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Encyclopedia > Alcibiades
Alcibiades
450 BC404 BC

Alcibiades
Place of birth Athens
Place of death Phrygia
Allegiance Athens
(415 BC-412 BC Sparta)
Rank general (strategos)
Battles/wars Battle of Abydos (410 BC)
Battle of Cyzicus (410 BC)
Siege of Byzantium (408 BC)

Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης; English /ælsɪ'baɪədi:z/; c. 450 BC404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. The last famous member of an aristocratic family that fell from prominence after the Peloponnesian War, he played a major role in the second half of that conflict as a strategic advisor, military commander, and politician. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1475x2460, 2267 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alcibiades Portal:Military of Greece Portal:Military of Greece/Selected biography Portal:Military of Greece/Selected biography/2... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 39 km²  - Metro 3,808 km² Elevation 70 [3... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 39 km²  - Metro 3,808 km² Elevation 70 [3... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC - 415 BC - 414 BC 413 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC 413 BC - 412 BC - 411 BC 410 BC 409... Sparta (Doric: , Attic: ) is a city in southern Greece. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ... Battle of Abydos (410 BC) Battle of Abydos (322 BC) Battle of Abydos (200 BC) Battle of Abydos (989) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 415 BC 414 BC 413 BC 412 BC 411 BC - 410 BC - 409 BC 408 BC 407... The Battle of Cyzicus in 410 BC was a small-scale naval battle during the Peloponnesian War between an Athenian fleet led by Alcibiades and a Peloponnesian fleet led by Sparta. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 415 BC 414 BC 413 BC 412 BC 411 BC - 410 BC - 409 BC 408 BC 407... Byzantium, present day Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 413 BC 412 BC 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC - 408 BC - 407 BC 406 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... This table lists several transcription schemes from the Greek alphabet to the Latin alphabet. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles Cleon Nicias Alcibiades Archidamus II Brasidas Lysander For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431 BC–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict fought between Athens and its...


During the course of the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades changed his allegiance on several occasions. In his native Athens in the early 410s BC, he advocated for an aggressive foreign policy, and was a prominent proponent of the Sicilian Expedition, but fled to Sparta after his political enemies brought charges of sacrilege against him. In Sparta, he served as a strategic advisor, proposing or supervising several major campaigns against Athens. In Sparta too, however, Alcibiades soon made powerful enemies and was forced to defect to Persia. There, he served as an advisor to the satrap Tissaphernes until his political allies among the Athenians brought about his recall. He then served as an Athenian general (strategos) for several more years, but his enemies eventually succeeded in exiling him a second time. The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Sparta (Doric: , Attic: ) is a city in southern Greece. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tissaphernes (Pers. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ...


The Sicilian expedition was Alcibiades' creation, and modern scholars have argued that, had that expedition been under Alcibiades' command instead of that of Nicias, the expedition might not have met its eventual disastrous fate.[1] In the years that he served Sparta, Alcibiades played a crucial role in Athens' undoing; the capture of Decelea and the revolts of several critical Athenian subjects occurred either at his suggestion or under his supervision. Once restored to his native city, however, he played a crucial role in a string of Athenian victories that eventually brought Sparta to seek a peace with Athens. He favored unconventional tactics, frequently winning cities over by treachery or negotiation rather than by siege.[2] Alcibiades' military and political talents frequently proved valuable to whichever state currently held his allegiance, but his capacity for making powerful enemies ensured that he never remained in one place for long, and, by the end of the war that he had helped rekindle in the early 410s, his days of political relevance were a bygone memory. Nicias (d. ... Decelea, modern Dekeleia or Dekelia, Deceleia or Decelia, previous name Tatoi was a decisive source of supplies for Athens. ...

Contents

Early years

Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904): Socrates seeking Alcibiades in the House of Aspasia, 1861
Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904): Socrates seeking Alcibiades in the House of Aspasia, 1861

Alcibiades was born in ancient Athens, the son of Cleinias and Deinomache, the latter of whom belonged to the powerful and controversial family of the Alcmaeonidae; Pericles and his brother Ariphon were Deinomache's cousins (her father and their mother were siblings).[3] It is said that his family was traced back to Eurysaces.[4] His grandfather, also named Alcibiades, was a friend of Cleisthenes, the famous constitutional reformer of the late 6th century BC.[5] After the death of Cleinias at the Battle of Coronea in 447 BC, Pericles and Ariphron became his guardians.[6] According to Plutarch, Alcibiades had a number of famous teachers, such as Socrates, and was well trained in the art of rhetoric.[a] He was noted for his unruly behavior, which is mentioned by the ancient Greek writers on various occasions.[b] Image File history File links AspasiaAlcibiades. ... Image File history File links AspasiaAlcibiades. ... Jean-Léon Gérôme (May 11, 1824 - 1904) was a French painter and sculptor who produced many works in a historical, Orientalist style. ... A view of the Acropolis of Athens during the Ottoman period, showing the buildings which were removed at the time of independence The History of Athens is the longest of any city in Europe: Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 3,000 years. ... Cleinias was an Athenian who married Deinomache. ... The Alcmaeonidae or Alcmaeonids were a powerful noble family of ancient Athens who claimed descent from the mythological Alcmaeon, the grandson of Nestor. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... In Greek mythology, Eurysaces was the son of The Telamonian Ajax and Tecmessa. ... Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ... The Battle of Coronea took place between the Athenian-led Delian League and the Boeotian League in 447 BC. In 457 BC the Athenians had taken control of Boeotia at the Battle of Oenophyta, and spent the next ten years attempting to consolidate the Leagues power. ... This article is about the philosopher Socrates, not to be confused with the playwright Sophocles Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ...


Alcibiades took part in the Battle of Potidaea in 432 BC, where Socrates was said to have saved his life,[7] a service which he repaid at the Battle of Delium in 424 BC.[c] Alcibiades had an intimate but (according to idealized ancient accounts) chaste relationship with Socrates, whom he admired and respected, and who in turn was drawn by his beauty but refused to succumb to the youth's attractions.[8][9] According to Plutarch, Alcibiades "feared and reverenced Socrates alone, and despised the rest of his lovers".[10] Battle of Potidaea Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 432 BC Place Potidaea Result Athenian victory The Battle of Potidaea was, with the Battle of Sybota, one of the catalysts for the Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 437 BC 436 BC 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC - 424 BC - 423 BC 422 BC... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46- 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Hellenistic historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Alcibiades was married to Hipparete, the daughter of Hipponicus, a wealthy Athenian. According to Plutarch, Hipparete loved her husband, but she attempted to divorce him because he consorted with courtesans. She lived with him until her death and gave birth to probably two children, a daughter and a son, also named Alcibiades.[11] Hipparete (Greek: ) was the the daughter of Hipponicus, a wealthy Athenian. ... Hipponicus was an Athenian military commander and son of Callias. ... A courtesan of mid-16th century usage referred to a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. ...


Political career until 412 BC

Rise to prominence

Alcibiades first rose to prominence when he began advocating aggressive Athenian action after the signing of the Peace of Nicias. (That treaty, an uneasy truce between Sparta and Athens signed midway through the Peloponnesian War, came at the end of seven years of fighting in which neither side had gained a decisive advantage). Historians Arnold W. Gomme and Raphael Sealey believe that Alcibiades was offended that the Lacedaimonians had negotiated that treaty through Nicias and Laches, overlooking him on account of his youth.[12][13] The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty that was signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. ... Laches (Gr. ...


Disputes over the interpretation of the treaty led the Spartans to dispatch ambassadors to Athens with full powers to arrange all unsettled matters.[14] The Athenians initially received these ambassadors well, but Alcibiades met with them in secret before they were to speak to the ecclesia (the Athenian Assembly) and told them that the Assembly was haughty and had great ambitions.[14] He urged them to renounce their diplomatic authority to represent Sparta, and instead allow him to assist them through his influence in Athenian politics.[15] The representatives agreed and, impressed with Alcibiades' foresight, they alienated themselves from Nicias, who sincerely wanted to reach an agreement with the Spartans.[14] The next day during the Assembly Alcibiades asked them what powers Sparta had granted them to negotiate and they replied, as agreed, that they had not come with full and independent powers. This was in direct contradiction to what they had said the day before and Alcibiades seized on this opportunity to denounce their character, cast suspicion on their aims, and destroy their credibility. This ploy increased Alcibiades' standing while embarrassing Nicias, and Alcibiades was subsequently appointed general. He took advantage of his increasing power to orchestrate the creation of an alliance between Argos, Mantinea, Elis and other states in the Peloponnese, threatening Sparta's dominance in the region. According to Gomme, "it was a grandiose scheme for an Athenian general at the head of a mainly Peloponnesian army to march through the Peloponnese cocking a snook at Sparta when her reputation was at its lowest".[16] This alliance, however, would ultimately be defeated at the Battle of Mantinea.[17] The ecclesia or ekklesia (Greek έκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens. ... Argos (Greek: Άργος, Árgos, IPA argos) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnese near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor, named for Nauplius. ... Mantinea is a city in the central Peloponnese that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... Combatants Sparta Arcadian allies of Sparta Tegea Argos Athens Mantineia Commanders Agis II Laches † Nicostratus† Thrasyllus Strength About 9000 About 8000 Casualties About 300 About 1100 The Battle of Mantinea took place in 418 BC between Sparta and its allies, and an army led by Argos and Athens. ...


Somewhere in the years 416-415 BC, a complex struggle took place between Hyperbolos on one side and Nicias and Alcibiades on the other. Hyperbolos tried to bring about the ostracism of one of this pair but Nicias and Alcibiades combined their influence to induce the people to expel Hyperbolos instead.[18] This incident reveals that Nicias and Alcibiades each commanded a personal following, whose votes were determined by the wishes of the leaders.[13] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 421 BC 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC - 416 BC - 415 BC 414 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC Years: 420 BC 419 BC 418 BC 417 BC 416 BC - 415 BC - 414 BC 413 BC... Hyperbolos (Latin spelling Hyberbolus) was an Athenian politician active during the first half of the Peloponnesian war, coming to especial prominence after the death of Cleon. ...


Alcibiades was not one of the generals involved in the capture of Melos in 416-415 BC, but Plutarch makes him a supporter of the decree by which the grown men of Melos were killed and the women and children enslaved.[19] The orator Andocides alleges that Alcibiades had a child by one of these enslaved women.[20] Milos (formerly Melos, and before the Athenian genocide Malos) is a volcanic island in the Aegean Sea. ... Andocides, or Andokidès , (440–390 BC) one of the ten Attic orators. ...


Sicilian Expedition

For more details on this topic, see Sicilian Expedition.
Map of Sicily designed by Marco Prins-Jona Lendering with all the Phoenician and Greek settlements.
Map of Sicily designed by Marco Prins-Jona Lendering with all the Phoenician and Greek settlements.

In 415 BC, delegates from the Sicilian city of Segesta (Egesta in Greek) arrived at Athens to plead for the support of the Athenians in their war against Selinus. During the debates on the undertaking, Nicias was vehemently opposed to Athenian intervention, explaining that the campaign would be very costly and attacking the character and motives of Alcibiades, who had emerged as the supporter of the expedition. On the other hand, Alcibiades argued that a campaign in this new theatre would bring riches to the city and expand the empire, just as the Persian Wars had. In his speech Alcibiades predicted (over-optimistically, in the opinion of most historians) that the Athenians would be able to recruit allies in the region and impose their rule on Syracuse, the most powerful city of Sicily.[21] In spite of Alcibiades' enthusiastic advocacy for the plan, it was Nicias, not he, who turned a modest undertaking into a massive campaign and made the conquest of Sicily seem possible and safe.[22] It was at his suggestion that the size of the fleet was significantly increased from 60 ships to "140 galleys, 5,100 men at arms, and about 1300 archers, slingers, and light armed men".[23] Philosopher Leo Strauss underscores that the Sicilian expedition surpassed everything undertaken by Pericles.[24] Almost certainly Nicias' intention was to shock the assembly with his high estimate of the forces required, but, instead of dissuading his fellow citizens, his analysis made them all the more eager.[24] Against his wishes Nicias was appointed general along with Alcibiades and Lamachus, all three of whom were given full powers to do whatever was in the best interests of Athens while in Sicily.[25] The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (770x626, 18 KB) the photographer or designer is either Marco Prins or Jona Lendering. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (770x626, 18 KB) the photographer or designer is either Marco Prins or Jona Lendering. ... Segesta was the political center of the Elymian people. ... Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site in the south province of Trapani, in the island of Sicily. ... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Syracuse on the island of Sicily. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Latin, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ... feydey 11:57, 4 November 2005 (UTC) Category: Possible copyright violations ...


One night during preparations for the expedition the hermai, heads of the god Hermes on a plinth with a phallus, were mutilated throughout Athens. This was a religious scandal and was seen as a bad omen for the mission. Plutarch explains that Androcles, a political leader, used false witnesses who accused Alcibiades and his friends of mutilating the statues, and of profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries.[26] Later his opponents, chief among them being Androcles and Thessalus, Cimon's son, enlisted orators to argue that Alcibiades should set sail as planned and stand trial on his return from the campaign. Alcibiades was suspicious of their intentions, and asked to be allowed to stand trial immediately, under penalty of death, in order to clear his name.[26] This request was denied and the fleet set sail soon after, with the charges unresolved.[27] In ancient Greece, before his role as protector of merchants and travelers, Hermes was a phallic god, associated with fertility, luck, roads and borders. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Plinth of the Sign of the Kiwi, Dyers Pass, Port Hills, Christchurch (NZ) c 1917 - Collection: [Christchurch City Libraries] Look up Plinth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mural of Mercury in Pompeii. ... Androclus, a Roman slave who lived about the time of Tiberius. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries were annual initiation ceremonies for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... This article or section should include material fromKimon Cimon (died 450 BC?) was a major figure of the 470s BC and 460s BC in Athens, and the son of Miltiades. ...

"Men do not rest content with parrying the attacks of a superior, but often strike the first blow to prevent the attack being made. And we cannot fix the exact point at which our empire shall stop; we have reached a position in which we must not be content with retaining but must scheme to extend it, for, if we cease to rule others, we are in danger of being ruled ourselves. Nor can you look at inaction from the same point of view as others, unless you are prepared to change your habits and make them like theirs."
Alcibiades' Oration before the Sicilian expedition as recorded by Thucydides, (VI, 18])[d]; Thucydides disclaims verbal accuracy.

As Alcibiades had suspected, his absence emboldened his enemies, and they began to accuse him of other sacrilegious actions and comments and even alleged that these actions were connected with a plot against the democracy.[28] According to Thucydides, the Athenians were always in fear and took everything suspiciously.[29] When the fleet arrived in Catana, it found the state trireme Salaminia waiting to bring Alcibiades and the others indicted for mutilating the hermai or profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries back to Athens to stand trial.[29] Alcibiades told the heralds that he would follow them back to Athens in his ship, but in Thurii he escaped with his crew; in Athens he was convicted in absentia and condemned to death. His property was confiscated and a reward of one talent was promised to whoever succeeded in killing any who had fled.[30] Meanwhile the Athenian force in Sicily, after a few early victories, moved against Messina, where the generals expected their secret allies within the city to betray it to them. Alcibiades, however, foreseeing that he would be outlawed, gave information to the friends of the Syracusans in Messina, who succeeded in preventing the admission of the Athenians.[31] With the death of Lamachus in battle some time later, the Sicilian Expedition fell into the hands of Nicias, who modern scholars have judged to be an inadequate military leader.[1] Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Location within Italy Catania is the second largest city of Sicily and is the capital of the province which bears its name. ... Thurii, or Thueium, was a city of Magna Graecia on the Gulf of Taranto, near the site of the older Sybaris. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... Talent refers to a special aptitude, faculty or gift of a person. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ...


Defection to Sparta

After his disappearance at Thurii, Alcibiades quickly contacted the Spartans, "promising to render them aid and service greater than all the harm he had previously done them as an enemy" if they would offer him sanctuary.[32] The Spartans granted this request and received him among them. In the debate at Sparta over whether to send a force to relieve Syracuse, Alcibiades spoke and instilled fear of Athenian ambition into the Spartan ephors by informing them that the Athenians hoped to conquer Sicily, Italy, and even Carthage.[33] Yale historian Donald Kagan believes that Alcibiades knowingly exaggerated the plans of the Athenians to convince the Spartans of the benefit they stood to gain from his help.[34] Kagan asserts that Alcibiades had not yet acquired his "legendary" reputation, and the Spartans saw him as "a defeated and hunted man" whose policies "produced strategic failures" and brought "no decisive result".[34] If accurate, this assessment underscores one of Alcibiades greatest talents, his highly persuasive oratory.[34] After making the threat seem imminent, Alcibiades advised the Spartans to send troops and most importantly, a Spartan commander to discipline and aid the Syracusans.[33] Ruins of Roman-era Carthage For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Yale redirects here. ... Donald Kagan (born 1932) is a Yale historian specializing in ancient Greece, notable for his four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War. ...

"Our party was that of the whole people, our creed being to do our part in preserving the form of government under which the city enjoyed the utmost greatness and freedom, and which we had found existing. As for democracy, the men of sense among us knew what it was, and I perhaps as well as any, as I have the more cause to complain of it; but there is nothing new to be said of a patent absurdity - meanwhile we did not think it safe to alter it under the pressure of your hostility."
Alcibiades' Speech to the Spartans as recorded by Thucydides, (VI, 89])[d]; Thucydides disclaims verbal accuracy.

Alcibiades served as a military advisor to Sparta and helped the Spartans secure several crucial successes. He advised them to build a permanent fort at Decelea, just over ten miles from Athens and within sight of the city.[35] By doing this, the Spartans cut the Athenians off entirely from their homes and crops and the silver mines of Sunium.[34] This was part of Alcibiades's plan to renew the war with Athens in Attica. The move was devastating to Athens and forced the citizens to live within the long walls of the city year round, fostering the Plague of Athens and making them entirely dependent on their seaborne trade for food. Seeing Athens thus beleaguered on a second front, members of the Delian League began to contemplate revolt. In the wake of Athens' disastrous defeat in Sicily, Alcibiades sailed to Ionia with a Spartan fleet and succeeded in persuading several critical cities to revolt.[36] In spite of these valuable contributions to the Spartan cause, Alcibiades fell out of favor with the Spartan government at around this time when it was discovered that he was having an affair with the wife of the Spartan king, Agis II.[37] Leotychides, the son born by Agis' wife Timaia shortly after this, was believed by many to be Alcibiades' son.[38] Alcibiades's influence was further reduced after the retirement of Endius, the ephor who was most friendly to him.[39] It is alleged that Astiochus, a Spartan admiral, was sent orders to kill him, but Alcibiades received warning of this order and defected to the Persian satrap Tissaphernes, who had been supporting the Peloponnesian forces financially in 412 BC.[40] Decelea, modern Dekeleia or Dekelia, Deceleia or Decelia, previous name Tatoi was a decisive source of supplies for Athens. ... Cape Sounion, looking out to the Aegean islands The cape of Sounion or Sounio, previously known as Sunium (in ancient Greek Σούνιον) is located 65 kilometres south-east of Athens, in Attica. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... The Long Walls generally refers to the walls connecting Athens to its port at Piraeus which were constructed in the mid 5th century BC, destroyed by the Spartans in 404 BC after Athens defeat in the Peloponnesian War, and rebuilt again with Persian support during the Corinthian War. ... The city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... An ephor (Classical Greek ) (from the Greek , epi, on or over, and , horaō, to see, i. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC - 410s BC - 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 417 BC 416 BC 415 BC 414 BC 413 BC - 412 BC - 411 BC 410 BC 409...


In Asia Minor

Jean-Baptiste Régnault (1754-1829): Socrates dragging Alcibiades from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure, 1785
Jean-Baptiste Régnault (1754-1829): Socrates dragging Alcibiades from the Embrace of Sensual Pleasure, 1785

On his arrival in the Persian court, Alcibiades won the trust of the powerful satrap and made several policy suggestions which were well received. According to Thucydides, Alcibiades immediately began to do all he could with Tissaphernes to injure the Peloponnesian cause. At his urging, the satrap reduced the payments he was making to the Peloponnesian fleet and began delivering them irregularly.[40] Alcibiades next advised Tissaphernes to bribe the generals of the cities to gain valuable intelligence on their activities. Lastly, and most importantly, he told the satrap to be in no hurry to bring the Persian fleet into the conflict, as the longer the war dragged out the more exhausted the combatants would become.[41] This would allow the Persians to more easily conquer the region in the aftermath of the fighting. Alcibiades tried to convince the satrap that it was in Persia's interest to wear both Athens and Sparta out at first, "and after docking the Athenian power as much as he could, forthwith to rid the country of the Peloponnesians".[41] Although Alcibiades' advice benefitted the Persians, it was merely a means to an end; Thucydides tells us that his real motive was to use his alleged influence with the Persians to effect his restoration to Athens.[42] Image File history File links Socrates-Alcibiades. ... Image File history File links Socrates-Alcibiades. ...


Recall to Athens

Negotiations with the Athenian oligarchs

Alcibiades seemed to assume that the "radical democracy" would never agree to his recall to Athens.[43] Therefore, he exchanged messages with the Athenian leaders at Samos and suggested that if they could install an oligarchy friendly to him he would return to Athens and bring with him Persian money and possibly the Persian fleet of 147 triremes.[44] Alcibiades set about winning over the most influential military officers and achieved his goal by offering them a threefold plan: the Athenian constitution was to be changed, the recall of Alcibiades was to be voted, and Alcibiades was to win over Tissaphernes and the King of Persia to the Athenian side. Most of the officers in the Athenian fleet accepted the plan and welcomed the prospect of a narrower constitution, which would allow them a greater share in determining policy. According to Thucydides, only one of the Athenian generals at Samos, Phrynichus, opposed the plan and argued that Alcibiades cared no more for the proposed oligarchy than for the traditional democracy.[45] The involvement in the plot of another general, Thrasybulus, remains unclear.[e] Samos (Greek Σάμος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an island in southeastern Greece in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Turkey. ... Thrasybulus (Ancient Greek: , brave-willed, Eng. ...


These officers of the Athenian fleet formed a group of conspirators, but were met with opposition from the majority of the soldiers and sailors; these were eventually calmed down "by the advantageous prospect of the pay from the king".[46] The members of the group assembled and prepared to send Pisander, one of their number, on an embassy to Athens to treat for the restoration of Alcibiades and the abolition of the democracy in the city, and thus to make Tissaphernes the friend of the Athenians.[47]


Phrynichus, fearing that Alcibiades if restored would revenge himself upon him for his opposition, sent a secret letter to the Spartan admiral, Astyochus, to tell him that Alcibiades was ruining their cause by making Tissaphernes the friend of the Athenians, and containing an express revelation of the rest of the intrigue. Astyochus went up to Alcibiades and Tissaphernes at Magnesia and communicated to them Phrynichus's letter. Alcibiades responded in kind, sending to the authorities at Samos a letter against Phrynichus, stating what he had done, and requiring that he should be put to death.[48] Phrynichus in desperation wrote again to Astyochus, offering him a chance to destroy the Athenian fleet at Samos. This also Astyochus revealed to Alcibiades who informed the officers at Samos that they had been betrayed by Phrynichus. Alcibiades however gained no credit, because Phrynichus had anticipated Alcibiades's letter and, before the accusations could arrive, he told the army that he had received information of an enemy plan to attack the camp and that they should fortify Samos as quickly as possible.[49] Magnesia on the Maeander is an ancient Greek city in Anatolia, located on the Maeander river upstream from Ephesus. ...


Despite these events, Pisander and the other envoys of the conspirators arrived at Athens, and made a speech before the people. Pisander won the argument, putting Alcibiades and his promises at the center. The ecclesia deposed Phrynichus and elected Pisander and ten other envoys to negotiate with Tissaphernes and Alcibiades.[50]


At this point, Alcibiades's scheme encountered a great obstacle. Tissaphernes would not make an agreement on any terms, wanting to follow his policy of neutrality.[51] As Kagan points out, Tissaphernes was a prudent leader and had recognized the advantages of wearing each side out without direct Persian involvement.[52] Alcibiades realized this and, by presenting the Athenians with stiffer and stiffer demands on Tissaphernes' behalf, attempted to convince them that he had persuaded Tissaphernes to support them, but that they had not conceded enough to him.[53] Although the envoys were angered at the audacity of the Persian demands, they nevertheless departed with the impression that Alcibiades could have brought about an agreement among the powers if he had chosen to do so.[53] This fiasco at the court of Tissaphernes, however, put an end to the negotiations between the conspirators and Alcibiades.[51] The group was convinced that Alcibiades could not deliver his side of the bargain without demanding exorbitantly high concessions of them and they accordingly abandoned their plans to restore him to Athens.[53] A fiasco (pl. ...


Reinstatement as an Athenian General

See also: Athenian coup of 411 BC

In spite of the failure of the negotiations, the conspirators succeeded in overthrowing the democracy and imposing the oligarchic government of the Four Hundred, among the leaders of which were Phrynichus and Pisander. At Samos, however, a similar coup instigated by the conspirators did not go forward so smoothly. Samian democrats learned of the conspiracy and notified four prominent Athenians, the generals Leon and Diomedon, the trierarch Thrasybulus, and Thrasyllus, at that time a hoplite in the ranks. With the support of these men and the Athenian soldiers in general, the Samian democrats were able to defeat the 300 Samian oligarchs who attempted to seize power there.[54] Further, the Athenian troops at Samos formed themselves into a political assembly, deposed their generals, and elected new ones, including Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus. The army, stating that they had not revolted from the city but that the city had revolted from them, resolved to stand by the democracy while continuing to prosecute the war against Sparta.[55] The Athenian coup of 411 BC was a revolutionary movement during the Peloponnesian War which overthrew the democratic government of ancient Athens, replacing it with a short-lived oligarchy. ... A Greek trireme Triremes were ancient war galleys with three rows of oars on each side. ... 4th century Hoplite A hoplite armed with a spear. ...


After a time, Thrasybulus persuaded the assembled troops to vote Alcibiades' recall, a policy that he had supported since before the coup. Then he sailed to retrieve Alcibiades and returned with him to Samos. The aim of this policy was to win away Persian support from the Spartans, as it was still believed that Alcibiades had great influence with Tissaphernes.[56] Plutarch claims that the army sent for Alcibiades so as to use his help in putting down the tyrants in Athens.[57] Kagan argues that this reinstatement was a disappointment to Alcibiades, who had hoped for a glorious return to Athens itself but found himself only restored to the rebellious fleet, where the immunity from prosecution he had been granted "protected him for the time being but not from a reckoning in the future"; furthermore, the recall, which Alcibiades had hoped to bring about through his own prestige and perceived influence, was achieved through the patronage of Thrasybulus.[58]


At his first speech to the assembled troops, Alcibiades complained bitterly about the circumstances of his exile, but the greatest part of the speech consisted of boasting about his influence with Tissaphernes. The primary motives of his speech were to make the oligarchs at Athens afraid of him and to increase his credit with the army at Samos. Upon hearing his speech the troops immediately elected him general alongside Thrasybulus and the others.[59] In fact, he roused them so much that they proposed to sail at once for Piraeus and attack the oligarchs in Athens.[59] It was primarily Alcibiades, along with Thrasybulus, who calmed the people and showed them the folly of this proposal, which would have sparked civil war and led to the immediate defeat of Athens.[57] Shortly after Alcibiades' reinstatement as an Athenian general, the government of the Four Hundred was overthrown and replaced by a broader oligarchy, which would eventually give way to democracy.[60] View of Piraeus A night ferry about to leave the port of Piraeus for the Dodecanese Piraeus, or Peiraeus (Modern Greek: Πειραιάς Peiraiás or Pireás, Ancient Greek / Katharevousa: Πειραιεύς Pireéfs) is a city in the periphery of Attica, Greece, located south of Athens. ...


Presently Alcibiades sailed to Tissaphernes with a detachment of ships. According to Plutarch, the supposed purpose of this mission was to stop the Persian fleet from coming to the aid of the Peloponnesians.[57] Thucydides is in agreement with Plutarch that the Persian fleet was at Aspendus and that Alcibiades told the troops he would bring the fleet to their side or prevent it from coming at all, but Thucydides further speculates that the real reason was to flaunt his new position to Tissaphernes and try to gain some real influence over him.[59] According to the historian, Alcibiades had long known that Tissaphernes never meant to bring the fleet at all, and wished to compromise him as much as possible in the eyes of the Spartans through his friendship for himself and the Athenians, and thus to oblige him to join their side.[61] Aspendos, an ancient greek city in Asia Minor, is known for his best-preserved theater of antiquity with seating for 15000. ...


Battles of Abydos and Cyzicus

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Abydos and Battle of Cyzicus
The Athenian strategy at Cyzicus. Left: Alcibiades' decoy force (blue) lures the Spartan fleet (black) out to sea. Right: Thrasybulus and Theramenes bring their squadrons in behind the Spartans to cut off their retreat towards Cyzicus, while Alcibiades turns to face the pursuing force.
The Athenian strategy at Cyzicus. Left: Alcibiades' decoy force (blue) lures the Spartan fleet (black) out to sea. Right: Thrasybulus and Theramenes bring their squadrons in behind the Spartans to cut off their retreat towards Cyzicus, while Alcibiades turns to face the pursuing force.

Alcibiades was recalled by the "intermidiate regime" of the Five Thousand, the government which succeeded the Four Hundred in 411, but it is most likely that he waited until 407 BC to actually return to the city.[62] Plutarch tells us that, although his recall had already been passed on motion of Critias, a political ally of his, Alcibiades was resolved to come back with glory.[63] While this was certainly his goal, it was again means to an end, that end being avoiding prosecution upon his return to Athens. Battle of Abydos (410 BC) Battle of Abydos (322 BC) Battle of Abydos (200 BC) Battle of Abydos (989) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Battle of Cyzicus in 410 BC was a small-scale naval battle during the Peloponnesian War between an Athenian fleet led by Alcibiades and a Peloponnesian fleet led by Sparta. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1230x518, 21 KB) A diagram of the naval maneuvering at the Battle of Cyzicus that I drew. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1230x518, 21 KB) A diagram of the naval maneuvering at the Battle of Cyzicus that I drew. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 412 BC 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC - 407 BC - 406 BC 405 BC... Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ...


The next significant part he would play in the war would occur at the Battle of Abydos. Alcibiades had remained behind at Samos with small force while Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus led the greater part of the fleet to the Hellespont. During this period, Alcibiades succeded in raising money from Caria and the neighboring area, with which he was able to pay the rowers and gain their favor.[64] After the Athenian victory at Cynossema, both fleets summoned all their ships from around the Aegean to join them for what might be a decisive next engagement. While Alcibiades was still en route, the two fleets clashed Abydos, where the Peloponnesians had set up their main naval base. The battle was evenly matched and raged for a long time, but the balance tipped towards the Athenians when Alcibiades sailed into the Hellespont with eighteen triremes.[63][65] The Persian satrap Pharnabazus, who had replaced Tissaphernes as the sponsor of the Peloponnesian fleet, moved his land army to the shore to defend the ships and sailors who had beached their ships. Only the support of the Persian land army and the coming of night saved the Peloponnesian fleet from complete destruction.[66] Battle of Abydos (410 BC) Battle of Abydos (322 BC) Battle of Abydos (200 BC) Battle of Abydos (989) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Location of Caria Caria (Greek Καρία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a region of Asia Minor, situated south of Ionia, and west of Phrygia and Lycia. ... Battle of Cynossema Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 411 BC Place Off Cynossema Result Athenian victory The Battle of Cynossema was a naval battle in the Hellespont in 411 BC between Athens and Sparta, around the same time the Athenian democracy was overthrown in favour of a short_lived oligarchy. ... Abydos, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at Nagara Point on the Hellespont, which is here scarcely a mile broad. ... A Greek trireme Triremes (Greek Τριήρεις) are several different types of ancient warships. ... Pharnabazus was a Persian soldier and statesman, the son of Pharnaces, belonged to a family which from 478 BC governed the satrapy of Phrygia on the Hellespont, from its headquarters at Dascylium, and, according to a discovery by Th. ...


Shortly after the battle, Tissaphernes had arrived in the Hellespont and Alcibiades left the fleet at Sestos to meet him, bringing gifts and hoping to once again try to win over the Persian governor. Evidently Alcibiades had gravely misjudged his standing with the satrap, and he was arrested on arrival.[63] Within a month he would escape and resume command.[67] It was now obvious, however, that he had no influence with the Persians; from now on his authority would depend on what he actually could accomplish rather than on what he promised to do.[68]


After an interlude of several months in which the Peloponnesians constructed new ships and the Athenians besieged cities and raised money throughout the Aegean, the next major sea battle took place the spring of 410 BC at Cyzicus. Alcibiades had been forced to flee from Sestos to Cardia to protect his small fleet from the rebuilt Peloponnesian navy, but as soon as the Athenian fleet was reunited there its commanders led it to Cyzicus, where the Athenians had intelligence indicating that Pharnabazus and Mindarus, the Peloponnesian fleet commander, were together plotting their next move. Concealed by storm and darkness the combined Athenian force reached the vicinity without being spotted by the Peloponnesians.[67] Here the Athenians devised a plot to draw the enemy into battle. According to Diodorus Siculus, Alcibiades advanced with a small squadron in order to draw the Spartans out to battle, and, after he successfully deceived Mindarus with this ploy, the squadrons of Thrasybulus and Theramenes came to join him, cutting off the Spartan's retreat.[f][69] Cyzicus was an ancient town of Mysia in Asia Minor, situated on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmara, and to have been artificially connected with the mainland in historic times. ... Sestos was an ancient town of the Thracian Chersonese, the modern Gallipoli peninsula in European Turkey. ... The cardia is the anatomical term for the junction orifice of the stomach and the esophagus. ... Mindarus was a Spartan admiral who commanded the Peloponnesian fleet in 411 and 410 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


The Spartan fleet suffered losses in the flight, and reached the shore with the Athenians hot on their heels. Alcibiades's troops, leading the Athenian pursuit, landed and attempted to pull the Spartan ships back out to sea. The Peloponnesians fought to prevent their ships from being towed away, and Pharnabazus's troops came up to support them.[70] Thrasybulus landed his own force to temporarily relieve pressure on Alcibiades, and meanwhile ordered Theramenes to join up with Athenian land forces nearby and bring them to reinforce the sailors and marines on the beach. The Spartans and Persians, overwhelmed by the arrival of multiple forces from several directions, were defeated and driven off, and the Athenians captured all the Spartan ships which were not destroyed.[69][71] A letter dispatched to Sparta by Hippocrates, vice-admiral under Mindarus, was intercepted and taken to Athens; it ran as follows: "The ships are lost. Mindarus is dead. The men are starving. We know not what to do".[70] A short time later Sparta petitioned for peace, but their appeals were ultimately rejected by the Athenians.[72] Theramenes (d. ...


Further military successes

Satellite image of the Thracian Chersonese (now known as the Gallipoli Peninsula) and surrounding area. Alcibiades traveled to the Chersonese in 408 BC and attacked the city of Selymbria on the north shore of the Propontis.
Satellite image of the Thracian Chersonese (now known as the Gallipoli Peninsula) and surrounding area. Alcibiades traveled to the Chersonese in 408 BC and attacked the city of Selymbria on the north shore of the Propontis.

After their victory, Alcibiades and Thrasyllus began the siege of Chalcedon in 409 BC with about 190 ships.[73] Although unable to attain a decisive victory or induce the city to surrender, Alcibiades was able to win a small tactical land battle outside of the city gates and Theramenes concluded an agreement with the Chalcedonians.[74] Afterwards they concluded a temporary alliance with Pharnabazus which secured some much needed immediate cash for the army, but despite this Alcibiades was still forced to depart in search for more booty to pay the soldiers and oarsmen of the fleet. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (992x653, 1202 KB) Gallipoli in Turkey from space File links The following pages link to this file: Gallipoli ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (992x653, 1202 KB) Gallipoli in Turkey from space File links The following pages link to this file: Gallipoli ... Satellite image of the Gallipoli peninsula and surrounding area Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, (Greek: Καλλίπολις), is a town in northwestern Turkey. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 414 BC 413 BC 412 BC 411 BC 410 BC - 409 BC - 408 BC 407 BC...


In pursuit of these funds he traveled to the Thracian Chersonese and attacked Selymbria. He plotted with a pro-Athenian party within the city and offered the Selymbrians reasonable terms and imposed strict discipline to see that they were observed. He did their city no injury whatever, but merely took a sum of money from it, set a garrison in it and left.[75] Epigraphical evidence indicates the Selymbrians surrendered hostages until the treaty was ratified in Athens.[2] His performance is judged as skillful by historians, since it saved time, resources, and lives and still fully achieved his goal.[2][76] Map of the Thracian Chersonese The Thracian Chersonese (in Greek Χερσoνησoς Θραικια) was the ancient name of the Gallipoli peninsula, in the part of historic Thrace that is now part of modern Turkey. ... Silivri is a 300-square mile district of Istanbul along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey. ...


From here Alcibiades joined in the siege of Byzantium along with Theramenes and Thrasyllus. A portion of the citizens of the city, demoralized and hungry, decided to surrender the city to Alcibiades for similar terms as the Selymbrians had received. On the agreed upon night the defenders left their posts and the Athenians attacked the Peloponnesian garrison in the city and their boats in the harbor. The portion of the citizenry that remained loyal to Peloponnesians fought so savagely that Alcibiades issued a statement in the midst of the fighting which guaranteed their safety and this persuaded the remaining citizens to turn against the Peloponnesian garrison, which was nearly totally destroyed.[74] Byzantium, present day Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


Return to Athens, dismissal and death

Return to Athens

It was in the aftermath of these successes that Alcibiades resolved to finally return to Athens in the spring of 407 BC. Even in the wake of his recent victories, Alcibiades was exceedingly careful in his return, mindful of the changes in government, the charges still technically hanging over him, and the great injury he had done to Athens. Thus Alcibiades, instead of going straight home, he first went to Samos to pick up 20 ships and proceeded with them to the Ceramic Gulf where he collected 100 talents. He finally sailed to Gytheion to make inquiries, partly about the reported preparations of the Spartans there, and partly about the feelings in Athens about his return.[77] His inquiries secured him that the city was kindly disposed towards him and that his closest friends urged him to return.[78] The Gulf of Gökova (Turkish: Gökova körfezi), Gulf of Kerme (Turkish: Kerme körfezi, Greek: Κεραμεικός κόλπος, Latin: Ceramicus Sinus, English: Ceramic Gulf), or Gulf of Cos, is a long (100 km), narrow gulf of the Aegean Sea which separates the Bodrum peninsula from the Resadiye peninsula in southwest... Gytheio is a town of Laconia in Greece, long known as the seaport of Sparta some 30 miles inland. ...


Therefore he finally sailed into Piraeus where the crowd had gathered, desiring to see the famous Alcibiades.[79] He entered the harbor full of fear till he saw his cousin and others of his friends and acquaintance, who invited him to land.[80] Upon arriving on shore he was greeted with a hero's welcome.[80] Nevertheless, some saw an evil omen in the fact that he had returned to Athens on the very day when the ceremony of the Plynteria (the feast where the old statue of Athena would get cleansed) were being celebrated.[81] This was regarded as the unluckiest day of the year to undertake anything of importance. His enemies took note of this and kept it in mind for a future occasion.[82] now. ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ...


All the criminal proceedings against him were cancelled and the charges of blasphemy were officially withdrawn. Alcibiades was able to assert his piety and to raise Athenian morale by leading the solemn procession to Eleusis (for the celebration of the Eleusinian Mysteries) by land for the first time since the Spartans had occupied Decelea.[83] The procession had been replaced by a journey by sea, but this year Alcibiades used a detachment of soldiers to escort the traditional procession.[84] His property was restored and the ecclesia elected him general (strategos) with sole powers by land and sea.[85] Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ...


Defeat at Notium

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Notium.

In 406 BC Alcibiades set out from Athens with 1,500 hoplites and a hundred ships. He failed to take Andros and then he went on to Samos. Later he moved to Notium, closer to the enemy at Ephesus.[86] In the meanwhile Tissaphernes had been replaced by Cyrus (a relative of Darius II of Persia) who decided to financially support the Peloponnesians. This new revenue started to attract deserters to the Spartan navy from the Athenians. Additionally the Spartans had replaced Mindarus with Lysander, a very capable admiral. These factors caused the rapid growth of the Peloponnesian fleet at the expense of the Athenian. In search of funds and needing to force another decisive battle, Alcibiades left Notium and sailed to help Thrasybulus in the siege of Phocaea.[87] Alcibiades was aware the Spartan fleet was nearby, so he left nearly eighty ships to watch them under the command of his personal helmsman Antiochus, who was given express orders not to attack. Antiochus disobeyed these orders and endeavored to draw Lysander into a fight by imitating the tactics used at Cyzicus. The situation at Notium, however, was radically different than that at Cyzicus; the Athenians possessed no element of surprise, and Lysander had been well informed about their fleet by deserters.[88] In practice, Antiochus's ship was sunk, and he was killed, by a sudden Spartan attack; the remaining ships of the decoy force were then chased headlong back toward Notium, where the main Athenian force was caught unprepared by the sudden arrival of the whole Spartan fleet. In the ensuing fighting, Lysander gained an entire victory. Alcibiades soon returned and desperately tried to undo the defeat at Notium by scoring another victory, but Lysander could not be compelled to attack the fleet again.[89] Combatants Sparta Athens Commanders Lysander Antiochus Strength 70 ships 80 ships Casualties none 22 ships Th Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, was a Spartan naval victory in the Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC - 406 BC - 405 BC 404 BC... Andros, or Andro (Greek: Άνδρος), an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 10 km (6 miles) south east of Euboea, and about 3 km (about 2 miles) north of Tinos. ... At the Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, the Spartan fleet of Lysander defeated a part of the Athenian fleet, resulting in the recall of Alcibiades, the Athenian admiral. ... Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ), was one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Anatolia, located in Lydia where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes was murdered by... Lysander (d. ... Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ...


Ultimately responsibility for the defeat fell on Alcibiades and his enemies used the opportunity to attack him and have him removed from command, although some modern scholars believe that Alcibiades was unfairly blamed for Antiochus' mistake.[90] Diodorus reports that, in addition to his mistake at Notium, Alcibiades was discharged on account of false accusations brought against him by his enemies.[69] According to Anthony Andrewes, professor of ancient history, the extravagant hopes that his successes of the previous summer had created were a decisive element in his downfall.[86] Consequently Alcibiades condemned himself to exile.[69] Never again returning to Athens, he sailed north to the castles in the Thracian Chersonese, which he had secured during his time in the Hellespont. The implications of the defeat were severe for Athens. Although the defeat had been minor, it occasioned the removal of not only Alcibiades but also his allies like Thrasybulus, Theramenes and Critias.[85] These were likely the most capable commanders Athens had at the time and their removal would help lead to the Athenian surrender only two years later after their complete defeat at Aegospotami.[91] Ancient history is the study of significant cultural and political events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... Aegospotami (i. ...


Death

Michele de Napoli (1808-1892): Morte di Alcibiade (1839 circa). Naples National Archaeological Museum.
Michele de Napoli (1808-1892): Morte di Alcibiade (1839 circa). Naples National Archaeological Museum.

With one exception, Alcibiades' role in the war ended with his command. Prior to the Battle of Aegospotami, in the last attested fact of his career,[92] Alcibiades recognized that the Athenians were anchored in a strategically disadvantageous spot and advised them to move to Sestus where they could benefit from a harbor and a city.[93] Diodorus, however, does not mention this advice, arguing instead that Alcibiades offered the generals Thracian aid in exchange for a share in the command.[g] In any case, the generals of the Athenians, "considering that in case of defeat the blame would attach to them and that in case of success all men would attribute it to Alcibiades", asked him to leave and not come near the camp ever again.[93][94] Days later the fleet would be annihilated by Lysander. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (585x808, 185 KB) A painting of 1832. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (585x808, 185 KB) A painting of 1832. ... The Farnese Hercules The Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli (Naples National Archaeological Museum) is located in Naples, Italy. ... Combatants Sparta Athens Commanders Lysander 6 generals Strength 170 ships Casualties Very few All but 10 ships, thousands of sailors The Battle of Aegospotami was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War. ... Sestos was an ancient town of the Thracian Chersonese, the modern Gallipoli peninsula. ...


After the Battle of Aegospotami, Alcibiades crossed the Hellespont and took refuge in Phrygia, with the object of securing the aid of Artaxerxes against Sparta. But the Spartans induced Pharnabazus to put him out of the way. According to Plutarch, Lysander sent an envoy to Pharnabazus who then dispatched his brother to Phrygia where Alcibiades was living with his mistress, Timandra.[h] In 404 BC, as he was about to set out for the Persian court, his residence was surrounded and set on fire. Seeing no chance of escape he rushed out on his assassins, dagger in hand, and was killed by a shower of arrows.[95] Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Artaxerxes was the name of several rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia: Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Arses of Persia is believed to have taken the royal title of Artaxerxes IV. Bessus, the Persian nobleman who murdered Darius III of Persia, renamed himself Artaxerxes when he claimed the... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC...


Assessments

Political career

In ancient Greece Alcibiades was a polarizing figure. Thucydides reprehends the Athenian statesman for his political conduct and motives. According to the historian, Alcibiades, being "exceedingly ambitious", proposed the expedition in Sicily in order "to gain in wealth and reputation by means of his successes".[96] Alcibiades is held responsible by Thucydides for the destruction of Athens, since "his habits gave offence to every one, and caused them to commit affairs to other hands, and thus before long to ruin the city".[96] Plutarch regards him as "the least scrupulous and most entirely careless of human beings".[97] On the other hand, Diodorus argues that he was "in spirit brilliant and intent upon great enterprises".[98] Sharon Press of Brown University points out that Xenophon emphasizes Alcibiades' service to the state, rather than the harm he was charged with causing it.[99][100] Demosthenes defends Alcibiades's achievements, saying that he had taken arms in the cause of democracy, displaying his patriotism, not by gifts of money or by speeches, but by personal service.[101] For Demosthenes and other orators Alcibiades epitomized the figure of the great man during the glorious days of the Athenian democracy and became a rhetorical symbol.[102] One of Isocrates' speeches, delivered by the son of Alcibiades, argues that the statesman deserved the Athenians' gratitude for the service he had given them.[103] Lysias, on the other hand, argued in one of his orations that the Athenians should regard Alcibiades as an enemy because of the general tenor of his life, as "he repays with injury the open assistance of any of his friends".[104][105] In the Constitution of the Athenians Aristotle does not include Alcibiades in the list of the best Athenian politicians, but in Posterior Analytics he argues that traits of a proud man like Alcibiades are "equanimity amid the vicissitudes of life and impatience of dishonor".[106][107] Alcibiades excited in his contemporaries a fear for the safety of the political order.[108] Therefore, Andocides said of him that "instead of holding that he ought himself to conform with the laws of the state, he expects you to conform with his own way of life".[109] Central to the depiction of the Athenian statesman is Cornelius Nepos' famous phrase that Alcibiades "surpassed all the Athenians in grandeur and magnificence of living".[110] Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years and was extinguished by the newly-powerful Christianity. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... The speakers platform in the Pnyx, the meeting ground of the assembly where all the great political struggles of Athens were fought during the Golden Age. Here Athenian statesmen stood to speak, such as Pericles and Aristides in the 5th century BC and Demosthenes and Aeschines in the 4th... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Lysias (d. ... The Constitution of the Athenians or of Athens (or Athenaion Politeia, or The Athenians) is the name of either of two texts from Classical antiquity, one probably by Aristotle, the other attributed to Xenophon, but not by him. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Posterior Analytics (or Analytica Posteriora) is a text by Aristotle. ... Andocides, or Andokidès , (440–390 BC) one of the ten Attic orators. ... Cornelius Nepos (c. ...


Even today Alcibiades divides scholars. For Malcolm F. McGregor, former head of the Department of Classics in the University of British Columbia, Alcibiades was rather a shrewd gambler than a mere opportunist.[111] Evangelos P. Fotiadis, a prominent Greek philologist, asserts that Alcibiades was "a first class diplomat" and had "huge skills". Nevertheless his spiritual powers were not counter-balanced with his magnificent mind and he had the hard luck to lead a people susceptible to demagoguery.[5] K. Paparrigopoulos, a major modern Greek historian, underlines his "spiritual virtues" and compares him with Themistocles, but he then asserts that all these gifts created a "traitor, an audacious and impious man".[112] Walter Ellis believes that his actions were outrageous, but they were performed with panache.[113] For his part, David Gribble argues that Alcibiades's actions against his city were misunderstood and believes that "the tension which led to Alcibiades' split with the city was between purely personal and civic values".[114] Russell Meiggs, a British ancient historian, asserts that the Athenian statesman was absolutely unscrupulous despite his great charm and brilliant abilities.[37] According to Meiggs his actions were dictated by selfish motives and his feud with Cleon and his successors undermined Athens. The same scholar underscores the fact that "his example of restless and undisciplined ambition strengthened the charge brought against Socrates".[37] Even more critically, Athanasios G. Platias and Constantinos Koliopoulos, professors of strategic studies and international politics, state that Alcibiades' own arguments "should be sufficient to do away with the notion that Alcibiades was a great statesman, as some people still believe".[115] The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public university with its main campus located at Point Grey, in the University Endowment Lands adjacent to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and another smaller campus known as UBC Okanagan located in Kelowna, British Columbia. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Constantine Paparregopoulus (1815-1891) was a nineteenth century Greek historian greatly influential in Greece and abroad for his original reasearch in Byzantine history as well as in other fields of Greek studies. ... Themistocles (ca. ... Panache means style or flair. Panaché is the French name for Shandy. ... Russell Meiggs (1902-June 24, 1989) was a British ancient historian, perhaps best known for his extensive work on the Roman port city of Ostia. ... Cleon (d. ... International relations (IR) is an academic and public policy field, a branch of political science, dealing with the foreign policy of states within the international system, including the roles of international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ...


Military achievements

 Pietro Testa (1611-1650): The Drunken Alcibiades Interrupting the Symposium (1648)
Pietro Testa (1611-1650): The Drunken Alcibiades Interrupting the Symposium (1648)

Despite his critical comments, Thucydides admits in a short digression that "publicly his conduct of the war was as good as could be desired".[96] Diodorus and Demosthenes regard him as a great general.[98][101] According to Fotiadis, Alcibiades was an invincible general and, wherever he went, victory followed him.[5] Fotiadis believes that, had he led the army in Sicily, the Athenians would have avoided disaster and, had his countrymen followed his advice at Aegospotami, Lysander would have lost and Athens would have ruled Greece.[5] On the other hand, Paparrigopoulos believes that the Sicilian Expedition, prompted by Alcibiades, was a strategical mistake.[116] In agreement with Paparrigopoulos, Platias and Koliopoulos underscore the fact that the Sicilian expedition was a strategic blunder of the first magnitude, resulting from a "frivolous attitude and an unbelievable underestimation of the enemy".[21] For his part, Angelos Vlachos, a Greek Academician, underlines the constant interest of Athens for Sicily from the beginning of the war.[i] According to Vlachos the expedition had nothing of the extravagant or adventurous and constituted a rational strategic decision based on traditional Athenian aspirations.[117] Vlachos asserts that Alcibiades had already conceived a broader plan: the conquest of the whole West.[118] He intended to conquer Carthage and Libya, then to attack Italy and, after winning these, to seize Italy and Peloponnesus.[119] The initial decision of the ecclesia provided however for a reasonable military force, which later became unreasonably large and costly because of Nicias' demands.[118] Kagan criticizes Alcibiades for failing to recognize that the large size of the Athenian expedition undermined the diplomatic scheme on which his strategy rested.[120] Image File history File links TestaAlcibiades. ... Image File history File links TestaAlcibiades. ... Pietro Testa (1611-1650) was an Italian High Baroque painter of Rome. ... The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy. ...


Kagan believes that while Alcibiades was a commander of considerable ability, he was no military genius, and his confidence and ambitions went far beyond his skills.[120] He thus was capable of important errors and serious miscalculations. Kagan argues that at Notium Alcibiades committed a serious error in leaving the fleet in the hands of an inexperienced officer, and that most of the credit for the brilliant victory at Cyzicus must be assigned to Thrasybulus.[120] In this judgement, Kagan agrees with Cornelius Nepos, who said that the Athenians' extravagant opinion of Alcibiades's abilities and valor was his chief misfortune.[121]

Félix Auvray (1830-1833): Alcibiade with the Courtesans (1833), Museum of Fine Arts of Valenciennes
Félix Auvray (1830-1833): Alcibiade with the Courtesans (1833), Museum of Fine Arts of Valenciennes

Press argues that "though Alcibiades can be considered a good general on the basis of his performance in the Hellespont, he would not be considered so on the basis of his performance in Sicily", but "the strengths of Alcibiades' performance as a general outweigh his faults".[99] Professors David McCann and Barry Strauss attempt a comparison between Alcibiades and Douglas MacArthur, pointing out that "both men stood out as military leaders to whom a mystique attached itself".[122] Image File history File links AuvrayAlcibiades. ... Image File history File links AuvrayAlcibiades. ... Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was a famous American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ...


Oratorical skill

Alcibiades and friend; Detail from Phidias and the Parthenon marbles by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Alcibiades and friend; Detail from Phidias and the Parthenon marbles by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Plutarch asserts that "Alcibiades was a most able speaker in addition to his other gifts", while Theophrastus argues that Alcibiades was the most capable of discovering and understanding what was required in a given case. Nevertheless, he would often stumble in the midst of his speech, but then he would resume and proceed with all the caution in the world.[123] Even the lisp he had, which was noticed by Aristophanes, made his talk persuasive and full of charm.[124][125] Eupolis says that he was "prince of talkers, but in speaking most incapable";[18] which is to say, more eloquent in his private discourses than when orating before the ecclesia.[112] For his part, Demosthenes underscores the fact that Alcibiades was regarded as "the ablest speaker of the day".[101] Paparrigopoulos does not accept Demosthenes's opinion, but acknowledges that the Athenian statesman could sufficiently support his case.[112] Kagan acknowledges his rhetorical power, whilst Thomas Habinek, professor of Classics at the University of Southern California, believes that the orator Alcibiades seemed to be whatever his audience needed on any given occasion.[126][127] According to Habinek, in the field of oratory, the people responded to Alcibiades' affection with affection of their own. Therefore, the orator was "the institution of the city talking to - and loving - itself".[127] According to Aristophanes Athens "yearns for him, and hates him too, but wants him back".[128] Image File history File links Alcibiades_and_friend_-_detail_from_Phidias_and_the_Parthenon_marbles_by_Alma_Tadema. ... Image File history File links Alcibiades_and_friend_-_detail_from_Phidias_and_the_Parthenon_marbles_by_Alma_Tadema. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x664, 216 KB)Pheidias and the Frieze of the Parthenon by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Date: 1868 - 1869 Medium: Oil on mahogany panel. ... Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (January 8, 1836--June 25, 1912) was a Dutch-born painter of the Victorian era, best known for his sumptuous portrayals of life in the ancient world. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... The University of Southern California (commonly referred to as USC, SC, Southern California, and incorrectly as Southern Cal[1]), located in the University Park neighborhood in Los Angeles, California, USA, was founded in 1880, making it Californias oldest private research university. ...


References in comedy, philosophy, art, and literature

For more details on this topic, see Alcibiades (fictional character).

Alcibiades has not been spared by ancient comedy and stories attest to an epic confrontation between Alcibiades and Eupolis resembling that between Aristophanes and Cleon.[102] He also appears as a fictional character in several Socratic dialogues (Symposium, Protagoras, Alcibiades I and II). Plato presents Alcibiades as Socrates' most brilliant student, who would, in time to come, be the ruin of Athens.[129] In his trial, Socrates must rebut the attempt to hold him guilty for the crimes of his former students, including Alcibiades.[130] Hence, he declares in Apology: "I have never been anyone's teacher".[131] The prominent Athenian statesman Alcibiades has been criticized by ancient comic writers and appears in several Socratic dialogues. ... Eupolis (c. ... Cleon (d. ... Socratic dialogue (Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος), is a prose literary form developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE, preserved today in the dialogues of Plato and the Socratic works of Xenophon - either dramatic or narrative - in which characters discuss moral and philosophical problems. ... The Symposium is a philosophical dialogue of Plato, written sometime after 385 BCE. It is a gathering of intellectually diverse, and apparently wise men who are of one mind about love, that the best kind is between an older man, the erastes, and his beloved boy, the eromenos. ... Protagoras is the title of one of Platos dialogues. ... The First Alcibiades or Alcibiades I is a dialogue featuring Alcibiades in conversation with Socrates, ascribed to Plato, but his authorship is doubtful, though probably written by someone within a century or two of Platos other works. ... The Second Alcibiades or Alcibiades II is a dialogue ascribed to Plato, featring Alcibiades conversing with Socrates, but there is a general consensus amongst scholars that this text is spurious, though again probably written by someone within a century or two of Platos other works. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Death of Socrates, by Jacques-Louis David (1787) The trial of Socrates in 399 BC gave rise to a great deal of debate and to a whole genre of literature, known as the Socratic logoi. ... (The) Apology (of Socrates) is Platos version of the speech given by Socrates as he defends himself against the charges of being a man who corrupted the young, did not believe in the gods, and created new deities. Apology here has its earlier meaning (now usually expressed by the...


Alcibiades enjoys an important afterlife in art and appears in medieval and Renaissance works, as well as in several significant works of modern literature.[132] He continues to fascinate the modern world, notably as the main character in historical novels, like those of Anna Bowman Dodd, Gertrude Atherton, Rosemary Sutcliff, Daniel Chavarría, Steven Pressfield and Peter Green.[133] He is also a central character in Paul Levinson's time travel novel, The Plot To Save Socrates, in Erik Satie's Socrate, a work for voice and small orchestra (the text is composed of excerpts of Victor Cousin's translation of works by Plato), and in Joel Richards' Nebula award-nominated short story The Gods Abandon Alcibiades.[134] Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Gertrude Atherton, American writer Gertrude Franklin Horn Atherton (1857–1948) was an American writer. ... Rosemary Sutcliff (1920-1992) was a British novelist, best known as a writer of childrens historical fiction. ... Steven Pressfield is an American author, predominatedly of military historical fiction set in classical antiquity. ... Peter Green (born 1924) is a British classical scholar noted for his Alexander to Actium, a general account of the Hellenistic Age, and other works. ... Paul Levinson, 2002 Paul Levinson (b. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Basic Information The Plot To Save Socrates was published and copyrighted in 2006. ... Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... Socrate is a work for voice and small orchestra (or piano) by Erik Satie. ... Victor Cousin. ... The Nebula is an award given each year by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), for the best science fiction/fantasy fiction published in the United States during the two previous years. ...


Notes

a. ^  Isocrates asserts that Alcibiades was never a pupil of Socrates.[135] Thus he does not agree with Plutarch's narration.[136] According to Isocrates, the purpose of this tradition was to accuse Socrates. The rhetorician makes Alcibiades wholly the pupil of Pericles.[137]


b. ^ According to Plutarch, who is however criticized for using "implausible or unreliable stories" in order to construct Alcibiades' portrait,[138] Alcibiades once wished to see Pericles, but he was told that Pericles could not see him, because he was studying how to render his accounts to the Athenians. "Were it not better for him," said Alcibiades, "to study how not to render his accounts to the Athenians?".[136] Plutarch describes how Alcibiades "gave a box on the ear to Hipponicus, whose birth and wealth made him a person of great influence." This action received much disapproval, since it was "unprovoked by any passion of quarrel between them". To smooth the incident over, Alcibiades went to Hipponicus's house and, after stripping naked, "desired him to scourge and chastise him as he pleased". Hipponicus not only pardoned him but also bestowed upon him the hand of his daughter.[11] Another example of his flamboyant nature occurred during the Olympic games of 416 where "he entered seven teams in the chariot race, more than any private citizen had ever put forward, and three of them came in first, second, and fourth".[139]According to Andocides, once Alcibiades competed against a man named Taureas as choregos of a chorus of boys and "Alcibiades drove off Taureas with his fists. The spectators showed their sympathy with Taureas and their hatred of Alcibiades by applauding the one chorus and refusing to listen to the other at all."[109] In ancient Greece, choregos ( Greek: χορηγός) was a honorary title for the wealthy Athenian, who assumed the responsibility to finance and pay all the expenses of the prperation of the chorus and of the drama in all. ... In early tragedy, no parts were played by a single actor; because the actor left the stage often to change roles, the chorus was especially dominant. ...


c. ^ Plutarch and Plato agree that Alcibiades "served as a soldier in the campaign of Potidaea and had Socrates for his tentmate and comrade in action" and "when Alcibiades fell wounded, it was Socrates who stood over him and defended him".[11][140] Nonetheless, Antisthenes insists that Socrates saved Alcibiades at the Battle of Delium.[141] Portrait bust of Antisthenes Engraving of Antisthenes. ...


d. ^ Thucydides records several speeches which he attributes to Pericles; but Thucydides acknowledges that: "it was in all cases difficult to carry them word for word in one's memory, so my habit has been to make the speakers say what was in my opinion demanded of them by the various occasions, of course adhering as closely as possible to the general sense of what they really said."[142]


e. ^ Kagan has suggested that Thrasybulus was one of the founding members of the scheme and was willing to support moderate oligarchy, but was alienated by the extreme actions taken by the plotters.[143] Robert J. Buck, on the other hand, maintains that Thrasybulus was probably never involved in the plot, possibly because he was absent from Samos at the time of its inception.[144]


f. ^ In the case of the battle of Cyzicus, Robert J. Littman, professor at Brandeis University, points out the different accounts given by Xenophon and Diodorus. According to Xenophon, Alcibiades' victory was due to the luck of a rainstorm, while, according to Diodorus, it was due to a carefully conceived plan.[145] Although most historians prefer the accounts of Xenophon,[145] Jean Hatzfeld remarks that Diodorus' accounts contain many interesting and unique details.[146] Brandeis University is a private university in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ...


g. ^ Plutarch mentions Alcibiades' advice, writing that "he rode up on horseback and read the generals a lesson. He said their anchorage was a bad one; the place had no harbor and no city, but they had to get their supplies from Sestos".[147] B. Perrin regards Xenophon's testimony as impeachable[92] and prefers Diodorus' account.[94] According to A. Wolpert, "it would not have required a cynical reader to infer even from Xenophon's account that he (Alcibiades) was seeking to promote his own interests when he came forward to warn the generals about their tactical mistakes".[148]


h. ^ According to Plutarch, some say that Alcibiades himself provoked his death, because he had seduced a girl belonging to a well-known family.[95] Thus there are two versions of the story: The assassins were probably either employed by the Spartans or by the brothers of the lady whom Alcibiades had seduced.[149] According to Isocrates, when the Thirty Tyrants established their rule, all Greece became unsafe for Alcibiades.[150]


i. ^ Since the beginning of the war, the Athenians had already initiated two expeditions and sent a delegetion to Sicily.[151] Plutarch underscores that "on Sicily the Athenians had cast longing eyes even while Pericles was living".[119]

Citations

  1. ^ a b A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 59 etc.
  2. ^ a b c P.B. Kern, Ancient Siege Warfare, 151
  3. ^ C.A. Cox, Houshold Interests, 144
  4. ^ Plato, Alcibiades 1, 121a
  5. ^ a b c d "Alcibiades". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios. (1952).
  6. ^ N. Denyer, Commentary of Plato's Alcibiades, 88-89
  7. ^ Plato, Symposium, 220e
  8. ^ I. Sykoutris, Introduction to Symposium, 159-180
  9. ^ Plato, Symposium, 215a-222b
  10. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 6
  11. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alcibiades, 8
  12. ^ A.W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 339
  13. ^ a b R. Sealey, A History of the Greek City States, 353
  14. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alcibiades, 14
  15. ^ Thucydides, V, 45
  16. ^ A.W. Gomme, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 70
  17. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 15
  18. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 13
  19. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, XVI
  20. ^ Andocides, Against Alcibiades, 22
  21. ^ a b Platias-Koliopoulos, Thucydides on Strategy, 237-246
  22. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 322
  23. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 20
  24. ^ a b L. Strauss, The City and Man, 104
  25. ^ Thucydides, 6.26
  26. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 19
  27. ^ Thucydides, 6.29
  28. ^ Thucydides, 6.61
  29. ^ a b Thucydides, 6.53
  30. ^ D. Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 273
  31. ^ Thucydides, 6.74
  32. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 23
  33. ^ a b Thucydides, 6.89-90
  34. ^ a b c d D. Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 282-283
  35. ^ Thucydides, 7.18
  36. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 24 and Thucydides, 8.26
  37. ^ a b c "Alcibiades". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002).
  38. ^ Plutarch, Lysander, 22 and Agesilaus, III
  39. ^ P.J. Rhodes, A History of the Classical Greek World, 144
  40. ^ a b Thucydides, 8.45
  41. ^ a b Thucydides, 8.46
  42. ^ Thucydides, 8.47
  43. ^ T. Buckley, Aspects of Greek History, 411
  44. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 25
  45. ^ R. Sealey, A History of the Greek City States, 359
  46. ^ Thucydides, 8.48
  47. ^ Thucydides, 8.49
  48. ^ Thucydides, 8.50
  49. ^ Thucydides, 8.51
  50. ^ Thucydides, 8.53
  51. ^ a b D. Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 136-138
  52. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 366
  53. ^ a b c Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, 8.56
  54. ^ Thucydides, 8.73
  55. ^ Thucydides, 8.76
  56. ^ Thucydides, 8.81
  57. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alcibiades, 26
  58. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 389
  59. ^ a b c Thucydides, 8.82
  60. ^ Thucydides, 8.97
  61. ^ Thucydides, 8.88
  62. ^ Cartwright-Warner, A Historical Commentary on Thucydides, 301
  63. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alcibiades, 27
  64. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 406
  65. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.1.5
  66. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 408
  67. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 28
  68. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 410
  69. ^ a b c d Diodorus, XIII, 50-51
  70. ^ a b Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.1.17-23
  71. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 410-413
  72. ^ Diodorus, Library, 52-53
  73. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 429
  74. ^ a b Diodorus, Library, xiii, 66.3
  75. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 30
  76. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 410
  77. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1, 4, 8-12
  78. ^ B. Due, The Return of Alcibiades, 39
  79. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1, 4, 13
  80. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 32
  81. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 34
  82. ^ D Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 290
  83. ^ S. Price, Religions of the Ancient Greeks, 54
  84. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1, 4, 18
  85. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 33
  86. ^ a b A. Andrewes, The Spartan Resurgence, 490
  87. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 443
  88. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 444
  89. ^ For the accepted account of the battle see Plutarch, Alcibiades, 35 or the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia, 4.
  90. ^ G. Cawkell, Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War, 143
  91. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 447
  92. ^ a b B. Perrin, The Death of Alcibiades , 25-37
  93. ^ a b Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.1.25
  94. ^ a b Diodorus, Library, xiii, 105
  95. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 39
  96. ^ a b c Thucydides, VI, 15
  97. ^ Plutarch, The Comparison of Alcibiades with Coriolanus, 6
  98. ^ a b Diodorus, Library, xiii, 68.5
  99. ^ a b S. Press, Was Alcibiades a Good General?
  100. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.4. 18
  101. ^ a b c Demosthenes, Against Meidias, 144-145
  102. ^ a b D. Gribble, Alcibiades and Athens, 32-33
  103. ^ Isocrates, Concerning the Team of Horses, 15
  104. ^ Lysias, Against Alcibiades 1, 1
  105. ^ Lysias, Against Alcibiades 2, 10
  106. ^ Aristotle, Constitution of the Athenians, 28
  107. ^ Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, ii, 13
  108. ^ D. Gribble, Alcibiades and Athens, 41
  109. ^ a b Andocides, Against Alcibiades, 19
  110. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Alcibiades, XI
  111. ^ M.F. McGregor, The Genius of Alkibiades, 27-50
  112. ^ a b c Κ. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Αβ, 264-268
  113. ^ W. Ellis, Alcibiades, 18
  114. ^ D. Gribble, Alcibiades and Athens, 55 etc.
  115. ^ A.G. Platias and C. Koliopoulos, Thucydides on Strategy, 240
  116. ^ Κ. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Αβ, 272
  117. ^ A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 206
  118. ^ a b A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 202-203
  119. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 17
  120. ^ a b c D. Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 419-420
  121. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Alcibiades, VII
  122. ^ D. McCann - B. Strauss, War and Democracy, xxv
  123. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 10
  124. ^ Aristophanes, Wasps, 44
  125. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 1
  126. ^ D. Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 178
  127. ^ a b T. Habinek, Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory, 23-24
  128. ^ Aristophanes, Frogs, 1425
  129. ^ E. Corrigan, Plato's Dialectic at Play, 169
  130. ^ G.A. Scott, Plato's Socrates as Educator, 19
  131. ^ Plato, Apology, 33a
  132. ^ N. Endres, Alcibiades
  133. ^ T.T.B. Ryder, Alcibiades, 32
  134. ^ J. Richards, The Gods Abandon Alcibiades
  135. ^ Isocrates, Busiris, 5
  136. ^ a b Plutarch, Alcibiades, 7
  137. ^ Y. Lee Too, The Rhetoric of Identity in Isocrates, 216
  138. ^ D. Gribble, Alcibiades and Athens, 30
  139. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 12
  140. ^ Plato, Symposium, 221a
  141. ^ I. Sykoutris, Symposium of Plato (Comments), 225
  142. ^ Thucydides, 1.22
  143. ^ Donald Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 385
  144. ^ R.J. Buck, Thrasybulus and the Athenian Democracy, 27-28
  145. ^ a b R.J. Littman, The Strategy of the Battle of Cyzicus, 271
  146. ^ J. Hatzfeld, Alcibiade, 271
  147. ^ Plutarch, Alcibiades, 36 and Comparison with Coriolanus, 2
  148. ^ A. Wolpert, Remembering Defeat, 5
  149. ^ H.T. Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities and W. Smith, New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, 39
  150. ^ Isocrates, Concerning the Team of Horses, 40
  151. ^ A. Vlachos, Thucydides' Bias, 204

Hellenica Oxyrhynchia is the name given to a history of late 4th and early 3rd centuries BC in ancient Greece, of which papyrus fragments were unearthed at Oxyrhynchus, in Egypt. ...

References

Primary sources

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The Wasps is a comedy by Aristophanes. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Against Meidias ( Greek: ) is one of the most famous judicial oration of the prominent Athenian stateman and orator Demosthenes. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Wikisource has original works written by or about: Thucydides (in Greek) The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ...

Secondary sources

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  • "Alcibiades". Encyclopaedia of Ancient Greece. (2002). Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-97334-1.
  • "Alcibiades". Encyclopaedic Dictionary The Helios (in Greek). (1952).
  • Andrewes, A. (1992). “The Spartan Resurgence”, The Cambridge Ancient History edited by David M. Lewis, John Boardman, J. K. Davies, M. Ostwald (Volume V). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23347-X. 
  • Buck, R.J. (1998). Thrasybulus and the Athenian Democracy: the Life of an Athenian Statesman. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-07221-7. 
  • Buckley, Terry (1996). Aspects of Greek History 750-323 BC. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-09957-9. 
  • Cartwright David, Warner Rex (1997). A Historical Commentary on Thucydides: A Companion to Rex Warner's Penguin Translation. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08419-4. 
  • Cawkwell, George (1997). Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-16552-0. 
  • Corrigan, Elena (2004). “Alcibiades and the Conclusion of the Symposium”, Plato's Dialectic at Play. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-02462-3. 
  • Cox, C.A. (1997). “What Was an Oikos?”, Houshold Interests. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01572-4. 
  • Denyer, Nicolas (2001). Alcibiades (commentary). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63414-8. 
  • Due, Bodil (1991). "The Return of Alcibiades in Xenophon's Hellenica". "Classica Et Mediaevalia - Revue Danoise De Philologie Et D'Histoire" XLII: 39-54. ISBN 0-521-38867-8. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  • Ellis, Walter M. (1989). Alcibiades. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00994-4. 
  • Gomme, A. W. (A. Andrewes and K. J. Dover). An Historical Commentary on Thucydides (I-V). Oxford University Press (1945-1981). ISBN 0-19-814198-X. 
  • Gribble, David (1999). Alcibiades and Athens: A Study in Literary Presentation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815267-1. 
  • Habinek, Thomas N. (2004). Ancient Rhetoric and Oratory. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23515-9. 
  • Hatzfeld, Jean (1951). Alcibiade (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. 
  • Kagan, Donald (1991). The Fall of the Athenian Empire. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9984-4. 
  • Kagan, Donald (2003). The Peloponnesian War. Viking Penguin (Penguin Group). ISBN 0-670-03211-5. 
  • Kern, Paul Bentley (1999). “Treatment of Captured Cities”, Ancient Siege Warfare. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33546-9. 
  • Lee Too, Yun (1995). “The Politics of Discipleship”, The Rhetoric of Identity in Isocrates. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47406-X. 
  • Littman, Robert J. (1968). "The Strategy of the Battle of Cyzicus". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 99: pp265-272.
  • McCann David, Strauss Barry (2001). War and Democracy: A Comparative Study of the Korean War and the Peloponnesian War. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0695-X. 
  • McGregor, Malcolom F. (1965). "The Genius of Alkibiades". Phoenix 19: pp27-50.
  • Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos (-Pavlos Karolidis) (1925), History of the Hellenic Nation (Volume Ab). Eleftheroudakis (in Greek).
  • Peck, Harry Thurston (1898). Harper's Dictionary Of Classical Literature And Antiquities. 
  • Perrin, Bernadotte (1906). "The Death of Alcibiades". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 37: pp25-37.
  • Platias Athanasios G., Koliopoulos Constantinos (2006). Thucydides on Strategy. Eurasia Publications. ISBN 960-8187-16-8. 
  • Press, Sharon (1991). "Was Alcibiades a Good General?". Brown Classical Journal 7.
  • Price, Simon (1999). “Religious Places”, Religions of the Ancient Greeks. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38867-8. 
  • Rhodes, P.J. (2005). A History of the Classical Greek World. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22564-1. 
  • Sealey, Raphael (1976). “The Peloponnesian War”, A History of the Greek City States, 700-338 B. C.. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03177-6. 
  • Scott, Gary Alan (2000). “Socrates and Teaching”, Plato's Socrates as Educator. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-4723-5. 
  • Smith, Willian (1851). A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography. Harper & brothers. 
  • Strauss, Leo (1978). The City and Man. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77701-4. 
  • Sykoutris, Ioannis (1934). Symposium (Introduction and Comments) -in Greek. Estia. 
  • Vlachos, Angelos (1974). Thucydides' Bias. Estia (in Greek).
  • Wolpert, Andrew (2002). Remembering Defeat: Civil War and Civic Memory in Ancient Athens. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6790-8. 

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Atherton, Gertrude (2004). The Jealous Gods. Kessinger Publishing Co. ISBN 1-4179-2807-7. 
  • Chavarria, Daniel (2005). The Eye Of Cybele. Akashic Books. ISBN 1-888451-67-X. 
  • Green, Peter (1967). Achilles his Armour. Doubleday. 
  • Hughes-Hallett, Lucy. Heroes: A History of Hero Worship. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, 2004. ISBN 1-4000-4399-9.
  • Pressfield, Steven. Tides of War: A Novel of Alcibiades and the Peloponnesian War. Doubleday, New York, New York, 2000. ISBN 0-385-49252-9.
  • Robinson, Cyril Edward (1916). The Days of Alkibiades. E. Arnold. 
  • Romilly de, Jacqueline (1997). Alcibiade, ou, Les dangers de l'ambition (in French). LGF. ISBN 2-253-14196-8. 
  • Sutcliff, Rosemary (1971). Flowers of Adonis. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. ISBN 0-340-15090-4. 

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External links

Biographical
  • Alcibiades was an Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War. Bingley. Retrieved on 5 August, 2006.
  • Alcibiades. Endres, Nikolai. Retrieved on 22 September, 2006.
  • Alcibiades: Aristocratic Ideal or Antisocial Personality Disorder. Evans, Kathleen. Retrieved on 5 August, 2006.
  • Alcibiades. Meiggs, Russell. Retrieved on 5 August, 2006.
  • Alcibiades. Prins, Marco-Lendering, Jona. Retrieved on 5 August, 2006.
  • Alcibiades. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.. Retrieved on 5 August, 2006.
Texts and analyses
The Works of Plutarch
The Works Parallel Lives | The Moralia | Pseudo-Plutarch
The Lives

Alcibiades and Coriolanus1Alexander the Great and Julius CaesarAratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2Aristides and Cato the Elder1
Crassus and Nicias1Demetrius and Antony1Demosthenes and Cicero1Dion and Brutus1Fabius and Pericles1Lucullus and Cimon1
Lysander and Sulla1Numa and Lycurgus1Pelopidas and Marcellus1Philopoemen and Flamininus1Phocion and Cato the Younger
Pompey and Agesilaus1Poplicola and Solon1Pyrrhus and Gaius MariusRomulus and Theseus1Sertorius and Eumenes1
Tiberius Gracchus & Gaius Gracchus and Agis & Cleomenes1Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1Themistocles and Camillus
Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46- 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Hellenistic historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Gaius Marcius Coriolanus is widely believed to be a legendary figure who is said to have lived during the 5th century BC. He was given the agnomen Coriolanus as a result of his action in capturing the Volscian town of Corioli in 493 BC. Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Aratus (271 BC - 213 BC) was a tyrant of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC. He deposed Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was a supporter of Greek unity and promoted the ideas of the Achæan League. ... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Nicias (d. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( 83 BC–August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ; Classical pronunciation:  ; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator, statesman, political theorist, lawyer and philosopher of Ancient Rome. ... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius of Syracuse. ... Marcus Junius Brutus. ... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article or section should include material fromKimon Cimon (died 450 BC?) was a major figure of the 470s BC and 460s BC in Athens, and the son of Miltiades. ... Lysander (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC) Roman general and dictator, was usually known simply as Sulla. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BCE?–630 BCE) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Philopoemen (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom. ... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder, was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II (Greek Ἀγησιλάος), king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger step-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing... Publius Valerius Publicola (or Poplicola, his surname meaning friend of the people) was a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic. ... Solon Solon (Greek: , ca. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... Romulus (c. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-132 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... Son of Eudamidas II., of the Eurypontid family, commonly called Agis IV. He succeeded his father probably in 245 BC, in his twentieth year. ... Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II. In keeping with the Spartan agoge and the native pederastic tradition he was the hearer (aites) of Xenares and later the inspirer (eispnelos) of Panteus. ... Timoleon (c. ... Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a Roman general and politician. ... Themistocles (ca. ... Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. ...

The Translators John Dryden | Thomas North | Jacques Amyot | Philemon Holland | Arthur Hugh Clough
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1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives John Dryden John Dryden (August 9, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known as the Age of Dryden. ... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...


Athenian statesmen | Ancient Greece
Aeschines - Agyrrhius - Alcibiades - Andocides - Archinus - Aristides - Aristogeiton - Aristophon - Autocles
Callistratus - Chremonides - Cleisthenes - Cleon - Critias - Demades - Demetrius Phalereus - Demochares - Democles - Demosthenes
Ephialtes - Eubulus - Hyperbolus - Hypereides - Cimon - Cleophon - Laches- Lycurgus - Lysicles
Miltiades - Moerocles - Nicias - Peisistratus - Pericles - Philinus - Phocion - Themistocles
Theramenes - Thrasybulus - Thucydides - Xanthippus

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Internet Classics Archive | Alcibiades by Plutarch (8444 words)
Alcibiades, smiling and well pleased at the thing, invited him to supper, and, after a very kind entertainment, gave him his gold again, requiring him, moreover, not to fail to be present the next day, when the public revenue was offered to farm, and to outbid all others.
But Alcibiades was the person who inflamed this desire of theirs to the height, and prevailed with them no longer to proceed secretly, and by little and little, in their design, but to sail out with a great fleet, and undertake at once to make themselves masters of the island.
Alcibiades, as soon as he saw the torch lifted up in the air, though his army was not in readiness to march, ran instantly towards the walls, taking with him about thirty men only, and commanding the rest of the army to follow him with all possible speed.
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