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Encyclopedia > Alcoholics Anonymous
AA meeting sign
AA meeting sign

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal meeting society for recovering alcoholics. Its members state as their primary purpose, to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.[1] AA suggests that alcoholics follow its program and abstain from alcohol in order to recover from alcoholism, and share their experience, strength, and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem.[2][3][4] AA was the first twelve-step program and has been the model for similar recovery groups like Narcotics Anonymous. Al-Anon/Alateen are programs designed to provide support for relatives and friends of alcoholics. Although AA is not for everyone and attrition rates tend to be high,[5] there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of AA as a treatment for alcoholism.[6] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 510 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Logotipo de Alcohólicos Anónimos Self photographed figure of the Alcoholics Anonymous File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 510 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Logotipo de Alcohólicos Anónimos Self photographed figure of the Alcoholics Anonymous File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... // A twelve-step program is a set of guiding principles for recovery from addictive, compulsive, or other behavioral problems, originally developed by the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) for recovery from alcoholism. ... This article is about the 12-step program of Narcotics Anonymous (NA). ... Al-Anon and Alateen are international organizations with a membership of more than half a million men, women and teens, providing a Twelve Step program of recovery for friends and family members of alcoholics. ...

Contents

History

By 1934, alcoholic Bill Wilson had ruined a promising Wall Street career with his constant drunkenness. He was introduced to the idea of a spiritual cure by old drinking buddy Ebby Thacher who had become a member of a Christian movement called the Oxford Group. Wilson was treated by Dr. William Silkworth who promoted a disease concept of alcoholism. While in the hospital, Wilson underwent a spiritual experience which convinced him of the existence of a healing higher power and he was able to stop drinking. On a 1935 business trip to Akron, Ohio, Wilson felt the urge to drink again and in an effort to stay sober, he sought another alcoholic to help. Wilson was introduced to Dr. Bob Smith, and Smith also found sobriety through spiritual means. AA Big Book // The history of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been documented in books, movies, and AA literature,[1] from its founding in 1935 as a solution for alcoholism by Bill Wilson (known as Bill W.) and Dr. Robert Smith (known as Dr. Bob), through early struggles and worldwide growth. ... William Griffith Wilson (26 November 1895 - 24 January 1971) (also known as Bill Wilson or Bill W.), was the co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), a fellowship of self-help groups dedicated to helping alcoholics recover from their disease. ... Edwin Throckmorton Thacher (29 April 1896–21 March 1966) (commonly known as Ebby Thacher or Ebby T.), was an old drinking friend of Alcoholics Anonymous co-founder Bill W. and is credited with introducing Wilson to the initial principles that AA would soon develop, such as one alcoholc talking to... The Oxford Group was a Christian organization founded by American Christian missionary Dr. Frank Buchman. ... William Duncan Silkworth, M.D., (1873?-1951) was an American medical doctor and specialist in the treatment of alcoholism. ... The Disease theory of alcoholism states that alcoholism is a disease process. ... Nickname: The Rubber Capital of the World Location within the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Summit Founded 1825 Incorporated 1835 (village) - 1865 (city) Government  - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D) Area  - City  62. ... For other people known as Doctor Bob, see Doctor Bob (disambiguation) Dr. Bob Smith (Robert Holbrook Smith, b. ...


Wilson and Smith co-founded AA with a word of mouth program to help alcoholics. Smith's last drink on June 10, 1935 is considered by members to be the founding date of AA.[7] By 1937, Wilson and Smith determined that they had helped 40 alcoholics get sober, and two years later, with the first 100 members, Wilson expanded the program by writing a book entitled Alcoholics Anonymous which the organization also adopted as its name. The book, informally referred to by members as "The Big Book," described a twelve-step program involving admission of powerlessness, moral inventory, and asking for help from a higher power. In 1941 book sales and membership increased after radio interviews and favourable articles in national magazines, particularly by Jack Alexander in The Saturday Evening Post. By 1946, as membership grew, confusion and disputes within groups over practices, finances, and publicity led Wilson to write the guidelines for noncoercive group management that eventually became known as the Twelve Traditions. AA came of age at the 1955 St. Louis convention when Wilson turned over the stewardship of AA to the General Service Board.[8]In 1955 Wilson in a speech , gave full credit to the Oxford Group and Sam Shoemaker for as the basis of Alcoholics Anonymous.[9] In this era AA also began its international expansion, and by 2001 the number of members worldwide was estimated at two million. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Twelve Traditions of Twelve-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous define the appropriate relationships between an AA group and its members, other groups, AA as a whole, and society at large. ... // Dr. Sam Shoemaker, DD, STD, (1893-1963) an Episcopal priest that was instrumental in the Oxford Group and founding principles of AA Alcoholics Anonymous. ...


Organization

Main article: Twelve Traditions
A regional service center for Alcoholics Anonymous.
A regional service center for Alcoholics Anonymous.

In 2006 there were a reported 1,867,212 AA members in 106,202 AA groups worldwide.[10] The Twelve Traditions informally guide how AA groups function, and the Twelve Concepts for World Service guide how AA is structured globally.[11] The Twelve Traditions of Twelve-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous define the appropriate relationships between an AA group and its members, other groups, AA as a whole, and society at large. ... The Twelve Traditions of Twelve-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous define the appropriate relationships between an AA group and its members, other groups, AA as a whole, and society at large. ...


A member who accepts a service position or an organizing role is a "trusted servant" with terms rotating and limited, typically lasting three months to two years and determined by group vote. Each group is a self-governing entity with AA World Services acting only in an advisory capacity. AA is served entirely by alcoholics, except for seven "nonalcoholic friends of the fellowship" out of twenty-one members of the AA Board of Trustees.[12]


AA groups are self-supporting and not charities, and they have no dues or membership fees. Groups rely on member donations, typically $1 collected per meeting in America, to pay for expenses like room rental, refreshments, and literature.[13] No one is turned away for lack of funds.[14]


AA receives proceeds from books and literature which constitute more than 50% of the income for the General Service Office (GSO),[15] which unlike individual groups is not self-supporting and maintains a small salaried staff. It also maintains service centers which coordinate activities like printing literature, responding to public inquiries, and organizing conferences. They are funded by local members and responsible to the AA groups they represent.


Program

See also: Twelve-step program: The Twelve Steps

The suggested AA recovery program for alcoholics includes abstaining from alcohol one day at a time, following Twelve Steps,[16] helping with duties and service work in AA,[17] and regular AA meeting attendance[18] or contact with AA members.[16] Members are encouraged to ask their group for help in finding an experienced fellow alcoholic called a sponsor to help them follow the AA program, ideally one that has enjoyed sobriety for at least a year and is of the same sex as the sponsee, and who does not impose personal views on sponsees but only teaches the suggested AA program.[19] // A twelve-step program is a set of guiding principles for recovery from addictive, compulsive, or other behavioral problems, originally developed by the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) for recovery from alcoholism. ... A twelve-step program is a self-help group whose members attempt recovery from various addictions and compulsions through the use of a plan referred to as the twelve steps. Characteristics All twelve-step programs follow some version of the twelve steps. ...


Meetings

Anyone is allowed to attend "open" AA meetings, while "closed" meetings are reserved to those who have a desire to stop drinking. [20] There are groups restricted to men or women, groups angled at gay people, and groups for speakers of minority languages. Most AA meetings begin with socializing. Formats vary between meetings, for example, a beginner's meeting might include a talk by a long-time sober member about his or her personal experience of drinking, coming to AA and what was learned there of sobriety. A group discussion on topics related to alcoholism and the AA program might follow.[21]


In a standard meeting, the chairperson starts by calling the meeting to order and offering a short prayer, meditation, and/or period of silence. Then, a section from "The Big Book" may be read aloud, typically the beginning of Chapter Five, entitled "How It Works". Announcements from the leader and/or group members follow. Many groups celebrate newcomers, visitors, and sobriety anniversaries with rounds of applause. Following the announcements, donations are collected, usually by passing a basket around the room. Depending on the type of meeting, there follows either a talk by a speaker relating their personal experience with alcoholism and AA or a discussion session with topics chosen by the chairperson, the speaker, and/or the attendees.[22] A hallmark of these types of AA meeting is the "no crosstalk" rule, whereby responding to another member's comments is discouraged. After the discussion period, appreciation may be expressed to the speaker and the meeting is ended with a prayer, usually the Serenity Prayer or often in the US, the Lord's Prayer. These ending prayers are often undertaken by the entire group forming a circle and holding hands. More socializing typically follows the formal meeting, and it is common for members to gather at nearby coffee shops. The Serenity Prayer is the common name for an originally untitled prayer written by the theologian Reinhold Niebuhr in the 1930s or early 1940s. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...


Other meeting formats also exist where specific AA related topics are discussed in more detail. A common example is a Step Study meeting where one or more of the 12 steps are discussed at length.


Disease of alcoholism

The disease theory is generally accepted by the medical community, which argues that genetic, neurological and behavioral studies distinguish those with alcohol dependence from problem drinkers.[23] AA also regards alcoholism as a disease[24][25] (though Bill Wilson once stated that it was more comparable to an illness or malady),[26] and uses the concept to challenge the belief of chronic, compulsive drinkers that they can stay sober by willpower alone.[27] Dr William Silkworth introduced to Wilson and AA the idea that alcoholism is a disease consisting of an obsession to drink alcohol, and an allergy, which was the compulsion to continue drinking once the first drink had been taken.[28] Alcoholics, he argued, can never safely use alcohol in any form at all, since once forming the habit, they cannot break it.[29] The Disease theory of alcoholism states that alcoholism is a disease process. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ...


Demographics

AA's 2004 survey of over 7500 members in Canada and the United States concluded that AA is composed of 89.1% white, 65% male, and 35% female members. Average member sobriety is eight years with 36% sober more than ten years, 14% sober from five to ten years, 24% sober from one to five years, and 26% sober less than one year. Before coming to AA, 64% of members received some type of treatment or counselling, such as medical, psychological, or spiritual. After coming to AA, 65% received outside treatment or counselling, and 84% of those members said that that outside help played an important part in their recovery.[30]


Influences on US treatment industry

Since 1949 when Hazelden treatment center was founded by members of Alcoholics Anonymous, some alcoholic rehabilitation clinics have frequently incorporated precepts of the AA program into their own treatment programs.[31] A reverse influence has also occurred with AA receiving 31% of its membership from treatment center referrals.[30] The non-profit Hazelden Foundation, based in Center City, Minnesota, pioneered the so-called Minnesota Model of care for alcoholism and drug addiction that is now the most widely used in the world. ...


Court rulings

In the United States, Courts have ruled since 1996 that inmates, parolees, and probationers cannot be ordered to attend a religious based program such as AA or other recovery programs that have substantial religious components since such coercion is in violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the Constitution.[32][33] AA receives 11% of its membership from court ordered attendance.[30] Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


Effectiveness

See main article: Effectiveness of Alcoholics Anonymous

Limitations on research

The study of AA tends to polarize observers into believers and non-believers, and discussion of AA often creates argument rather than objective reflection. Many researchers take a skeptical view of AA because some of AA's methods are spiritual, not scientific.[34] A randomized trial of AA is very difficult because members are self-selected, not randomly selected.[35] Two opposing types of self-selection bias are that drinkers may be motivated to stop drinking before they attend AA, and AA may attract the more severe and difficult cases.[36] Control groups with AA versus non-AA subjects are also difficult because AA is so easily accessible.[36]


Studies

Many studies have demonstrated an association between AA attendance and increased abstinence or other positive outcomes. [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44] Other studies have concluded that AA attendance can lead to poorer outcomes than other therapies.[45][41][46][47][48]


Harvard professor of psychiatry George E. Vaillant, a member of the Board of Trustees of Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, described his investigations into the effectiveness of AA in his book, The Natural History of Alcoholism Revisited.[49] Vaillant's research and literature surveys suggested indirect evidence that AA is an effective treatment for alcohol abuse,[34] partly because it is a cheap, community-based fellowship with easy access.[50] George E. Vaillant, M.D. Dr. Vaillant is a Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Director of Research for the Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Womens Hospital. ... // The Natural History of Alcoholism Revisited (1996) is a book by psychiatrist George E. Vaillant that describes two multi-decade studies of the lives of 600 American males, non-alcoholics at the outset, focusing on their life-long drinking behaviours. ...


Project MATCH was designed to determine which types of alcoholics responded best to different forms of treatment. The programs were administered by psychotherapists and although twelve-step methods were incorporated into the therapy, actual AA meetings were not included.[51][52] The study concluded that patient-treatment matching is not necessary in alcoholism treatment because the three techniques tested are equal in effectiveness. Although it is acknowledged that the TSF treatment group used in the Match study was not a true implementation of Alcoholics Anonymous some investigators believe that it represents the most rigorous investigation of this group to date.[53]


Attrition

In a 1989 internal AA survey, it was estimated that of those who attended AA for the first time, about 1/2 remained less than three months. After the first year, the rate of attrition continues at a slower rate. About 40% of the members sober for less than a year will remain another year. About 80% of those sober less than five years will remain sober and active in the fellowship another year. About 90% of the members sober five years or more will remain sober and active in the fellowship another year. These figures have been repeated within a few percentage points using the same calculations since 1974.[5]


Criticism and controversy

See also: Twelve-step program: Criticism

// A twelve-step program is a set of guiding principles for recovery from addictive, compulsive, or other behavioral problems, originally developed by the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) for recovery from alcoholism. ...

Moderation or abstinence

AA acknowledges that not all drinkers are alcoholics, but advocates total abstinence for those who are.[54] Critics believe that more options should be available to problem drinkers who can manage their drinking with the right treatment.[55]


A 2002 U.S. study by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) showed that 17.7% of individuals diagnosed as alcohol dependent more than one year prior returned to low-risk drinking. However, this group showed fewer initial symptoms of dependency.[56] A follow-up study, using the same NESARC subjects that were judged to be in remission in 2001-2002, examined the rates of return to problem drinking in 2004-2005. The major conclusion made by the authors of this NIAAA study was "Abstinence represents the most stable form of remission for most recovering alcoholics". [57] The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. ...


Penn & Teller, on their TV show, called AA a religion, due to the fact that it hasn't significantly changed its modus operandi since its founding. They also asserted that the twelve-step program sounds devoid of content. Penn & Teller at the 1988 Emmy Awards Penn & Teller are Las Vegas headliners whose act is an amalgam of illusion and comedy. ...


Other notable criticism

  • Psychologist Stanton Peele, an opponent of the disease model, argues that AA groups apply the disease model to all problem drinkers, whether or not they are full-blown alcoholics.[58]
  • Dr. Alan Marlatt, researcher, psychologist and alcoholism expert at the University of Washington, claims programs such as alcoholics anonymous and other step programs are rigid and outdated. “They’re a little resistant to those of us who are doing scientific research that might challenge or question some of the basic assumptions that they have come up with". [59]
  • AA undertakes no external restriction, screening, or vetting of its members.[60]
  • "Thirteenth-stepping" is a euphemistic term describing the practice of targeting new AA members for dates or sex.[61]
  • Although a statement is read during meetings that what was said there should remain confidential, AA members, unlike lawyers or clergy, are not legally bound to maintain confidentiality.[62] As communication between AA members is not covered under client, patient, or clergy privilege, they can be called upon to testify against other AA members in a court of law. Even though two people may promise not to disclose a shared confidence, the courts are not bound to honor that promise.[63][64]

// Stanton Peele, Ph. ... Alan Marlatt G. Alan Marlatt, Ph. ...

Parody

Friz Freleng's 1957 cartoon Birds Anonymous portrays an organization that teaches cats how not to eat birds. Isadore Friz Freleng (August 21, 1906[1]–May 26, 1995) was an animator, cartoonist, director, and producer best known for his work on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons from Warner Bros. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Birds Anonymous is a 1957 Warner Bros. ...


Literature

  • Alcoholics Anonymous (1976-06-01). Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcoholics Anonymous World Services. ISBN 0916856593. OCLC 32014950. 
  • Alcoholics Anonymous (2002-02-10). Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions. Alcoholics Anonymous World Services. ISBN 0916856011. OCLC 13572433. 
  • Alcoholics Anonymous (1984). Pass It On. Alcoholics Anonymous World Services. ISBN 0916856011. OCLC 13572433. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

See also

AA Big Book // The history of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been documented in books, movies, and AA literature,[1] from its founding in 1935 as a solution for alcoholism by Bill Wilson (known as Bill W.) and Dr. Robert Smith (known as Dr. Bob), through early struggles and worldwide growth. ... There are a variety of addiction recovery groups and methods other than those that follow the Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous. ... Al-Anon and Alateen are international organizations with a membership of more than half a million men, women and teens, providing a Twelve Step program of recovery for friends and family members of alcoholics. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcoholic beverages to a degree that mental and physical faculties are noticeably impaired. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... There are several international mental health self-help organizations including Recovery, Inc. ... An incomplete list of 12-Step-Groups: AA Alcoholics Anonymous ACOA - Adult Children of Alcoholics [1] ADD-Anonymous - for people suffering from ADD [2] Al-Anon/Alateen AAA - All Addictions Anonymous [3] Anti-Nutrient*Addicts Anonymous [4] BA - Borderliners Anonymous [5] CA - Cocaine Anonymous CDA - Chemically Dependent Anonymous [6] CEA... // A twelve-step program is a set of guiding principles for recovery from addictive, compulsive, or other behavioral problems, originally developed by the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) for recovery from alcoholism. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... Psychosocial recovery, or the Recovery Model, refers to the process of recovery from mental disorder or substance dependence, and/or from being labeled in those terms. ...

References

  1. ^ What is Aa? Defining "Alcoholics Anonymous". The General Service Board of Alcoholics Anonymous (Great Britain). Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  2. ^ AA Preamble
  3. ^ AA Fact File, 'The Recovery Program'
  4. ^ Alcoholics Anonymous : the story of how many thousands of men and women have recovered from alcoholism. 4th ed. New York : Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, 2001. ISBN 1893007162. Available online at www.AA.org
  5. ^ a b "Comments On A.A. Triennial Surveys" (PDF, 2 MB), Dec. 1990, Alcoholics Anonymous World Services.
  6. ^ Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Substance Use Disorders, 2nd ed. American Psychiatric Association, August 2006, p 98. [1]
  7. ^ Pass It On, p 131-149.
  8. ^ Pass It On p 359
  9. ^ Pittman, Bill "AA the Way it Began" Glenn Abbey Books
  10. ^ AA Fact File
  11. ^ The AA Service Manual/Twelve Concepts for World Service (BM-31).
  12. ^ The AA Fact File, 'The Structure of AA'
  13. ^ Once Upon A Time... Mitchel K. 04/08/98
  14. ^ [2]AA Fact File p 17
  15. ^ GSO 2005 Operating Results, 'Gross Profit from Literature ~$6.7M (55%), Contributions ~$5.4M (45%)'
  16. ^ a b http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/en_pdfs/p-1_thisisAA.pdf This is AA pamphlet
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  18. ^ http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/en_is_aa_for_you.cfm?PageID=14 A Newcomer Asks pamphlet
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  21. ^ [3] Suggestions for Leading Beginners Meetings pamphlet
  22. ^ Kirkpatrick, Kayla EJ. "Interpreting AA (and other 12-step) Meetings." American Sign Language Interpreting Resources, 10 December 1999. <http://asl_interpreting.tripod.com/situational_studies/kejk1.htm>. 12 March 2008.
  23. ^ Alcohol - Frequently Asked Questions, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
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  29. ^ Alcoholics Anonymous The Doctor's Opinion page xxviii.
  30. ^ a b c http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/en_pdfs/p-48_04survey.pdf AA 2004 Membership Survey
  31. ^ N. Roberson, Getting Better:Inside Alcoholics Anonymous (London: Macmillan, 1988), p 220
  32. ^ Egelko, Bob. "Appeals court says requirement to attend AA unconstitutional", San Francisco Chronicle, 2007-09-08. Retrieved on 2007-10-08. 
  33. ^ Inouye vs. Kemna page 11889
  34. ^ a b Vaillant, George Eman (May 1995). "Chapter 4: Paths into Abstinence", The Natural History of Alcoholism Revisited, 2nd edition, Harvard University Press, 231 - 277. ISBN 0674603788. OCLC 31605790. 
  35. ^ Edwards, Griffith (April 2002). "Chapter 8: Alcoholics Anonymous", Alcohol: The World's Favorite Drug, 1st edition, Thomas Dunne Books, 103 - 117. ISBN 0312283873. OCLC 48176740. 
  36. ^ a b Humphreys, Keith (2002). "Alcoholics Anonymous and 12-Step Alcoholism Treatment Programs", Recent Developments in Alcoholism 16. Springer US, 149 - 164. DOI:10.1007/b100495. ISBN 978-0-306-47258-9. 
  37. ^ Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S. (June 2006). "Participation in Treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous: A 16-Year Follow-Up of Initially Untreated Individuals". Journal of Clinical Psychology 62: 735–750. doi:10.1002/jclp.20259. PMID 16538654. 
  38. ^ Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S. (February 2006). "Rates and predictors of relapse after natural and treated remission from alcohol use disorders". Addiction 101 (2): 212 – 222. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01310.x. PMID 16445550. 
  39. ^ Moos, Rudolf H.; Moos, Bernice S. (February 2004). "Long-Term Influence of Duration and Frequency of Participation in Alcoholics Anonymous on Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72 (1): 81–90. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.72.1.81. PMID 16445550. 
  40. ^ Humphreys, Keith; Moos, Rudolf (May 2001). "Can encouraging substance abuse patients to participate in self-help groups reduce demand for health care? A quasi-experimental study". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25 (5): 711–716. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2001.tb02271.x. ISSN 1530-0277. PMID 11371720. 
  41. ^ a b J. Morgenstern et al. "Affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous after treatment: a study of its therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action." (Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, 1997 Oct;65(5):768-7)
  42. ^ J. Scott Tonigan PhD. "Benefits of Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance" (University of New Mexico, 2001) pp 67 - 77
  43. ^ (August 1967). "A Controlled Experiment on the Use of Court Probation for Drunk Arrests". American Journal of Psychiatry 124 (2): Abstract.
  44. ^ Atkins, R. G. & Hawdon, J. E. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment "Religiosity and participation in mutual-aid support groups for addiction", Vol. 33, Issue 3, Oct. 2007, pp. 321-331 available online at www.sciencedirect.com
  45. ^ Brandsma, Jeffrey, Phd. , Maultsby , Maxie, Welsh, M.D. Richard, M.S.W. The OutPatient Treatment of Alcoholism
  46. ^ Larimer, Mary E; Palmer, Rebekka S; Marlatt, G. Alan (1999). "Relapse prevention. An overview of Marlatt's cognitive-behavioral model". Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 23 (2): 151–160. ISSN 1535-7414. PMID 10890810. OCLC 42453373. 
  47. ^ Two-Year Outcome of Alcohol Interventions in Swedish University Halls of Residence: A Cluster Randomized Trial of a Brief Skills Training Program, Twelve-Step-Influenced Intervention, and Controls Authors: Ståhlbrandt, Henriettæ1; Johnsson, Kent O.1; Berglund, Mats1 Source: Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, Volume 31, Number 3, March 2007, pp. 458-466(9) Publisher: Blackwell Publishing http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/acer/2007/00000031/00000003/art00014
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  55. ^ Shute, Nancy (September 1997). "The drinking dilemma: by calling abstinence the only cure, we ensure that the nation's $100 billion alcohol problem won't be solved". U.S. News & World Report 123 (9): 54–64. [4]
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  59. ^ http://www.doctordeluca.com/Documents/NewRoadsSobriety.htm
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  61. ^ Bogart, Cathy J.; Pearce, Carol E. (2003). "'13th-Stepping:' Why Alcoholics Anonymous Is Not Always a Safe Place for Women". Journal of Addictions Nursing: A Journal for the Prevention and Management of Addictions 14 (1): 43–47. doi:10.1080/10884600305373. ISSN 1548-7148. OCLC 34618968. 
  62. ^ Coleman, Phyllis (December 2005). "Privilege and Confidentiality in 12-Step Self-Help Programs: Believing The Promises Could Be Hazardous to an Addict's Freedom". The Journal of Legal Medicine 26 (4): 435–474. doi:10.1080/01947640500364713. ISSN 0194-7648. OCLC 4997813. 
  63. ^ New York Times, Jan Hoffman June 15, 1994 ["Faith in Confidentiality of Therapy Is Shaken" http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE4D81F3AF936A25755C0A962958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all]
  64. ^ Associated Press ["Federal Appals Court backs Use of AA confessions to convict man" http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=16575&printerfriendly=1]

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... George E. Vaillant, M.D. Dr. Vaillant is a Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Director of Research for the Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Womens Hospital. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... // Stanton Peele, Ph. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

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Alcoholics Anonymous : (1028 words)
We found out that we had these feelings because we had the disease of alcoholism.
And when we got rid of alcohol, we found that life became much more manageable.
ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS© is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism.
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