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Encyclopedia > Alcohol
Functional group of an alcohol molecule. The carbon atom is attached to other carbon or hydrogen atoms.

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. The general formula for a simple acyclic alcohol is CnH2n+1OH. Alcohol may refer to: Alcohol as a functional group in chemistry. ... Image File history File links Alcohol_general. ... Image File history File links Alcohol_general. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kÄ“me (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... In chemistry, aliphatic compounds are organic compounds in which carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains. ...


Generally, the word alcohol usually refers to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol or (older) spirits of wine. Ethanol is a very strong and unique smelling, colorless, volatile liquid formed by the fermentation of sugars. It also often refers to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). It is the most widely used depressant in the world, and has been for thousands of years. This sense underlies the term alcoholism (addiction to alcohol). Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with sedative. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Look up addiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other forms of alcohol are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol). The suffix -ol appears in the official chemical name of all alcohols. Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ...

Contents

Structure

There are three major, subsets of alcohols: 'primary' (1°), 'secondary' (2°) and 'tertiary' (3°), based upon the number of carbons the C-OH carbon (shown in red) is bonded to. Methanol is the simplest 'primary' . The simplest secondary alcohol is isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol), and a simple tertiary alcohol is tert-butyl alcohol (2-methylpropan-2-ol). Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Butanol is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atoms and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol: butan-1-ol CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH butan-2-ol CH3-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3 sec-butanol CH3-CH-CH3 | CH2OH OH | tert-butanol CH3...

Some common alcohols
Some common alcohols

The phenols with parent compound phenol have a hydroxyl group (attached to a benzene ring) just like alcohols but differ sufficiently in properties as to warrant a separate treatment. Download high resolution version (815x331, 34 KB)Some common examples of different types of alcohols Drawn in ISIS Draw (TM) by User:Walkerma, April 2005 This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... Download high resolution version (815x331, 34 KB)Some common examples of different types of alcohols Drawn in ISIS Draw (TM) by User:Walkerma, April 2005 This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ...


Methanol and ethanol

The simplest and most commonly used alcohols are methanol (common name methyl alcohol) and ethanol (ethyl alcohol), with the structures shown above in the chart. Methanol was formerly obtained by the distillation of wood and called "wood alcohol." It is now a cheap commodity, the chemical product of carbon monoxide reacting with hydrogen under high pressure. In common usage, "alcohol" often refers to ethanol or "grain alcohol." Methylated spirits ("Meths"), also called "surgical spirits" or "denatured alcohol", is a form of ethanol rendered undrinkable by the addition of methanol. Aside from its primary use in alcoholic beverages, ethanol is also used as a highly controlled industrial solvent and raw material. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl functional group derived from ethane (C2H6). ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Methylated spirit (Meths or denatured alcohol — but not Rubbing alcohol which is different [1]) is ethanol which has been rendered toxic or otherwise undrinkable, and in some cases dyed. ...


Propanol and butanol

Two other alcohols whose uses are relatively widespread (though not so much as those of methanol and ethanol) are propanol and butanol. Like ethanol, they are produced by fermentation processes. (However, the fermenting agent is a bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum, that feeds on cellulose, not sugars like the Saccharomyces yeast that produces ethanol.) Clostridium acetobutylicum () is a commercially valuable bacterium, included in the genus Clostridium. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...


Sources

Many alcohols can be created by fermentation of fruits or grains with yeast, but only ethanol is commercially produced this way — chiefly for fuel and drink. Other alcohols are generally produced by synthetic routes from natural gas, petroleum, or coal feed stocks; for example, via acid catalyzed hydration of alkenes. For more details see Preparation of alcohols. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fermentation (biochemistry). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Rising energy prices and global warming have led to increased interest in alternative fuels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... In organic chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (an acidic proton) are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ...


Nomenclature

Systematic names

In the IUPAC system, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal "e" and adds "ol", e.g. "methanol" and "ethanol". When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the "ol": propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CH(OH)CH3. Sometimes, the position number is written before the IUPAC name: 1-propanol and 2-propanol. If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone or carboxylic acid), then it is necessary to use the prefix "hydroxy", for example: 1-hydroxy-2-propanone (CH3COCH2OH). IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 15 °C RTECS number UH8225000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... An aldehyde. ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted...


Some examples of simple alcohols and how to name them:

Examples of alcohols & their names

Common names for alcohols usually takes name of the corresponding alkyl group and add the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol or tert-butyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the 1st or 2nd carbon on the propane chain. Isopropyl alcohol is also occasionally called sec-propyl alcohol. Examples of common alcohols & their names This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... Examples of common alcohols & their names This image has been released into the public domain by its creator and original copyright holder. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl functional group derived from ethane (C2H6). ... In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl substituent with chemical formula -C4H9 . ... In organic chemistry, propyl is a three-carbon alkyl substituent with chemical formula -C3H7. ...


As mentioned above alcohols are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°) or tertiary (3°), and common names often indicate this in the alkyl group prefix. For example (CH3)3COH is a tertiary alcohol is commonly known as tert-butyl alcohol. This would be named 2-methylpropan-2-ol under IUPAC rules, indicating a propane chain with methyl and hydroxyl groups both attached to the middle (#2) carbon.


Etymology

The word "alcohol" almost certainly comes from the Arabic language (the "al-" prefix being the Arabic definite article); however, the precise origin is unclear. The Persian physician and scientist Rhazes discovered this substance, but because he wanted his book to be published in most of the then-known world, he used the Arabic language instead of Persian (although he made copies in Persian). The word was introduced into Europe, together with the art of distillation and the substance itself, around the 12th century by various European authors who translated and popularized the discoveries of Islamic and Persian alchemists [1]. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Not to be confused with Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...


A popular theory, found in many dictionaries, is that it comes from الكحل al-kuḥl, originally the name of very finely powdered antimony sulfide Sb2S3 used as an antiseptic and eyeliner. The powder is prepared by sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite in a closed vessel. According to this theory, the meaning of alkuhul would have been first extended to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol. This conjectured etymology has been circulating in England since 1672 at least (OED). General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Kohl is a mixture of soot and other ingredients used predominantly by Middle Eastern , North African, Sub-Saharan African and Asian women, and to a lesser extent men, to darken the eyelids and as mascara for the eyelashes. ... Sublimation of an element or compound is the change from a solid directly to a gas with no intermediate liquid stage. ... Stibnite, sometimes also called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the chemical composition Sb2S3. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


However, this derivation is suspicious since the current Arabic name for alcohol, الكحول al-kuḥūl, does not derive from al-kuḥl.[citation needed] The Qur'an, in verse 37:47, uses the word الغول al-ġawl — properly meaning "spirit" or "demon" — with the sense "the thing that gives the wine its headiness". The word al-ġawl is also the origin of the English word "ghoul", and the name of the star Algol. This derivation would, of course, be consistent with the use of "spirit" or "spirit of wine" as synonymous of "alcohol" in most Western languages. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... “Fiend” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A ghoul is a monster from ancient Arabian folklore that dwells in burial grounds and other uninhabited places. ... Algol (β Per / Beta Persei) is a bright star in the constellation Perseus. ...


According to the second theory, the popular etymology and the spelling "alcohol" would not be due to generalization of the meaning of al-kuḥl, but rather to Western alchemists and authors confusing the two words al-kuḥl and al-ghawl, which have indeed been transliterated in many different and overlapping ways.


Physical and chemical properties

The hydroxyl group generally makes the alcohol molecule polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to other compounds. This hydrogen bonding means that alcohols can be used as protic solvents. Two opposing solubility trends in alcohols are: the tendency of the polar OH to promote solubility in water, and of the carbon chain to resist it. Thus, methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the short carbon chain. Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble because of a balance between the two trends. Alcohols of five or more carbons (Pentanol and higher) are effectively insoluble in water because of the hydrocarbon chain's dominance. All simple alcohols are miscible in organic solvents. Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... In chemistry a protic solvent is a solvent that carries hydrogen bond between an oxygen as in a hydroxyl group or a nitrogen as in an amine group. ... Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically), is an alcohol with a 4 carbon structure and the molecular formula of C4H10O. It is primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and as a fuel. ... There are eight isomers of amyl alcohol (C5H11OH): Three of these alcohols, active amyl alcohol, methyl (n) propyl carbinol, and methyl isopropyl carbinol, contain an asymmetric carbon atom and can consequently each exist in two optically active, and one optically inactive form. ...


Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol ethanol is 78.29 °C, compared to 69 °C for the hydrocarbon Hexane (a common constituent of gasoline), and 34.6 °C for Diethyl ether. In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Alcohols, like water, can show either acidic or basic properties at the O-H group. With a pKa of around 16-19 they are generally slightly weaker acids than water, but they are still able to react with strong bases such as sodium hydride or reactive metals such as sodium. The salts that result are called alkoxides, with the general formula RO- M+. In chemistry and biochemistry, acid dissociation constant, the acidity constant, or the acid-ionization constant () is a specific type of equilibrium constant that indicates the extent of dissociation of hydrogen ions from an acid. ... Acidity redirects here. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Sodium hydride is a highly flammable, and corrosive chemical compound with formula NaH and CAS number 7646-69-7. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... It has been suggested that Properties and uses of metals be merged into this article or section. ...


Meanwhile the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid. For example, with methanol: A lone pair is an electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


Methanol reacting either as a base or an acid. ...


Alcohols can also undergo oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids, or they can be dehydrated to alkenes. They can react to form ester compounds, and they can (if activated first) undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions. The lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen of the hydroxyl group also makes alcohols nucleophiles. For more details see the reactions of alcohols section below. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... An aldehyde. ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... This article is in need of attention. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ...


Uses

Automotive

Main article: Alcohol as a fuel

Alcohol is often used as an automotive fuel. Ethanol and methanol can be made to burn more cleanly than gasoline or diesel. Alcohol was once used as an antifreeze in automobile radiators. To add to an internal combustion engine's performance, methanol may be injected into turbocharged and supercharged engines. This cools the air intake charge, providing a denser air charge. The use of alcohol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuels. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Diesel or diesel fuel (IPA: ; voiced “s” because of its eponym) is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... Antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines, and for many other heat transfer applications, such as electronics cooling and chillers for HVAC. Compounds are added to water to reduce the freezing point of the mixture to below the lowest temperature that the system is likely to be exposed to, and... Radiators and convectors are types of heat exchangers designed to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Scientific, medical, and industrial

Alcohols have applications in industry and science as reagents or solvents. Because of its low toxicity and ability to dissolve non-polar substances, ethanol can be used as a solvent in medical drugs, perfumes, and vegetable essences such as vanilla. In organic synthesis, alcohols serve as versatile intermediates. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... Vanilla pods Vanilla is a flavouring derived from orchids in the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ...


Ethanol can be used as an antiseptic to disinfect the skin before injections are given, often along with iodine. Ethanol-based soaps are becoming common in restaurants and are convenient because they do not require drying due to the volatility of the compound. Alcohol is also used as a preservative for specimens. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In biology, specimen is an individual animal or a plant or a microorganism that is used as a representative to study the properties of the whole population of that species. ...


Toxicity

Alcohols often have an odor described as 'biting' that 'hangs' in the nasal passages. Ethanol in the form of alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since pre-historic times, for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons. The consumption of large doses result in drunkenness or intoxication (which may lead to a hangover as the effect wears off) and, depending on the dose and regularity of use, can cause acute respiratory failure or death and with chronic use has medical repercussions. Because alcohol impairs judgment, it can often be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior. The LD50 of ethanol in rats is 11,300 mg/kg.[2] This ratio would correspond to an 80kg (176.4lb) man drinking 65 shots of 80 proof alcohol, although the LD50 does not necessarily translate directly to humans. A more accurate but less precise figure would estimate the LD50 of the same 80kg (176.4lb) at about 15.5 shots of 80 proof alcohol.[3] Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hangover (veisalgia) describes the sum of unpleasant physiological effects following heavy consumption of drugs and liquor, particularly alcoholic beverages. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... A shot glass (pencil included for scale) Traditionally, a shot glass was a small, thick glass designed to measure one ounce of liquid, usually liquor, to be either drunk straight, or poured into a mixed drink. ... In the fields of science, engineering, industry and statistics, accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. ...


Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized, and often their metabolism produces even more toxic substances. Methanol, or wood alcohol, for instance, is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes in the liver to the poisonous formaldehyde, which can cause blindness or death. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ...


An effective treatment to prevent formaldehyde toxicity after methanol ingestion is to administer ethanol. Alcohol dehydrogenase has a higher affinity for ethanol, thus preventing methanol from binding and acting as a substrate. Any remaining methanol will then have time to be excreted through the kidneys. Remaining formaldehyde will be converted to formic acid and excreted. In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ...


Preparation of alcohols

Laboratory

Several methods exist for the preparation of alcohols in the laboratory.

The formation of a secondary alcohol via reduction and hydration is shown: In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydroborate, has the chemical formula NaBH4. ... Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4), commonly abbreviated to LAH, is a powerful reducing agent used in organic chemistry. ... The reduction of ketones to secondary alcohols with aluminumisopropylate catalysis in isopropanol solution is called Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley-Reduction. ... An alkene is one of the three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond and have the general molecular formula of CnH2n (the other two being alkynes and arenes). ... Acidity redirects here. ... In organic chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (an acidic proton) are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group. ... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... A hydroboration-oxidation reaction is an organic chemistry reaction used to add a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (H+) to an alkene via anti-Markovnikov addition. ... The oxymercuration reaction is an electrophilic addition organic reaction that transforms an alkene into a neutral alcohol. ... A Grignard Reagent is an alkyl- or aryl- magnesium halide. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... The Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is a chemical reaction described as an asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters. ...

Two common methods used for making secondary alcohols. ...

Industrial

Industrially alcohols are produced in several ways:

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Invertase (EC 3. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Zymase is a enzyme complex that catalyze glycolysis, the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... In organic chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (an acidic proton) are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is an inorganic mineral acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... It has been suggested that Town gas be merged into this article or section. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ...

Reactions of alcohols

Deprotonation

Alcohols can behave as weak acids, undergoing deprotonation. The deprotonation reaction to produce an alkoxide salt is either performed with a strong base such as sodium hydride or n-butyllithium, or with sodium or potassium metal. Deprotonation is a chemistry term that refers to the removal of a proton (hydrogen ion H+) from a molecule, forming the conjugate base. ... An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Sodium hydride is a highly flammable, and corrosive chemical compound with formula NaH and CAS number 7646-69-7. ... An organolithium reagent is a carbon nucleophile similar to a Grignard reagent. ...

2 R-OH + 2 NaH → 2 R-O-Na+ + H2
2 R-OH + 2Na → 2R-ONa + H2
E.g. 2 CH3CH2-OH + 2 Na → 2 CH3-CH2-ONa + H2

Water is similar in pKa to many alcohols, so with sodium hydroxide there is an equilibrium set up which usually lies to the left: Sodium hydride is a highly flammable, and corrosive chemical compound with formula NaH and CAS number 7646-69-7. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... In chemistry and biochemistry, acid dissociation constant, the acidity constant, or the acid-ionization constant () is a specific type of equilibrium constant that indicates the extent of dissociation of hydrogen ions from an acid. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Apparatus for carrying out acid-base titration. ...

R-OH + NaOH <=> R-O-Na+ + H2O (equilibrium to the left)

It should be noted, though, that the bases used to deprotonate alcohols are strong themselves. The bases used and the alkoxides created are both highly moisture sensitive chemical reagents. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...


The acidity of alcohols is also affected by the overall stability of the alkoxide ion. Electron-withdrawing groups attached to the carbon containing the hydroxyl group will serve to stabilize the alkoxide when formed, thus resulting in greater acidity. On the other hand, the presence of electron-donating group will result in a less stable alkoxide ion formed. This will result in a scenario whereby the unstable alkoxide ion formed will tend to accept a proton to reform the original alcohol. The Polar effect or electronic effect in chemistry is the effect exerted by a substituent on modifying electrostatic forces operating on a nearby reaction center. ... The Polar effect or electronic effect in chemistry is the effect exerted by a substituent on modifying electrostatic forces operating on a nearby reaction center. ...


With alkyl halides alkoxides give rise to ethers in the Williamson ether synthesis. In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... Williamson ether synthesis was developed by Alexander Williamson in 1850. ...


Nucleophilic substitution

The OH group is not a good leaving group in nucleophilic substitution reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react in such reactions. However if the oxygen is first protonated to give R−OH2+, the leaving group (water) is much more stable, and nucleophilic substitution can take place. For instance, tertiary alcohols react with hydrochloric acid to produce tertiary alkyl halides, where the hydroxyl group is replaced by a chlorine atom. If primary or secondary alcohols are to be reacted with hydrochloric acid, an activator such as zinc chloride is needed. Alternatively the conversion may be performed directly using thionyl chloride.[1] // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... A leaving group is an atom or molecule that detaches from an organic molecule, which, after detachment, is called the residual or main part. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O&#8722;H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is a colorless or white compound of zinc and chlorine that is extremely hygroscopic. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Flash point non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Download high resolution version (1419x209, 10 KB)Formation of alkyl halides from alcohols- two simple examples taken from B. S. Furnell et al. ...


Alcohols may likewise be converted to alkyl bromides using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide, for example: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hydrogen bromide. ... Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3. ...

3 R-OH + PBr3 → 3 RBr + H3PO3

In the Barton-McCombie deoxygenation an alcohol is deoxygenated to an alkane with tributyltin hydride or a trimethylborane-water complex in a radical substitution reaction. The Barton-McCombie deoxygenation is a organic reaction in which an hydroxy functional group in an organic compound is replaced by a proton to an alkane . ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents. ... Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds comprised of boron and carbon. ... In Organic chemistry, a radical substitution reaction is a substitution reaction where a radical is the intermediate and the product is an alkyl halide. ...


Dehydration

Alcohols are themselves nucleophilic, so R−OH2+ can react with ROH to produce ethers and water in a dehydration reaction, although this reaction is rarely used except in the manufacture of diethyl ether. Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... In chemistry, a dehydration reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...


More useful is the E1 elimination reaction of alcohols to produce alkenes. The reaction generally obeys Zaitsev's Rule, which states that the most stable (usually the most substituted) alkene is formed. Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above room temperature, but primary alcohols require a higher temperature. An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... In chemistry, Zaitsevs rule, Saytzeffs rule or Saytsevs rule named after Alexander Mikhailovich Zaitsev (number of different spellings due to name being transliterated from Russian) is a rule that states that if more than one alkene can be formed by an elimination reaction, the more stable alkene...


This is a diagram of acid catalysed dehydration of ethanol to produce ethene: Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ...


Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x225, 4 KB) Reaction diagram of Acid Catalysed Dehydration of an Alcohol. ...


A more controlled elimination reaction is the Chugaev elimination with carbon disulfide and iodomethane. The Chugaev elimination is a chemical reaction that involves the elimination of water from primary alcohols to produce terminal alkenes. ...


Esterification

To form an ester from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid the reaction, known as Fischer esterification, is usually performed at reflux with a catalyst of concentrated sulfuric acid: A carboxylic acid ester. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Fischer esterification is the process of forming an ester by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid (catalyst). ... Diagram of typical reflux apparatus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...

R-OH + R'-COOH → R'-COOR + H2O

In order to drive the equilibrium to the right and produce a good yield of ester, water is usually removed, either by an excess of H2SO4 or by using a Dean-Stark apparatus. Esters may also be prepared by reaction of the alcohol with an acid chloride in the presence of a base such as pyridine. It has been suggested that theoretical yield be merged into this article or section. ... The Dean-Stark apparatus or Dean-Stark receiver or distilling trap is a piece of laboratory glassware used in synthetic chemistry to collect water (or occasionally other liquid) from a reactor. ... In organic chemistry, an acid chloride (or acyl chloride) is very reactive derivative of a carboxylic acid. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ...


Other types of ester are prepared similarly- for example tosyl (tosylate) esters are made by reaction of the alcohol with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine. The tosylate group with a generic R group attached A tosyl group (abbreviated Ts or Tos) combines the toluene and sulfonyl functional groups. ... A toluenesulfonyl group (abbreviated Ts or tosyl) consists of a sulfur atom double bonded to two oxygen atoms and bonded to an R group and a toluene. ...


Oxidation

Primary alcohols (R-CH2-OH) can be oxidized either to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-CO2H), while the oxidation of secondary alcohols (R1R²CH-OH) normally terminates at the ketone (R1R²C=O) stage. Tertiary alcohols (R1R²R³C-OH) are resistant to oxidation. An aldehyde. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ...


The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids normally proceeds via the corresponding aldehyde, which is transformed via an aldehyde hydrate (R-CH(OH)2) by reaction with water before it can be further oxidized to the carboxylic acid.

Mechanism of oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids via aldehydes and aldehyde hydrates
Mechanism of oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids via aldehydes and aldehyde hydrates

Often it is possible to interrupt the oxidation of a primary alcohol at the aldehyde level by performing the reaction in absence of water, so that no aldehyde hydrate can be formed. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 125 pixel Image in higher resolution (1474 × 230 pixel, file size: 11 KB, MIME type: image/png) Step 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 125 pixel Image in higher resolution (1474 × 230 pixel, file size: 11 KB, MIME type: image/png) Step 3. ...


Reagents useful for the transformation of primary alcohols to aldehydes are normally also suitable for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones. These include:

Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones
Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones

Allylic and benzylic alcohols can be oxidized in presence of other alcohols using certain selective oxidants such as manganese dioxide (MnO2). The Collins reagent is the complex of chromium(VI) oxide with pyridine in dichloromethane. ... PDC may stand for: Political parties: Parti Démocrate-Chrétien Suisse (Switzerland) Partido Demócrata Cristiano (Chile) Partido Demócrata Cristiano (El Salvador) Personal Digital Cellular, a Japanese mobile phone standard Programme Delivery Control, a standard to control video recorders using codes transmitted in the teletext service. ... PCC may stand for: Chief Postal Clerk (US Navy) Parity check code Parochial Church Council Patents County Court Poison control center Polymer City Chronicles (online webcomic) Portable C Compiler Portland cement concrete Precipitated calcium carbonate Presidents Conference Committee streetcar Price-consumption curve Proof-Carrying Code Pure Car Carrier Pyridinium chlorochromate... Dimethyl sulfoxide The United States DoDs Defense Modeling and Simulation Office This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... Safety (MSDS) data for oxalyl chloride General Synonyms: ethanedioyl chloride, oxalic acid chloride, oxalic acid dichloride, oxalyl dichloride, oxalic dichloride, oxaloyl chloride Molecular formula: C2Cl2O2 CAS No: 79-37-8 EINECS No: 201-200-2 Physical data Appearance: colourless liquid Melting point: - 9 C Boiling point: 63 - 64 C Vapour... The mild oxidation of primary or secondary alcohols to aldehydes or ketones with a mixture of oxalyl chloride, dimethylsulfoxide and triethylamine is called the Swern oxidation. ... A carbodiimide is a functional group consisting of the formula N=C=N. Carbodiimides hydrolyze to form ureas, which makes them rarely found in nature. ... The Pfitzner-Moffatt oxidation is a chemical reaction which describes the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols by reaction with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). ... The Dess-Martin periodinane is a chemical reagent used to oxidize alcohols to aldehydes and ketones. ... IBX acid IBX acid or 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid is an organic compound used in organic chemistry as an oxidizing agent. ... Tetrapropylammonium perruthenate is the chemical compound described by the formula N(C3H7)4RuO4. ... Devics disease, also known as Devics syndrome, neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or optic-spinal MS, is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder in which a persons own immune system attacks myelin of the neurons of the optic nerves and spinal cord. ... The first two measures of Mozarts Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as Andante grazioso and a modern editors metronome marking: = 120. “Andante” redirects here. ... Commercial chlorine bleach To bleach something, is to remove or lighten its color, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing; a bleach is a chemical that produces these effects, often via oxidation. ... NaOCl is the chemical formula for what is commonly known as household bleach. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixel Image in higher resolution (966 × 564 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alcohol ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixel Image in higher resolution (966 × 564 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alcohol ... Manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2) is a chemical compound also known as manganese dioxide or manganese oxide. ...


Reagents useful for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones, but normally inefficient for oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, include chromium trioxide (CrO3) in a mixture of sulfuric acid and acetone (Jones oxidation) and certain ketones, such as cyclohexanone, in the presence of aluminium isopropoxide (Oppenauer oxidation). In chemistry, chromic acid (or Jones reagent) is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, that would have the formula H2CrO4. ... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... The Jones oxidation is a chemical reaction described as the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively. ... Cyclohexanone is six-carbon cyclic molecule with a ketone functional group. ... Aluminium isopropoxide is an inorganic compound and the adduct of aluminum and isopropyl alcohol. ... Oppenauer oxidation, named after Rupert Viktor Oppenauer [1], is a gentle method for oxidising secondary alcohols to ketones. ...


The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids can be carried out using:

Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids
Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids

Alcohols possessing two hydroxy groups located on adjacent carbons —that is, 1,2-diols— suffer oxidative breakage at a carbon-carbon bond with some oxidants such as sodium periodate (NaIO4) or lead tetraacetate (Pb(OAc)4), resulting in generation of two carbonyl groups. Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... The Jones oxidation is a chemical reaction described as the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively. ... PDC may stand for: Political parties: Parti Démocrate-Chrétien Suisse (Switzerland) Partido Demócrata Cristiano (Chile) Partido Demócrata Cristiano (El Salvador) Personal Digital Cellular, a Japanese mobile phone standard Programme Delivery Control, a standard to control video recorders using codes transmitted in the teletext service. ... Dimethylformamide, also known under the names N,N-dimethylformamide and DMF, is a clear, water-miscible liquid and common solvent that is often used in chemical reactions. ... Ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) is a yellow, diamagnetic tetrahedral ruthenium compound. ... The first two measures of Mozarts Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as Andante grazioso and a modern editors metronome marking: = 120. “Andante” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 366 pixel Image in higher resolution (802 × 367 pixel, file size: 14 KB, MIME type: image/png) Step 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 366 pixel Image in higher resolution (802 × 367 pixel, file size: 14 KB, MIME type: image/png) Step 3. ... This prefix in chemical nomenclature indicates the presence of a hydroxyl functional group (-OH). ... Sodium periodate has formula NaIO4. ... Lead(IV) acetate or lead tetraacetate is a chemical compound with chemical formula Pb(C2H3O2)4 and is a lead salt of acetic acid. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ...

Oxidative breakage of carbon-carbon bond in 1,2-diols
Oxidative breakage of carbon-carbon bond in 1,2-diols

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 389 pixel Image in higher resolution (807 × 392 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alcohol ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 389 pixel Image in higher resolution (807 × 392 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alcohol ...

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Alcohol

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Rising energy prices and global warming have led to increased interest in alternative fuels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. ... A breathalyzer (or breathalyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample. ... The effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms. ... Fatty alcohols are aliphatic alcohols derived from natural fats and oils, originating in plants, but also synthesized in animals and algae. ... Fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS is a disorder of permanent birth defects that occurs in the offspring of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. ... During the obtention of carboxylic acids from primary alcohols, a carbon atom greatly increases its oxidation state. ... A bottle of rubbing alcohol Rubbing alcohol, U.S.P. / B.P. is a liquid prepared for topical application prepared from specially denatured alcohol and containing 68. ... A sugar alcohol (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) is a hydrogenated form of carbohydrate, whose carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alcohol: Problems & Solutions (646 words)
Drinking alcohol in moderation significantly lowers risk of heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI) in women compared to life-time abstainers; benefits were greatest for women who drink daily, according to scientific medical research evidence.
Rheumatoid arthritis risk appears to be reduced by consuming alcohol on a regular basis, according to scientific research presented at the European Congress on Rheumatology.
The alcohol contents of a regular beer, glass of dinner wine and shot of whiskey or other distilled spirit (80 proof) are all the same.
Alcohol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2775 words)
Alcoholism, the physiological or psychological dependency on ethanol, is one of the most common drug addictions (caffeine causes chemical dependency, but not the mental longing known as addiction) in the world.
Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the 1st or 2nd carbon on the propane chain.
In the Barton-McCombie deoxygenation an alcohol is deoxygenated to an alkane with tributyltin hydride or a trimethylborane -water complex in a radical substitution reaction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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