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Encyclopedia > Alcoholic beverage
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Alcoholic beverages
Alcoholic beverages

An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of an alcohol includes many other compounds. Firewater is an indie rock group founded by Tod A. in 1995. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth, see Drinking . ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits. For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ...


Ethanol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. Most countries restrict and regulate its sale and consumption; for example, they place legal drinking-age restrictions upon the sale of alcoholic drinks to young people. The manufacture and consumption of alcohol is found to some degree in most cultures and societies around the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states. The drinking of alcoholic beverages is very often an important part of social events in such societies, and it can be an important aspect of a community’s culture. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Ethanol is only slightly toxic compared to other alcohols, but has significant psychoactive effects. A significant blood alcohol content may be considered legal drunkenness as it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcoholic beverages can be addictive and the state of addiction to ethanol is known as alcoholism. Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...

Contents

Chemistry and toxicology

Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks, for consumption purposes is always produced by fermentation–the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of yeast in the absence of oxygen. The process of culturing yeast under alcohol-producing conditions is referred to as brewing. The same process produces carbon dioxide in situ, and may be used to carbonate the drink. However, this method leaves yeast residues and on the industrial scale, carbonation usually is done separately. For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ...


Drinks with a concentration of more than 50% ethanol by volume (100 US proof) are flammable liquids and easily ignited. Some exotic ones gain their distinctive flavors through intentional ignition of the drink, such as the Flaming Dr Pepper. Spirits with a higher proof (ABV in UK is roughly half of proof number) can be ignited with ease by heating slightly, e.g. adding the spirit to a warmed shot glass. Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Flaming Dr. Pepper The Flaming Dr. Pepper is a flaming cocktail that tastes like the soft drink Dr Pepper, although it does not contain any. ...


In chemistry, alcohol is a general term for any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, which in turn may be bound to other carbon atoms and further hydrogens. Other alcohols such as propylene glycol and the sugar alcohols may appear in food or beverages regularly, but these alcohols do not make them "alcoholic". Methanol (one carbon), the propanols (three carbons giving two isomers), and the butanols (four carbons, four isomers) are all commonly found alcohols, and none of these three should ever be consumed in any form. Alcohols are toxicated into the corresponding aldehydes and then into the corresponding carboxylic acids. These metabolic products cause a poisoning and acidosis. In the case of other alcohols than ethanol, the aldehydes and carboxylic acids are poisonous and the acidosis can be lethal. In contrast, fatalities from ethanol are mainly found in extreme doses and related to induction of unconsciousness or chronic addiction (alcoholism). For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. ... A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... There are two isomers of propanol. ... Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically), is an alcohol with a 4 carbon structure and the molecular formula of C4H10O. It is primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and as a fuel. ... Toxication is the process of drug metabolism in which the metabolite of a compound is more toxic than the parent drug or chemical. ... An aldehyde. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. ...


Humans can metabolize ethanol as an energy-providing nutrient. Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. Acetic acid is esterified with coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA carries the acetyl moiety into the citric acid cycle, which produces energy by oxidizing the acetyl moiety into carbon dioxide. Acetyl CoA can also be used for biosynthesis. Acetyl CoA is an intermediate common with the metabolism of sugars and fats, and it is the product of glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose. R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. ... Look up moiety in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ...


When compared to other alcohols, ethanol is only slightly toxic, with a lowest known lethal dose in humans of 1400 mg/kg, and a LD50 of 9000 mg/kg (oral, rat). Nevertheless, accidental overdosing of alcoholic drinks, especially those of concentrated variety, is a risk for women, lightweight persons and children. These people have a smaller quantity of water in their body, so that alcohol is diluted less. A blood alcohol concentration of 50 to 100 mg/dL may be considered legal drunkenness (laws vary by jurisdiction). The threshold of effects is at 22 mg/dL.[1] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Blood Alcohol Content (or Blood Alcohol Concentration), often abbreviated BAC, is the concentration of alcohol in blood, measured, by volume, as a percentage. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ...


Alcohol affects the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, to produce a depressant (neurochemical inhibitory) effect. Other psychoactives affecting the GABA receptor include gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, barbiturates and benzodiazepines. "GABA has been implicated, both directly and indirectly, in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, Parkinsonism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesias, and senile dementia, as well as several other behavioral disorders." [2] Gamma-aminobutyric acid (usually abbreviated to GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species. ... Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C4H8O3), commonly abbreviated GHB, is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries[1], and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. ... Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ...


Excessive consumption of alcohol leads to a toxication-induced delayed poisoning called hangover (in Latin, crapula refers to intoxication and hangover) and represents the inhibited state of the brain in the initial phases of addiction. Various factors contribute, including the toxication of ethanol itself to acetaldehyde, the direct toxic effects and toxication of impurities called congeners,[3] and dehydration. Hangover starts after the euphoric effects of alcohol itself have subsided, typically in the night and morning after alcoholic drinks were consumed. However, the blood alcohol concentration may still be substantial and above the limits imposed for drivers and operators of other dangerous equipment. Hangover subsides during the day. Various treatments, many of them pseudoscientific, are presented to "cure hangover". However, activities such as driving are still dangerous. For other uses, see Hangover (disambiguation). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A congener (from Latin roots meaning born together or within the same race or kind) has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


Alcoholic content

The concentration of alcohol in a drink may be specified in percent alcohol by volume (ABV), in percentage by weight (sometimes abbreviated w/w for weight for weight), or in proof. In the USA, the 'proof' measurement is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit (e.g., 80 proof = 40% ABV). Degrees proof were formerly used in the UK where 100 degrees proof was 57.1% ABV (historically, the most dilute spirit which would sustain the combustion of gunpowder). Common distillation cannot exceed 191.2 proof (USA) because at that point ethanol is an azeotrope with water. Alcohols of this purity are commonly referred to as grain alcohol and are not meant for human consumption, with the notable exception of neutral grain spirits. For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... Alcohol by volume (ABV) is an indication of how much alcohol (expressed as a percentage) is included in an alcoholic beverage. ... Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Neutral grain spirits (a. ...


Most yeasts cannot grow when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18% by volume, so that is a practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer, and sake. Strains of yeast have been developed that can survive in solutions of up to 25% alcohol by volume, but these were bred for ethanol fuel production, not beverage production. Spirits are produced by distillation of a fermented product, concentrating the alcohol and eliminating some of the by-products. Fortified wines are produced by adding brandy or other distilled spirits to achieve higher ABV than is easily reached using fermentation alone. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a distilled spirit). ...


Unsweetened alcoholic beverages based on distilled alcohol with a percentage of alcohol greater than perhaps 30% are referred to as spirits. Sweet beverages with high alcohol content are usually called liqueurs. Spirits are sometimes added to wines (port, sherry), creating fortified wines. A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavored with fruits, herbs, or spices, and sometimes cream. ... A glass of tawny port. ... A glass of amontillado Sherry For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ...


Flavorings

Ethanol is a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils, and thus facilitates the inclusion of several coloring, flavoring and/or aromatic compounds to alcoholic beverages, especially to distilled ones. These flavoring ingredients may be naturally present in the starting material, or may be added before fermentation, before distillation, during distillation (gin) or before bottling the distilled product. Sometimes the flavor is obtained by allowing the beverage to stand for months or years in oak barrels, normally American or French oak, sometimes charred (bourbon), sometimes already used for aging a different spirit, wine or fortified wine. Occasionally, in the bottle herbs or fruits have been inserted to flavor the final product. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ...


History

Main article: History of alcohol

Alcohol has been widely consumed since prehistoric times[4] by people around the world, as a component of the standard diet, for hygienic or medical reasons, for its relaxant and euphoric effects, for recreational purposes, for artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs, and for other reasons. Some drinks have been invested with symbolic or religious significance suggesting the mystical use of alcohol, e.g. by Greco-Roman religion in the ecstatic rituals of Dionysus (also called Bacchus), god of wine and revelry; in the Christian Eucharist; and on the Jewish Shabbat and festivals (particularly Passover). An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... Greek religion is the polytheistic religion practiced in ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... This article is about informal use of the term. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ...


Fermented beverages

Chemical analysis of traces absorbed and preserved in pottery jars from the Neolithic village of Jiahu, in Henan province, Northern China, have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as 9,000 years ago. This is approximately the same time that barley beer and grape wine were beginning to be made in the Middle East. Recipes have been found on clay tablets and art in Mesopotamia that show individuals using straws to drink beer from large vats and pots. The Hindu Ayurvedic texts describe both the beneficent uses of alcoholic beverages and the consequences of intoxication and alcoholic diseases. Most of the peoples in India and China, have continued, throughout, to ferment a portion of their crops and nourish themselves with the alcoholic product. However, devout adherents of Buddhism, which arose in India in the 5th and 6th centuries BC and spread over southern and eastern Asia, abstain to this day, as do devout Hindus and Sikhs. In Mesopotamia and Egypt, the birthplace of beer and wine, Islam is now the predominant religion, and it also prohibits the drinking and even the handling of alcoholic beverages. 9000 years old Jiahu playable Flutes. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Wine was consumed in Classical Greece at breakfast or at symposia, and in the 1st century BC it was part of the diet of most Roman citizens. However, both Greeks and Romans generally consumed diluted wine (with strengths varying from 1 part wine and 1 part water to 1 part wine and 4 parts water). The transformation of water into wine at the wedding at Cana is the first of the miracles attributed to Jesus in the New Testament, and his use of wine in the Last Supper led to it becoming an essential part of the Eucharist rite in most Christian traditions (see Christianity and alcohol). Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... In the Christian New Testament, the Gospel of John refers a number of times to a town called Cana of Galilee. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Jesus making wine in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monastery. ...


In Europe during the Middle Ages, beer was consumed by the whole family, thanks to a triple fermentation process — the men had the strongest, then women, then children. A document of the times mentions nuns having an allowance of six pints of ale a day. Cider and pomace wine were also widely available, while grape wine was the prerogative of the higher classes. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Pomace wine is a kind of wine made from grape pomace. ...


By the time the Europeans reached the Americas in the 15th century, several native civilizations had developed alcoholic beverages. According to a post-Conquest Aztec document, consumption of the local "wine" (pulque) was generally restricted to religious ceremonies, but freely allowed to those over 70 years old. The natives of South America manufactured a beer-like product from cassava or maize (cauim, chicha), which had to be chewed before fermentation in order to turn the starch into sugars. This chewing technique was also used in ancient Japan to make sake from rice and other starchy crops. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For the Gibraltar company, see Cassava Enterprises. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Cauim is a traditional alcoholic beverage of the Native American populations of Brazil, since pre-Columbian times. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ...


The medicinal use of alcohol was mentioned in Sumerian and Egyptian texts dated from 2100 BC or earlier. The Hebrew Bible recommends giving alcoholic drinks to those who are dying or depressed, so that they can forget their misery (Proverbs 31:6-7). This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ...


Distilled beverages

Main article: Distilled beverages

The distillation of alcohol can be traced back to China, Central Asia and the Middle East. In particular, Muslim chemists were the first to produce fully purified distilled alcohol.[5] It later spread to Europe in the mid-12th century, and by the early 14th century it had spread throughout the continent. It also spread eastward, mainly due to the Mongols, and began in China no later than the 14th century. However, recent archaeological evidence suggests that in China the practice of distillation may date back to 5000 BC. Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, taking it from the Arabic word which means "finely divided", a reference to distillation. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ...


Uses

In many countries, alcoholic beverages are commonly consumed at the major daily meals (lunch and dinner).


In places and areas with poor public sanitation, such as Medieval Europe, consumption of alcoholic drinks (particularly weak or "small" beer) was one method of avoiding water-borne diseases such as cholera. Though alcohol kills bacteria, the low concentration in beer or even wine will have only a limited effect. Probably the boiling of water, which is required for the brewing of beer, and the growth of yeast, which would tend to crowd out other micro-organisms, were more important than the alcohol itself. Additionally, the ethanol (and possibly other ingredients) of alcoholic beverages allows them to be stored for months or years in simple wood or clay containers without spoiling; for this reason they were commonly utilized onboard sailing vessels as a key (or even the sole) source of hydration for the crew, especially during the long voyages of the early modern period. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents...


In colder climates, strong alcoholic beverages such as vodka are popularly seen as a way to "warm up" the body, possibly because ethanol is a quickly absorbed source of food energy and because it dilates peripheral blood vessels (Peripherovascular dilation) — a dangerous misconception, as the perception of warmth is actually caused by the transfer of heat from the body's core to its extremities where it is quickly lost to the environment. Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ...


In many cultures, both contemporary and historical, alcoholic beverages — mostly because of their neurological effects — have also played an important role in various kinds of social interaction, providing a form of "liquid courage" (those who consume it typically gain confidence and lose discretion). While other psychoactive drugs (such as opium, coca, khat, cannabis, kava-kava, etc.) also have millennial traditions of social use, only coffee, tea, betel, and tobacco are currently as universally used and accepted as ethanol. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Vahl) Forssk. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Kava is an ancient crop of the western Pacific. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper betle L. The Betel (Piper betle) is a spice whose leaves have medicinal properties. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Alcohol consumption and health

Alcohol Consumption per capita per year[6]:      > 10 litres      5 - 9.9 litres      2 - 4.9 litres      1 - 1.9 litres      < 1 litres

Some studies have suggested that in moderation, alcohol consumption has significant health benefits. These include a lower risk of heart attack,[7] lower risk of diabetes,[8] lower risk of Alzheimer's disease,[9] reduced risk of stroke,[10] and an increase in overall longevity.[11] One study found that a person fifty-five or older who consumed 1-3 drinks daily was half as likely to develop dementia linked to poor oxygen to the brain as a person who did not. Additionally, because alcohol increases 'good' cholesterol and decreases the 'bad' cholesterol, there are indications that frequent doses in moderation reduce the risk of blood clots and stroke. These benefits are all counteracted by excessive consumption.[12] The health benefits of moderate use have been disputed with researchers claiming that earlier studies that seemed to show such benefits were flawed. It is claimed that health benefits are only gained with heavy drinking where the harm outweighs the benefits.[13] A 2001 report estimates that medium and high consumption of alcohol led to 75,754 deaths in the USA. Low consumption has some beneficial effects so a net 59,180 deaths were attributed to alcohol.[14] The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... The effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms. ... Considerable evidence suggests a connection between heavy alcohol consumption and increased risk for cancer, with an estimated 2 to 4 percent of all cancer cases thought to be caused either directly or indirectly by alcohol[1] indicates the NIAAA.[2] 3. ... The subject of alcohol and heart attacks is important because the major cause of death in many countries is heart disease. ... This article summarizes the recommended maximum intake (or safe limits) of alcohol as recommended by the health agencies of various governments. ...


Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. The condition is called alcohol intoxication or drunkenness, and eventually subsides. Alcohol stimulates insulin production, which speeds up the glucose metabolism and can result in low blood sugar, causing irritability. In excess, the poisoning can be severe, even lethal. A blood-alcohol content of .45% represents the LD50, or the amount which would prove fatal in 50% of test subjects. This is about six times the level of intoxication (0.08%), but vomiting and/or unconsciousness are triggered much sooner in people with a low tolerance, among whom such high levels are rarely reached unless a large amount of alcohol is consumed very quickly.[12] However, chronic heavy drinkers' high tolerance may allow some of them to remain conscious at levels above .4%, despite the serious health dangers. An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


Chronic effects of alcohol consumption include effects of its metabolism in the liver, its carcinogenity, its effects on the brain, and effects of addiction (alcoholism). For example, cirrhosis is stereotypically found in heavy drinkers. The consumption of alcohol does not kill brain cells but rather damages dendrites, the branched ends of nerve cells that bring messages into the cell. Alcohol dilates the channels in the cellular structure that regulate the flow of calcium, causing excess calcium to flow into the cells and stimulating increased activity. This does not kill the whole cell, but causes a loss of the end segments, leading to the loss of incoming signals and therefore a change in brain function. Most of this damage is temporary, but the recovery process changes nerve-cell structure permanently.[15] Some forms of cancer have been linked to excessive consumption of alcohol. "3.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are related to alcohol drinking, resulting in 3.5% of all cancer deaths" (see alcohol and cancer for details).[16] Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Dendrites (from Greek dendron, “tree”) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. ... Considerable evidence suggests a connection between heavy alcohol consumption and increased risk for cancer, with an estimated 2 to 4 percent of all cancer cases thought to be caused either directly or indirectly by alcohol[1] indicates the NIAAA.[2] 3. ...


Alcohol is also a potentially addictive substance, with numerous health effects, and potentially lethal effects of withdrawal. Alcoholism has more and more serious effects on health than moderate drinking. Alcoholism is a major concern for public health; like other kinds of addiction, it is also viewed as a form of immorality. Propensity to alcoholism is partially genetic; individuals with such propensity may have a different biochemical response to alcohol. Alcohol addiction can also lead to malnutrition because it can alter digestion and metabolism of most nutrients. Severe thiamine deficiency is common due to deficiency of folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and selenium. Muscle cramps, nausea, appetite loss, nerve disorders and depression are some common symptoms. It can also lead to osteoporosis and bone fractures due to vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D helps in calcium absorption). This article is about the concept of addiction. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Alcohol and religion

Some religions — most notably Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, the Bahá'í Faith, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Theravada and most Mahayana schools of Buddhism, some Protestant sects of Fundamentalist Christianity and Hinduism — forbid, discourage, or restrict the consumption of alcoholic beverages for various reasons. In Islam, Alcohol is forbiden to drink, but is allowed to be used for medical and other purposes. ... Jesus making wine in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monastery. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda (cf Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda); literally, the Teaching of the Elders, or the Ancient Teaching) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


In the early Islamic period drinking was considered to be one of the two offences against God, the other being illicit sex. Even now according to Islam several Qur'anic verses are commonly understood to prohibit the use of alcohol. The Qu'ran says that although there are some benefits in alcohol, the sins are greater than the benefits([Qur'an 2:219]). Only the use of alcohol for medical purposes is allowed. The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān, literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Many Christian denominations use wine in the Eucharist and permit the use of alcohol in moderation, while others use unfermented grape juice in the Eucharist and abstain from alcohol by choice or prohibit it outright. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


The Jewish religion uses wine on Shabbat for Kiddush as well as in the Passover ceremony and in other religious ceremonies, including Purim, and allows the moderate use of alcohol, such as kosher wine. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Shabbat, or Shabbos (Ashkenazic pronunciation) (שבת shabbāṯ, rest), is a day of rest that is observed once a week, from sundown on Friday until nightfall on Saturday, by practitioners of Judaism, as well as by many secular Jews. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, related to Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Jewish people of the ancient Persian Empire from Hamans plot to annihilate them, as recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther (Megillat Esther). ... A bottle of Kosher wine, pasteurised to be Yayin Mevushal Kosher wine (Hebrew: ) is wine produced according to Judaisms religious law, specifically, the Jewish dietary laws regarding wine. ...


Buddhist texts recommend refraining from drugs and alcohol, because they may inhibit mindfulness. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Many Pagan religions, however, have had a completely reverse view on alcohol and drunkenness - some have actively promote it as means of fertility cult on promoting fertility and sexual lust. Alcohol is seen to increase lust and sexual desires and to lower the threshold of approaching another person. For example, the Norse religion considered alcohol as the sap of Yggdrasil, and drunkenness and intoxication by mushrooms was an important rite of fertility. Somewhat paradoxically, one pharmacodynamic effect of alcohol reduces sexual arousal. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... For other uses, see Yggdrasil (disambiguation). ... Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect. ... Turn on redirects here. ...


Legal considerations

Alcohol restriction in Victoria, Australia.
Alcohol restriction in Victoria, Australia.

Download high resolution version (546x802, 119 KB)sign informing citizens of illegal drinking hours located in Port Campbell, Victoria, Australia. ... Download high resolution version (546x802, 119 KB)sign informing citizens of illegal drinking hours located in Port Campbell, Victoria, Australia. ... VIC redirects here. ...

Age restrictions

Main article: Legal drinking age

Most countries have a legal drinking age prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors, although the point at which such minority ends varies from country to country. The legal drinking age is a limit assigned by governments to restrict the access of children and youth to alcoholic beverages. ... The legal drinking age is a limit assigned by governments to restrict the access of children and youth to alcoholic beverages. ... In law, the term minor (also infant or infancy) is used to refer to a person who is under the age in which one legally assumes adulthood and is legally granted rights afforded to adults in society. ...


Australia

In Australia, the age for the purchase but not necessarily consumption is 18 years old. (In NSW it is illegal for anyone to supply alcohol to anyone under the age of 18.)


Canada

In Canada the legal drinking age is 18 in the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Quebec only, and 19 elsewhere. For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Europe

Laws covering the legal drinking age and sale of alcoholic beverages in Europe varies from country to country, both in terms of legal drinking age and the age to legally purchase alcohol; the legal drinking age usually 16 to 18. Some countries have a tiered structure restricting the sales of stronger alcoholic drinks (typically based on alcohol% w/w) to older adults. For example, in the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, and Austria, a purchaser of beer or wine must be 16, and 18 for distilled alcoholic beverages. Germany's law is directed toward sellers of alcoholic beverages, not toward minors themselves; German law vests control of the consumption of alcoholic beverage in the hands of parents and guardians.[17] In the United Kingdom, the minimum age for purchasing alcohol is 18, although minors are legally allowed to consume alcohol in restaurants with a meal from the age of 16[citation needed]. Children are able to drink in the home from the age of five. Shop workers under 18 may not legally sell alcohol. In France and Portugal people must be 16 to buy alcoholic beverages. The legal drinking age is a limit assigned by governments to restrict the access of children and youth to alcoholic beverages. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In Nordic countries, except for Denmark, the legal drinking age is 18, but the rights are limited up to the age of 20. In Iceland and Sweden purchasers or possessors of alcoholic beverages must be 20, although they can be drunk from 18. In Finland and Norway purchase or possession of alcoholic beverages with up to 22% ABV (i.e. beer, wine and liqueurs) is allowed from age 18, and stronger drinks from 20. In Finland and Sweden, but not in Norway, stronger drinks may be ordered in a restaurant from age 18. Denmark allows any type of alcohol to be purchased at age 16. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...


Japan

In Japan, the legal age for purchasing and consuming alcohol is 20.


United States

Exceptions to Minimum Age of 21 for Consumption of Alcohol in the United States as of January 1, 2007
See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas, Alcohol laws of Missouri, Alcohol laws of New York, Alcohol laws of North Carolina, Alcohol laws of Oklahoma

The legal age for purchase or possession (but not necessarily consumption) in every state has been 21 since shortly after the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act in 1984, which tied federal highway funds to states' maintaining a minimum drinking age of 21. This list of alcohol laws of the United States by state provides an overview of alcohol-related laws by state throughout the United States. ... Flag of the State of Kansas The alcohol laws of Kansas are among the strictest in the United States, in sharp contrast to its neighboring state of Missouri (see Alcohol laws of Missouri), but much like (though still stricter than) its other neighboring state of Oklahoma (see Alcohol laws of... Location of Missouri Flag of the State of Missouri Although fairly comprehensive, the alcohol laws of Missouri are among the most permissive in the United States, perhaps only behind those of Nevada and Louisiana. ... The alcohol laws of North Carolina prohibit the sale of alcohol from 2 a. ... Oklahoma defines low-point beer as any beverage containing between 0. ... The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (Title 23 U.S.C. §158) was passed on July 17, 1984 by the United States Congress as a mechanism whereby all states would become thereafter required to legislate and enforce the age of 21 years as a minimum age for purchasing...


Nineteen states (Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Wyoming) and the District of Columbia only have laws against possession by minors, but do not prohibit consumption of alcohol by minors. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... ...


Thirteen states (Alaska, Colorado, Delaware, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin) specifically permit children to drink alcohol given to them by their parents or guardians. For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Many states also specifically permit consumption under the age of 21 for religious or health reasons.


Other restrictions

Mind alteration

In law, sometimes the term "intoxicating agent" is used for a category of substances which includes alcoholic beverages and some other drugs. Giving any of these substances to a person to create an abnormal condition of the mind (such as drunkenness), in order to facilitate committing a crime (e.g., rape), may be an additional crime. Being under the influence of alcohol may also be considered an aggravating circumstance if a crime is committed. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... Aggravation is a legal concept, which Blacks Law Dictionary defines as: Any circumstance attending the commission of a crime or tort which increases its guilt or enormity or adds to its injurious consequences, but which is above and beyond the essential constituents of the crime or tort itself. ...


Prohibition of alcohol

See also: Teetotalism, Temperance movement, Prohibition in the United States

A number of countries forbid the commerce, consumption or advertising of alcoholic beverages, or restrict them in various ways. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Prohibition redirects here. ... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ...


In the United States, there was an attempt from 1920 to 1933 to eliminate the consumption of alcoholic beverages through national prohibition of their manufacture and sale. This period became known as the prohibition era. During this period the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States made manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal throughout the United States. However, this project led to the unintended consequences of causing widespread disrespect for the law as many people sought alcoholic beverages from illegal sources, and of creating a lucrative business for illegal purveyors of alcohol (bootleggers), which led to the development of organized crime. As a result prohibition became widely unpopular, leading to repeal of the 18th Amendment in 1933. Prior to national prohibition, beginning in the late 19th century, many states and localities had enacted prohibition within their jurisdictions, and following repeal of the 18th Amendment, some communities in the United States (known as dry counties) still ban alcohol sales. Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... One of the leading online mafia games Located at http://www. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about counties in the U.S. that prohibit alcoholic beverage sales. ...


Sweden also tried prohibition of alcohol in the early 20th century.


Many Muslim countries, such as Saudi Arabia, prohibit alcohol for religious reasons. Drinking alcohol in public places, such as streets and parks, is against the law in most of the United States (see below) and in some European countries, but is legal in others such as Belgium and Germany. In The Netherlands it is not specifically illegal by law, but many cities and towns prohibit having an open container. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


Drunk driving

Most countries have laws against drunk driving, driving with a certain concentration of ethanol in the blood. Punishments usually include fines, temporary loss of driving license, and imprisonment. The legal threshold of blood alcohol content ranges from 0.0% to 0.08%, according to local law. Similar prohibitions exist for drunk sailing, drunk bicycling, even drunk rollerblading. In many places in the United States it is illegal to have an open container of an alcoholic beverage in the passenger compartment. Drunk driving (drink driving in the UK) or drinking and driving is the act of operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol (i. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... Driving licences within the European Union are subdivided in different categories. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. ...


Manufacturing

In many countries, production of alcoholic beverages requires a license, and alcohol production is taxed.


In the United States, the sale of alcoholic beverages is controlled by the individual States, the counties or parishes within each State, and then by local jurisdictions within counties. For example: in North Carolina, beer and wine may be purchased in retail stores, but distilled spirits are only available at State ABC (Alcohol Beverage Control) stores. In Maryland, distilled spirits are available in liquor stores except in Montgomery Country where the County runs the ABC stores.


In most States, individuals may freely produce wine and beer usually up to 100 gallons per adult, but no more than 200 gallons per household for personal consumption (but not for sale). However, in St. Mary's County, Maryland a 'bono fide' resident may sell beer and native wines from their home.


The production of distilled beverages is regulated and taxed.[18] The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives and the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (formerly one organization known as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms) enforce federal laws and regulations related to alcohol. Illegal manufacture of distilled liquor is often referred to as "moonshining", and the product, which is not aged and contains a high percentage of alcohol, is often called "white lightning". The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, shortened to Tax and Trade Bureau or TTB, is a part of the United States Department of the Treasury. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ...


All alcoholic product packaging must contain a health warning from the Surgeon General. The Alcoholic Beverage Labeling Act (or ABLA) is a United States federal law enacted in 1988. ... US Public Health Service US Public Health Service Collar Device US Public Health Service Cap Device The Surgeon General of the United States is the head of the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the U.S...


In the UK, the Customs and Excise department issues distilling licenses. In the UK, Her Majestys Customs and Excise is a department of the British Government. ...


In New Zealand it is legal to produce any form of alcohol for personal use, including spirits. This has made the sale and use of home distillation equipment popular. The same is true of many U.S. states, including Missouri. This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Sale and possession restrictions

Denmark

In Denmark, people can buy all kinds of alcoholic beverages from grocery stores. The Legal age of purchasing alcohol is 16 in shops, and 18 in bars and restaurants. Until 1998 there was no age limit to buy alcohol in shops. It is generally legal to drink alcoholic beverages in the street, however, you have to be at least 18 years old, but restrictions are sometimes applied by local authorities in problem areas. In trains, buses etc. it is generally allowed to drink alcohol, but not to act heavily intoxicated, a rule enforced less strictly than in neighbouring Scandinavian countries.


Home production of wine and beer is not regulated. Home distillation of spirits is legal, however not common since it is subject to the same taxation as spirits sold commercially. Bootlegging is rarely heard of, in contrast to rural Sweden and Norway. Danish alcohol taxes are significantly lower than in Sweden and Norway, but higher than in most other European countries.


Nordic countries

In each of the Nordic countries except Denmark, there is a government monopoly on the selling of hard alcohol in stores. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...


In Sweden, beers with a lower alcohol content, called folköl (more than 2.25% and up to 3.5% alcohol by weight), can be sold in regular stores to anyone older than 18, but drinks with a high content of alcohol can only be sold in the official government-run vendors to people older than 20, or in licensed facilities such as restaurants and bars, where the age limit is 18. The law states that alcoholic drinks bought at these licensed facilities must be consumed on the premises, and it is not allowed to consume alcoholic drinks bought elsewhere. For non-alcoholic drinks there is no such legal requirement, but individual facilities may still set their own restrictions.


In Norway, beers with an alcohol content of 4.5% by volume or less can be legally sold in grocery stores. Stronger beers, wine and spirits can only be bought at official government-run vendors. All alcoholic beverages can be bought at licensed bars and restaurants, provided they are consumed on the premises. Beers and vine can be purchased by anyone of age 18 or older, spirits by anyone 20 or over. Norway levies some of the heaviest fees in the world on alcoholic beverages, particularly spirits, on top of a 25% GST on all goods and services. For example, 700 ml of Absolut Vodka currently retails at 275 NOK, which is about 54 USD.



The state-run vendor is called Systembolaget in Sweden, Vinmonopolet in Norway, Alko in Finland, and Vínbúð in Iceland. The governments claim that the purpose of this system is to cut down on the consumption of alcohol in these countries where binge drinking is an ancient tradition. The first such monopoly was in Falun in the 19th century. In the early 20th century, Sweden had a brief prohibition of strong alcoholic drinks, followed by strict rationing, and then more lax regulation, including being open on Saturdays. These measures have had success in the past, but since joining the European Union it has been harder to curb importation, legal or illegal, from other EU countries, making these measures less effective. There is an ongoing debate over whether or not to maintain the state-run alcohol monopolies. Systembolaget ( ; colloquially known as systemet the system or bolaget the company; literal English translation: the System Company) is a government owned chain of liquor stores in Sweden. ... Vinmonopolet (English: ), commonly shortened to Polet, is a government owned alcoholic beverage retailer and the only company allowed to sell beverages containing a higher alcohol content than 4. ... Alko is the national alcoholic beverage retailing monopoly in Finland. ... Vínbúð is a chain of 46 stores run by the Icelandic alcohol & tobacco monopoly - ÁTVR, locally called “ríkið” which litterally means “The State”. It is the only place on Iceland where it is possible to buy alcohol legally. ...


United States
Map of open container laws in the United States by state, as of September 2007.
See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas, Alcohol laws of Missouri, Alcohol laws of New York, Alcohol laws of North Carolina, Alcohol laws of Oklahoma

In the United States, the places where alcohol may be sold and/or possessed, like all other alcohol restrictions, varies from state to state. Some states, like Nevada, Louisiana, Missouri, and Connecticut, have very permissive and laissez-faire alcohol laws, whereas other states, like Kansas and Oklahoma, have very strict alcohol laws. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This list of alcohol laws of the United States by state provides an overview of alcohol-related laws by state throughout the United States. ... Flag of the State of Kansas The alcohol laws of Kansas are among the strictest in the United States, in sharp contrast to its neighboring state of Missouri (see Alcohol laws of Missouri), but much like (though still stricter than) its other neighboring state of Oklahoma (see Alcohol laws of... Location of Missouri Flag of the State of Missouri Although fairly comprehensive, the alcohol laws of Missouri are among the most permissive in the United States, perhaps only behind those of Nevada and Louisiana. ... The alcohol laws of North Carolina prohibit the sale of alcohol from 2 a. ... Oklahoma defines low-point beer as any beverage containing between 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


Many U.S. states require that distilled liquor be sold only in dedicated liquor stores. In eighteen alcoholic beverage control states (Alabama, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming), liquor stores are run by the state itself, ostensibly to prevent young cashiers from allowing sales to underage friends while pretending to verify their age. In Nevada and Missouri, however, state law does not specifically enumerate the precise locations where alcohol may be sold, allowing even gas stations to sell any alcoholic beverage as if they were liquor stores. In some states, liquor sales are prohibited on Sunday by a blue law. A liquor store in Decatur, Georgia. ... Map of Alcoholic Beverage Control States, current as of February 2006. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Modern gas station A filling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility that sells fuel for road motor vehicles – usually petrol (US: gas/gasoline), diesel fuel and LPG. The term gas station is mostly particular to the United States of America and Canada, where petrol is known as... This article is about laws created to enforce moral standards. ...


Most U.S. states follow a three-tier (alcohol distribution) system where producers cannot sell directly to retailers, but must instead sell to distributors, who in turn sell to retailers. Exceptions often exist for brewpubs (pubs which brew their own beer) and wineries, which are allowed to sell their products directly to consumers. The Three-tier system of alcohol distribution is the system for distributing alcoholic beverages set up in the United States after the repeal of Prohibition. ...

In the U.S., the control and licensing of alcohol distribution is performed at the state level. This convenience store in Michigan has temporarily had its retail license suspended for sale of alcohol to minors.
In the U.S., the control and licensing of alcohol distribution is performed at the state level. This convenience store in Michigan has temporarily had its retail license suspended for sale of alcohol to minors.

Although all U.S. states have laws against drunk driving (usually defined as driving with at or above 0.08% blood alcohol content), most U.S. states also do not allow open containers of alcohol inside of moving vehicles. The federal Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century of 1999 mandates that if a state does not prohibit open containers of alcohol inside of all moving vehicles, a percentage of its federal highway funds will be transferred instead to alcohol education programs each year. As of November, 2007, only one state (Mississippi) allows drivers to consume alcohol while driving (below the 0.08% limit), and only seven states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Mississippi, Missouri, Virginia, and West Virginia) allow passengers to consume alcohol while the vehicle is in motion. This article is about the U.S. State. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Underage drinking. ... Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. ... The French Quarter of New Orleans, which, along with the Power & Light District of Kansas City, Missouri, is one of only two locations in the United States where open containers of alcohol are allowed in public In the United States, open container laws prohibit possessing and/or drinking from an... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


Five U.S. states limit alcohol sales in grocery stores and gas stations to beer at or below 3.2% alcohol: Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and Utah. In these states, stronger beverages are restricted to liquor stores. In Oklahoma, liquor stores may not refrigerate any beverage containing more than 3.2% alcohol. Missouri also has provisions for 3.2% beer, but its extremely permissive alcohol laws (when compared to other states) makes 3.2% beer a rarity. For a large scale grocery store, see supermarket. ... Modern gas station A filling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility that sells fuel for road motor vehicles – usually petrol (US: gas/gasoline), diesel fuel and LPG. The term gas station is mostly particular to the United States of America and Canada, where petrol is known as... Low-point beer, also known as 3. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Location of Missouri Flag of the State of Missouri Although fairly comprehensive, the alcohol laws of Missouri are among the most permissive in the United States, perhaps only behind those of Nevada and Louisiana. ...


Most states ban drinking alcoholic beverages in public (i.e. in the street). Moreover, even where a state, like Nevada, Louisiana, or Missouri, has no laws against drinking alcoholic beverages in public, the vast majority of cities and counties therewithin do ban drinking alcoholic beverages in public. Still, in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana, the Power & Light District of Kansas City, Missouri, and Beale Street of Memphis, TN, state law specifically allow persons over the age of 21 to possess alcoholic beverages in plastic cups on the street. This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... NOLA redirects here. ... The Power & Light District is the new nine city block entertainment district on the south end of Downtown Kansas City, Missouri, USA. The district is located on Main Street to Grand Boulevard from west to east and on 13th Street to Interstate 670 from north to south. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Beale Street is a street in Memphis, Tennessee and a significant location in African-American history and the history of the blues. ... City nickname: The River City or The Bluff City Location in the state of Tennessee County Shelby County, Tennessee Area  - Total  - Water 763. ...


Often, bars serving distilled liquor are exempted from smoking bans where they exist in the United States (see list of smoking bans in the United States.) No Smoking sign. ... State-wide smoking bans, both active and scheduled. ...


Types of alcoholic beverages

Low-alcohol-content drinks are produced by fermentation of sugar- or starch-containing products, and high-alcohol ones are produced by distillation of these. Sometimes, the alcohol content is increased by adding distilled products, particularly in the case of wines. Such fortified wines include Port and Sherry. Fermented beverages Beer Ale Barleywine Bitter ale Mild ale Pale ale Porter Stout Cask ale Stock ale Fruit Beer Lager beer Bock Dry beer Oktoberfest Märzen Pilsener Schwarzbier Small beer Wheat beer Witbier White Beer Hefeweizen Cauim Chicha Cider Kilju Kumis Lappish Hags Love Potion Mead Perry Pulque... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... A glass of tawny port. ... A glass of amontillado Sherry For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ...


The process involved (as well as the resulting alcohol content) defines the finished product. Beer involves a relatively short (incomplete) fermentation process and an equally short aging process (a week or two) resulting in an alcohol content generally between 3-8%, as well as natural carbonation. Wine involves a longer (complete) fermentation process, and a relatively long aging process (months or years -- sometimes decades) resulting in an alcohol content between 7-18%. Sparkling wine is generally made by adding a small amount of sugar before bottling, which causes a secondary fermentation to continue in the bottle. Distilled products are generally not made from a beer that would normally be palatable as fermentation is normally completed, but no aging is involved until after distillation. Most are 30% or greater alcohol by volume. Liqueurs are characterized by the way in which their flavors are infused and typically have high sugar content. Spirits typically contain 37.5% alcohol or greater and are not infused with flavors during the distilling process, however some modern spirits are infused with flavors after distilling (the Swedish vodka Absolut, for instance or Polish infused cranberry vodka Sobieski). For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Absolut Vodka is a Swedish brand of vodka, owned by V&S Group, and produced at their facilities near Ã…hus, Scania, in southern Sweden. ...


Standard alcoholic drinks in the United States all contain the same amount of alcohol, about 0.6 fl. oz. (American) each (17.75ml). A U.S. standard drink is a 12 ounce can or bottle of beer, a five ounce glass of dinner wine, or a 1.5 ounce drink of 40% distilled spirits (either straight or in a mixed drink).


In the UK, alcohol content is measured in units. One unit equates to 10 ml of pure ethanol (approx. 1/3 fl. oz. American). A typical large glass or pint of beer contains approximately 2 units. A shot (25ml) of 40% spirit contains exactly 1 unit.


The names of some beverages are determined by the source of the material fermented:


Grains

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
barley beer, ale, barley wine Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey, shōchū (mugijōchū) (Japan)
rye rye beer, kvass rye whiskey, vodka (Poland), roggenkorn (type of corn, from Germany)
corn chicha, corn beer bourbon whiskey, vodka (only a few, like Tito's from Texas)
sorghum burukutu (Nigeria), pito (Ghana), merisa (southern Sudan), bilibili (Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon) maotai, gaoliang, certain other types of baijiu (China).
wheat wheat beer vodka, wheat whisky, weizenkorn (type of Korn, from Germany)
rice Ruou gao (Vietnam), huangjiu, choujiu (China), sake (Japan), sonti (India), makgeolli (Korea), tuak (Borneo Island), thwon (Nepal) rice baijiu (China), shōchū (komejōchū) and awamori (Japan), soju (Korea) (some soju also made from potatoes),
millet millet beer (sub-saharan Africa), tongba (Tibet)
buckwheat shōchū (sobajōchū) (Japan)

Juice of Fruits For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ale (disambiguation). ... Barley wine or Barleywine is a style of strong ale originating in England in the nineteenth century (derived from the March or October beers of the 18th century) but now brewed worldwide. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... ShōchÅ« ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Rye beer refers to any beer in which rye (generally malted) is substituted for some portion of the barley malt. ... A glass of mint kvass. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... A calabash of warm pito Pito is a type of beer common in northern Ghana, parts of Nigeria, and other parts of West Africa. ... Maotai, or Moutai (spelling used by the producing company), is arguably the most famous Chinese liquor, or baijiu. ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... It has been suggested that Kristall Weissbier be merged into this article or section. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiÇ”, lit. ... Main article: Chinese wine Choujiu (chinese:稠酒) is a type of Chinese fermented alcoholic beverage brewed directly from glutinous rice. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... Sonti is an Indian rice wine, made much like sake. ... Makgeolli, also known as takju, is a traditional alcoholic beverage indigenous to Korea. ... Tuak is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented rice, yeast and sugar and drunk in Borneo and East Malaysia. ... Thwon (Nepal Bhasa:थ्वं) is a type of alcoholic beverage. ... Rice baijiu (Chinese: 米白酒; pinyin: mǐbáijiÇ”), also known as rice fragrance baijiu (米香型白酒), is a variety of distilled beverage popular in China. ... ShōchÅ« ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ... Soju is a distilled beverage native to Korea and traditionally made from rice. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Millet beer, also known as Bantu beer, kaffir beer, or opaque beer, is an alcoholic beverage made from malted millet. ... Tongba is a millet based alcoholic beverage originating in the mountainous region of Nepal, India (Darjeeling) and probably in Tibet as well. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... ShōchÅ« ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ...

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
juice of grapes, wine brandy, Cognac (France), Vermouth, Armagnac (France), Branntwein (Germany), pisco (Chile & Perú), Rakia also Rakiya, Rakija, Rakı (The Balkans, Turkey), singani (Bolivia), pálinka (Hungary), Arak (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan)
juice of apples cider (US: 'Hard Cider'), apfelwein applejack (or apple brandy), calvados, cider
juice of pears perry, or pear cider; poiré (France) pear brandy, Eau-de-Vie (France)
juice of plums plum wine slivovitz, tzuica, palinca, umeshu
juice of pineapples tepache (Mexico)
bananas or plantains Chuoi hot (Viet Nam), urgwagwa (Uganda, Rwanda), mbege (with millet malt; Tanzania), kasikisi (with sorghum malt; Democratic Republic of the Congo)
gouqi gouqi jiu (China) gouqi jiu (China)
Myrica rubra yangmei jiu (China) yangmei jiu (China)
pomace pomace wine Raki (Turkey) tsipouro, tsikoudia (Greece), grappa (Italy), Trester (Germany), marc (France), zivania (Cyprus), aguardente (Portugal), tescovină (Romania), Arak (Iraq)

Vegetables For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A bottle of vermouth Vermouth is a fortified wine flavored with aromatic herbs and spices (aromatized in the trade) using closely-guarded recipes (trade secrets). ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... This article is about a liquor. ... Pálinka is a traditional type of brandy that is produced in Hungary and Transylvania (region of Romania). ... Arak may refer to: Arak, a city in centeral Iran Arak, an alcoholic beverage made from grapes and anise This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Species Malus domestica Malus sieversii Apple is the fruit (pome) of the genus Malus belonging to the family Rosaceae, and is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Apfelwein Apfelwein (German, apple wine) is the German form of cider, produced from apples. ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... This article is about is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Species See text. ... Plum wine is a fermented alcoholic beverage made from plums. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Tzuica (Romanian: Å¢uică) is the name of a popular Romanian alcoholic drink produced by distilling the plums juice, sometimes mixed with different other fruits (pears especially). ... Palinka (Hungarian: pálinka; Romanian: palincă) is a traditional type of brandy that is produced in Romania (Transylvania) and Hungary. ... Umeshu is a liqueur made from Japanese ume fruits, sugar and shochu. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... The tepache is a drink made out of pineapple cortex, some piloncillo or brown sugar and sometimes beer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Mbege is a traditional Chagga brew, made from finger millet and bananas. ... Species Lycium barbarum L. Lycium chinense Mill. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... Binomial name Myrica rubra Siebold & Zucc. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ... Pomace wine is a kind of wine made from grape pomace. ... Raki is: An alternate name for Rangi, the sky father in the South Island dialect of Māori. ... Tsipouro (Greek: Τσίπουρο) is a distilled alcoholic beverage, more precisely a pomace brandy, from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete, where the same spirit with a stronger aroma is known as tsikoudia. ... Tsikoudia or raki is a grape-based spirit from the island of Crete (Greece), made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. ... Aguardente is a kind of Portuguese brandy. ... Arak may refer to: Arak, a city in centeral Iran Arak, an alcoholic beverage made from grapes and anise This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
juice of ginger root ginger beer (Botswana)
potato and/or grain potato beer vodka: potato mostly used in Poland and Germany, otherwise grain or potato. A strong drink called aquavit or brännvin in Sweden, akvavit in Denmark and akevitt in Norway, and brennivín in (Iceland) is made from potato or grain. Actually, vodka is Russian for "little water" and can be done out of almost anything. - In Ireland, Poitín (or poteen) is a recently legalised drink made from potatoes.
sweet potato shōchū (imojōchū) (Japan)
cassava/manioc/yuca nihamanchi (South America), kasiri (sub-saharan Africa), chicha (Ecuador) Can be fermented from 3 to 10 days for strength)
juice of sugarcane, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum (Caribbean), pinga or cachaça (Brasil), aguardiente, guaro
juice of agave pulque tequila, mezcal, raicilla

Other For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Akvavit, also known as aquavit, is a Scandinavian distilled beverage of typically about 40% alcohol by volume. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... Poitín (or Poteen) is an Irish moonshine and may also refer to Irish Whiskey. ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... For the Gibraltar company, see Cassava Enterprises. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... History Basi is a Sugar Cane wine from the nation state of Guyana ([gaɪa. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... // Goddess In Inuit mythology, Pinga (the one who is up on high) was a goddess of the hunt, fertility and medicine. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Guaro is the popular name for the Larenses, inhabitants of Lara State, in central west Venezuela. ... Species see text. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ...

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
sap of palm coyol wine (Central America), tembo (sub-saharan Africa)
honey mead (Poland), teg (Ethiopia) distilled mead (mead brandy or honey brandy)
milk kumis, kefir, blaand Araka
sugar kilju (Finland) shōchū (kokutō shōchū): made from brown sugar (Japan)

Note that in common speech, wine or brandy is made from grapes unless the fruit is specified: plum wine or cherry brandy for example, although in some cases grape-derived alcohol is added. Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid[1]), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. ... Coyol wine is a fermented alcoholic beverage made from the sap of coyol palms. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... A glass of cows milk. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... Grains of kefir For the Islamic term, see Kaffir. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Kilju is a Finnish traditional homemade alcoholic beverage made from water, sugar, and yeast (some fruit can be added). ... Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ...


In the USA and Canada, cider often means unfermented apple juice (see the article on cider), while fermented cider is called hard cider. Unfermented cider is sometimes called sweet cider. Also, applejack was originally made by a freezing process described in the article on cider which was equivalent to distillation but more easily done in the cold climate of New England. In the UK, cider refers to the alcoholic drink; in Australia the term is ambiguous. Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Beer is generally made from barley, but can sometimes contain a mix of other grains. Whisky (or whiskey) is sometimes made from a blend of different grains, especially Irish whiskey which may contain several different grains. The style of whisk(e)y (Scotch, Rye, Bourbon, corn) generally determines the primary grain used, with additional grains usually added to the blend (most often barley, and sometimes oats). As far as American whiskey is concerned, Bourbon (corn), rye whiskey, must be at least 51% of respective constituent at fermentation, while corn whiskey (as opposed to bourbon) must be at least 81% - all by American law similar to the French A.O.P (Appellation d'Origine Controllée). Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ...


Two common distilled beverages are vodka and gin. Vodka can be distilled from any source of agricultural origin (grain and potatoes being the most common) but the main characteristic of vodka is that it is so thoroughly distilled as to exhibit less of the flavors derived from its source material. Distillers and experts however will disagree, potato vodkas display a creamy mouthfeel, whilst rye vodkas will have heavy nuances of rye. Other vodkas display citrus notes. Gin is a similar distillate which has been flavored by contact with herbs and other plant products, especially juniper berries but also including angel root, licorice, cardamom, grains of paradise, Bulgarian rose petals, and many others. The name comes from the Dutch or French word for Juniper, jenever or genever. Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ...

See also

Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Alcohol equivalence refers to the fact that United States standard drinks of alcoholic beverages contain equivalent amounts of alcohol, which is 0. ... Kevin is the best person in the world [Image:Breathalyzer. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini Drunkenness is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of alcohol to a degree that mental and physical facilities are noticeably impaired. ... A blackout is a phenomenon caused by the intake of alcohol in which long term memory creation is impaired. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The legal drinking age is a limit assigned by governments to restrict the access of children and youth to alcoholic beverages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... AA meeting sign Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal meeting society for recovering alcoholics, its members state their primary purpose as, to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety. ... For the drawing or cutting tool, see Straightedge. ... Two Bacardi Breezers Alcopop is a term often used to describe flavored alcoholic beverages including: malt beverages to which various fruit juices or other flavorings have been added, beverages containing wine to which ingredients such as fruit juice or other flavorings have been added, or beverages containing distilled alcohol and...

References

  1. ^ http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/reprint/28/4/570.pdf
  2. ^ Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology, Cooper Bloom Roth 1991, p.134.
  3. ^ June Russells Health Facts
  4. ^ E85 | A History of Ethanol
  5. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries
  6. ^ Per capita recorded alcohol consumption (litres of pure alcohol) among adults (>=15 years)
  7. ^ www.aheartylife.com
  8. ^ www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  9. ^ www.serials.cib.unibo.it
  10. ^ www.stroke.ahajournals.org
  11. ^ www.ije.oxfordjournals.org
  12. ^ a b Meyer, Jerold S. and Linda F. Quenzer. Psychopharmacology: Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior. Sinauer Associates, Inc: Sunderland, Massachusettes. 2005. Page 228.
  13. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4491314.stm Alcohol's health benefits doubted
  14. ^ Alcohol-Attributable Deaths Report, United States 2001
  15. ^ Does alcohol kill brain cells?
  16. ^ Burden of alcohol-related cancer substantial
  17. ^ Protection of Young Person Act (PDF) (2002-07-23). Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  18. ^ TTBGov General Alcohol FAQs

Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Alcoholic Drink
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alcoholic beverages
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... WHO redirects here. ... The Alcohol and Drugs History Society is a scholarly organization whose members study the history of a variety of illegal, regulated, and unregulated drugs such as opium, alcohol, and coffee. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Image:Frans Hals 002 . ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... A glass of mint kvass. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... The Amaretto Disaronno square bottle The term amaretto refers to a sweet liqueur made from a basic infusion of the stones of drupe fruits, such as peaches, as well as a related almond biscotto. ... A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon. ... Arak Rayan, from Syria. ... A small souvenir bottle of ouzo Ouzo (ούζο) is a Greek anise-flavored liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. ... Rakı becomes cloudy white, when mixed with water. ... A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... An Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... Malibu Rum is a rum made in Barbados with natural coconut extract. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ... Limoncello [limontlːo] is a lemon liqueur produced in the south of Italy, mainly in the region around the Gulf of Naples and the coast of Amalfi and Islands of Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia and the Maltese island of Gozo. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... A bottle of apricot Hungarian Pálinka. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... Bärenjäger is a honey-flavoured liqueur based on vodka, made by Teucke & König in Germany. ... Polish Krupnik Krupnik, or Krupnikas as it is known in Lithuanian, is a traditional sweet vodka, similar to a liqueur, based on grain spirit and honey, popular in Poland and Lithuania. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ţuică (in Romanian , sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... Orujo is a liquor obtained from the distillation of the pomace of the grape. ... Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. ... Tsikoudia or raki is a grape-based spirit from the island of Crete (Greece), made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... Tsipouro (Greek: Τσίπουρο) is a distilled alcoholic beverage, more precisely a pomace brandy, from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete, where the same spirit with a stronger aroma is known as tsikoudia. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... Rice baijiu (Chinese: 米白酒; pinyin: mǐbáijiǔ), also known as rice fragrance baijiu (米香型白酒), is a variety of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Soju is a distilled beverage native to Korea and traditionally made from rice. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Falernum is a sweet syrup used in Tropical and Caribbean drinks. ... This page is about the drink, for the locality, go to Guaro Guaro is the name of a kind of liquor in many places in Central America. ... Seco Herrerano is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Panama. ... Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Flanders, from which gin has evolved. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... The shot glass containing Midori was dropped into a shandy, making a fairly potent beer cocktail. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Serving multiple flaming cocktails can be an impressive skill to learn. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A wine cocktail is a mixed drink similar to a true cocktail. ... It has been suggested that glogg be merged into this article or section. ...

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liquor license attorneys, alcoholic beverage licensing, naabla (472 words)
Liquor license attorney or an alcohol licensing attorney is an attorney who assist clients in obtaining alcoholic beverage licenses or permits in the states where the liquor, beer or wine permit or alcoholic beverage license is being sought by the client either at the retail, wholesale, or manufacturing/importing level.
Alcoholic beverage licenses require a license or permit in every jurisdiction where the sale of alcoholic beverages such as liquor, beer, and wine are permitted.
Naabla members are here to assist with liquor license and alcoholic beverage license legal matters in the United States by connecting the potential client to a Naabla member in the state the client is interested in obtaining liquor license, beer permits, beer license, wine permits, wine license or some combination thereof in.
Alcoholic beverage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3905 words)
Alcoholic beverages with a concentration of more than 50% ethanol by volume (100 proof) are flammable liquids and easily ignited.
Alcohols of this purity are commonly referred to as grain alcohol and are not meant for human consumption, with the notable exception of neutral grain spirits.
Alcoholic beverages have been widely consumed since prehistoric times by people around the world, seeing use as a component of the standard diet, for hygienic or medical reasons, for their relaxant and euphoric effects, for recreational purposes, for artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs, and for other reasons.
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