agriculture to earning money from the tourism and finance industries. Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Tourists on Oʻahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ...


Politics

The States of Alderney is the legislature of the island, and sends two representatives to the States of Guernsey as well. The origin of the States is unknown, but has operated from the mediaeval period. The word States-General, or Estates-General, refers in English to : the Etats-Généraux of France before the French Revolution the Staten-Generaal of the United Provinces and present-day Netherlands. ... A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The States of Guernsey (French: États de Guernesey) is the parliament of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. ...


The States of Alderney consists of the President, directly elected every 4 years, and 10 States Members, half elected every 2 years for a 4 year mandate. The President of Alderney is Sir Norman Browse (since 2002). The whole island is a single constituency.


Until the reform of 1948, the States of Alderney consisted of:

  • Lieutenant-Governor of Guernsey
  • the Judge (appointed by the Crown, equivalent of the Bailiff in Guernsey and Jersey)
  • 6 Jurats (elected by the voters)
  • the officers of the Court of Alderney
  • 4 Douzainiers (elected annually by the ratepayers)
  • a Douzainier-Delegate (appointed by the Douzaine)
  • 3 People's Deputies (elected by the voters for a 3 year mandate)

Image:Flag of the Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Jurat (through French from mediaeval Latin juratus, one sworn, Lat. ...

Geography

This is a map of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Alderney is in the North East.
This is a map of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Alderney is in the North East.

In terms of geography Alderney is similar to the other islands in that it has sheer cliffs broken by stretches of sandy beach and dunes. It has a temperate climate, moderated by the sea, and summers are usually warmer than elsewhere in the British Isles. Trees are rather scarce, as many were cut down in the 17th century to fuel the lighthouses on Alderney and the Casquets. Those trees that remain include some palm trees (due to the mild climate), and there are now some small woods dotted about the island. Bailiwick of Guernsey Converted to png format. ... A map is a simplified depiction of a space which highlights relations between components (objects, regions) of that space. ... The Casquets (49° 43. ...


Alderney and its surrounding islets feature a rich flora and fauna. Puffins on Burhou and gannets on Les Étacs just off Alderney are a favourite of many visitors to the island . The Blonde hedgehog is a species native to Alderney. The island has its own breed of cattle, called the Alderney; the pure breed became extinct in 1944, but hybrids remain elsewhere, though no longer on Alderney itself. In August 2005, the west coast of Alderney and associated islands, including Burhou and Ortac, were designated as Ramsar wetlands of international importance. Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata For prehistoric species, see article text. ... Binomial name Erinaceus europaeus Linnaeus, 1758 Blonde hedgehogs have a rare recessive gene giving rise to beady, button-black eyes and attractive creamy-coloured spines; they are not strictly speaking albino. ... Alderney is a breed of cattle from the British Channel Island of Alderney. ... . ...


Travelling to Alderney is fairly easy, and in season it is a popular holiday destination. Flights arrive daily from Bournemouth, Shoreham (Brighton), Southampton, Jersey and Guernsey. Boats sail regularly between the island and France, as well as the other Channel Islands. Bournemouth is a large town and tourist destination, situated on the south coast of England. ... Shoreham Airport (IATA: ESH, ICAO: EGKA), also known as Shoreham (Brighton City) Airport, or Brighton, Hove and Worthing Municipal Airport is an airport located 1 nautical mile (1. ... Southampton is a city, unitary authority and major port situated on the south coast of England. ...


The Alderney Railway is the only railway now remaining in the Channel Islands. The Alderney Railway in Alderney is the only working railway in the Channel Islands. ...


The island is surrounded by rocks, which have caused hundreds of wrecks. There are two treacherous tidal streams on either side of the island: the Swinge between Alderney and Burhou, just outside the harbour, and Le Raz between the island and the Norman mainland.


Culture

Aerial shot of Alderney (centre) and Burhou (upper right)
Aerial shot of Alderney (centre) and Burhou (upper right)

Auregnais, the local dialect of Norman is almost extinct, with only one or two islanders remembering it, and French is no longer spoken in the island (except by tourists); it ceased to be an official language in 1966, it declined a great deal from neglect, especially in the education sector, and also when most of the population was evacuated in WWII. To this day however, many, if not most of the local placenames are in French or Auregnais. One or two words linger on in the local English, e.g. vraic (seaweed fertiliser), and the pronunciation of certain local names, e.g. Dupont as 'Dippoh' rather than the French way. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x721, 34 KB) An aerial shot of the islands of Alderney (centre) and Burhou (upper right) in the Channel Islands, United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x721, 34 KB) An aerial shot of the islands of Alderney (centre) and Burhou (upper right) in the Channel Islands, United Kingdom. ... This is a map of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Vraicking in Jersey Seaweed fertiliser (fertilizer in American English) is a valuable addition to the organic garden, and is abundantly available for free for those living near the coast. ...


Golf, Fishing and other water sports are popular on the island, though there are many clubs and associations on the island for sports and other leisure activities (List of Clubs & Associations). Due in part to the large numbers of tourists, Alderney has a large number of restaurants and public houses. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, generally regarded as the worlds Home of Golf. Golf is a sport in which individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and also is one of the few ball games that does not use... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe in water or pass their lives in water. ...


Being a quiet and secluded island, Alderney has attracted a number of famous residents, including authors T. H. White (The Once and Future King) and Elisabeth Beresford (The Wombles), cricket commentator John Arlott, cricketer Ian Botham, Beatles producer George Martin, actress Julie Andrews, and Olympic swimmer Duncan Goodhew. Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 – January 17, 1964) was an English writer, born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. ... Elisabeth Beresford (also known as Liza) is an author of childrens books, best known for creating the Wombles. ... For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ... Leslie Thomas John Arlott (February 25, 1914 - December 14, 1991) (known as John Arlott) was an English sports commentator for Test Match Special. ... Ian Terence Botham OBE, (born November 24, 1955 in Heswall, Cheshire) (nicknamed Both, Beefy, Beef or Guy the Gorilla) was an England Test cricketer. ... Sir George Martin CBE (born 3 January 1926 in Highbury, London, England) is sometimes referred to as the fifth Beatle, a title that he owes to his work as producer of almost all of the Beatles records. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Duncan Goodhew (born March 27, 1957) is one of the most respected and instantly recognisable UK swimming athletes. ...


Alderney Week

Alderney Week is celebrated from the first Monday of August, during which a number of events take place. Cavalcade Day takes place on the Monday, on which residents and organisations construct parade floats based upon a particular theme. The Torchlight Procession, on the Saturday evening of the week, sees a parade of people walking through the town centre, carrying torches towards a large bonfire upon the local green. The evening ends with a fireworks display and an open-air music event held in a now-disused quarry.


Alderney week is a traditional week of festivities, ranging from rifle shooting in one of the many forts, to more wacky events. These events happen each year, though on occasion a new event will be added, or an old one taken away. The main events are:

  • The Man-Powered Flight Competition in which entrants build a fantastical flying machine, and then throw themselves off of the Inner Harbour.
  • The Daft Raft Race, Entrants build rafts and race round two buoys on Braye Beach. Tradition suggests that old tomatoes or, more recently, water baloons are thrown at other entrants for fun.
  • The Sandcastle Competition where children and adults are split up into their respective age groups, and then have a set time limit for that age group in which to built a sandcastle at Braye beach.

An elaborate sand sculpture. ...

Transportation

Alderney Airport Alderney Airport (IATA: ACI, ICAO: EGJA) is the only airport on the island of Alderney . ...


Due to the island's size, transport is often unnecessary, although taxis, cars and bicycles are often used.


During the summer season, there is an occasional bus service around the island.


There are also frequent boat trips available.


Alderney allows people to drive motorbikes and mopeds without helmets and ride in cars without seatbelts.


References

  • Alderney Place Names, Royston Raymond, 1999 Alderney ISBN 0-9537127-0-2
  • Noms de lieux de Normandie, René Lepelley, 1999 Paris ISBN 2-86253-247-9

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alderney | Government (787 words)
Alderney is a self-governing, democratic territory and one of the principal islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey.
Following the decision of Jon Kay-Mouat, Alderney’s longest serving President, to retire from office in January 2002, Sir Norman Browse was elected President of the States on 19 January 2002 to serve until December 2004.
As Alderney comes under the Bailiwick of Guernsey for purposes of taxation, the States of Guernsey are responsible to ensure that sufficient resources are available to the Island in order to ensure that the appropriate levels of public services are maintained.
Alderney (1510 words)
Alderney shares a history with the other Channel Islands, becoming an island in the Neolithic period as the waters of the Channel rose.
Due to the small population of Alderney, it was believed that the island could not be self-sufficient in running the airport and the harbour, as well as in providing services that would match those of the United Kingdom.
The 20th century saw a lot of change in Alderney, from the building of the airport in the late 1930s to the death of the last speakers of the island's language (Auregnais, a dialect of Norman language).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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